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H. C. CLARK, Editor and Proprietor. 

ERIE, PA., JANUARY, 1886. 

Vol. 1.— No. 1. 


In presenting to the public TnK 
Ami:hic.\n Pe.\m.\x, we do so with a 
sense of tlie great responsibility rest^ 
ing upon us, and it is not the intention 
to denounce the several publications 
tliatappear from time to time well filled 
with valuable reading relative to the 
interest of Penmanship and the pro- 
fession in general, but to i)ubli5li a 
strictly first-clas<t monthly journal, 
contributing its share of information 
towards tlie upbuilding and maintain- 
ing of practical and ornamental Pen- 
manship, and a business education. 

The number of poor writers tlirough- 
nut tlie country is alarmingly great, 

phshed. That flourishes skillfully 
executed are very attractive is not de- 
nied, and while many may bring pen 
flourishing into ridicule, we maintain 
that no penman is warranted in ignor- 
ing the practice and proper use of 
flourishes as contributing materially 
to the advantage of the penman's pro- 

To those who may dissent from this 
opinion, the columns of The Ameri- 
can Penman are open for a free and 
unbiased discussion, to which mem- 
bers of the profession are cordially in- 
vited to contribute. 

The American Penman will be 
strictly independent in its efforts to 

put forth the latest ideas advanced by 
y it is a disease ratlier [ "le different authoi-s and publisher 
than ignorance, for it is a conceded , "f "n' several systems of practical pen- 
fact that many well educated peojile , manship that are now pubhshed, or 
become imbued with the idea " that 'n»y apjjear in the future. It is the 
only a certain few were ever born to ' I'lain writing to which we should give 
be good writers ;" consequently they particular attention, for there 
are hopelessly lost, so far as their jien- 
manship is concerned, as Providence 
neglected to confer upon them the re- 
quisite gift, (?) which of course is very 
amusing to those who, by hard work, 
have attained a high degree of excel- 
lence in practical penmanship. 

The Amkrk'ax Penman firmly be- 
lieves that good writing comes from 
study and jjractice, rather than by any 
so-called natural gift, although it' must 
Ite admitted that for one to become 
iMiiinent in any profession, he must be 
thorouglily in love with 'his chosen 
i-alling, and must have sufficient nat- 
ural ability to discern between good 
and poor results. The majority of 
Ijeople cannot appreciate fine ait de- 
liartments of penmanship, such as 
embellishing, lettering, flourishing, 
pen drawing, &c., and nof unfre- 
quently we hear it asked : " Of 
what value is such knowledge 

Please to send us the names of your 
friends whom you think likely to sub- 

Remember The American Penman 
will be mailed regularly, until further 
notice, at fifty cents per .year, or in 
clubs of six to ten at forty-five cents, 
or to clubs of fifteen to thirty at forty 
cents, and the one getting up the club 
may retain ten per cent, for his services. 

We shall be jileased to jtublish 
short biographical sketches of young 
l)onman, and whenever jn-aeticable 
will print fiK simik of hand writing 
and portrait. Those desiring to con- 
tribute to the paper in this matter will 
please inform us and send specimens. 

brand) of education so much neglect- 
ed in the common schools, and none 
that deserves more attention at the 
hands of school officers, parents and 
school children. 

Each issue will have a lesson in 
practical writing and pen flourishing, 
to which departments it is the inten- 
tion to present the ideas of the best 
teachers who are wiUing to enlighten 
the readers of The .-Vmehican Penman 
upon any theme its mission repre- 
sents, and not only each member of 
the profession, but everybody, is in- 
vited to contribute at least fifty cent.' 
before the next number appeal's, and 
as much more as may be found con- 
venient in short articles in relation to 
any practical subject. 

Ho]>ingTHE American Penman will 
fulfill all expectations of its friends, 
and that it will prove a welcome guide 
to those starting out on the road 

Every young penman should aspire 
to true excellence in the profession, 
and not only become worthy of the 
honor and profit conferred upon mem- 
bers, but take a deep interest in every- 
thing that will directly or indirectly 
help to elevate the standard of pen- 
manship among all classes. 

The most successful penmen are 
those who stand by the doctrines of 
truth, carefully shunning hypocricy in 
building a reputation upon another's 
skill, as no substantial success can 
ever be expected when such practices 
are followed. *' Be sure you are right, 
then go ahead." 


It is to be regretted that every pro- 
fession lias its frauds and quacks, but 
especially painful to find those who 
seem to take special pride in lowering 
the profession of penmanship by 
claiming to ilo wonderful things with 
the pen, when in fact they can do 
nothing at all, and in many cases ob- 
tain some beautiful writing or draw- 
ing from a conscientious penm'm and it off for an original design, the 
deceiver affixing his name as the de- 
signer, cxecuter and originator. 

The AmerK'an Penman considers 
such tilings a miscraljle dece]ition, and 
one that it will try to expose in 
every way possible, in order that the 
rued of thesi? 

way to 


id the 

Every teachc 
icmber th;it 1 
is hands thr . 
1 thisimpiHtiii 

■ of writing sliould re- 

■ pnirtirallv holds in 
>iiii> "f his stud 

■ art, and he who 

skill, can it ever be put to any i)rac- '" successful attainments in the chi 

tical or remunerative use'?" which 
naturally gives rise to scum .li-iii--i, 111, 
and especially so of ll.nn i-lmrj i. - 
warding the executing of liinl>, . a:;l. -, 
scrolls, lions, &c. There arc not a few 
suod common sense busincfls educa- 
tors whose hair would be Ukcly to 
luru gray at the thought of liaving a 
1 lenman in their employ, that was at 
■ill inclined to flourisli, regardless of 
'lie earni-i -nliriiaiion admiring 
I'Vblicaiilil,.-. ...nilriin-nwillproba- 
hlycontiiiiH 1,. |,n,i,si against the use 
of ftourislies until the total extirpa- 
tion of the same has been aeconi- 

graphical art, as well as to those who 
have reached the zenith 'of jirofession 
a I prosperity, we herewith submit th< 
first number of The .American Pen 


The American Penman will be 
made a thorough and progressive 
liaper, and we earnestly desire our 
friends to help extend its circulation 
until there shall not be a boy or girl, 
man or woman interested in good 
writing, that does not become a regu- 
lar subscriber. 

strong hold upon the confidence of 

his class will rapidly walk to the front 

an instructor. " Live teachers " is 

' cry, and one devoid of enthusiasm 

is like a railway engine without fuel or 

■r; both are powerless to do much. 

ly good. 

public may be foi 
dangerous imposti 
There is only c 
profession of tlicsi 
the evcriasting d 

perjietratoi's of such deccjitive prac- 
tices, and that is to expose any one 
known to be palming off somebody 
else's writing or drawing for his own. 
There are a few wiio have recently 
been exposed through some one of 
the penmen's papei-s, liut not all have 
met their fate, and it is to be earnestly 
hoped that every honest man in the 
profession will make it a part of his 
I unqualified duty to inform tlic public 
I through the eohumis of The Ameri- 
can Pensian or some one of the jour- 
nals now published in the interest of 
good writing, of any one guilty of such 
a misdenicannr. 

Kvcry iienman should let his work 
speak for itself, as he will receive 
much greater glory and fame in the 

Every hoy ai 
ting a start in » i 
for TheAjimi. 


d gii 

is just get- 
1 subscribe 
:. as it will 
isorihe now 
ar for Hftv 

long nil 


l.V t! 


■ying to build a 
kill of somehodv 

The way to make The American 
Penman a great success is for each one 
receiving a sample copy to pass it 
around and try to secure a larger club. 
We hoiie our friends will help to cir- 
culate the " Penman " by not only 
subscribing but asking their 
ances to do likewise. 

There is no young man or lady 
laking an efl'ort to obtain a good halifl 
writing that can afford to be without 
Thk.Vmeriian Penman. The invalu- 
ble hints and lessons upon practicfil 
penmanship in eacOi number arc wortli 
the jirice of subscription to an.y one. 
Rememlier, if you suliscribe now you 
will get the paper one year for .'lU 

.So.ME one of the iiojiular Friday 

norning addresses delivered to the 

tudents of Clark's College will be 

t- 1 published in each number of Tin: 



The Anfieman Pennfian, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 
By H- C Clark, Editor and Proprietor. 

Buicred at the Erie Poatofflce u Second Class Hatter. 




A poor old printer siands silent and glum. 
With types well pois'd 'tween finger and thumb, 
And eyes ^.lanting up exp^e»i^ive of doubt 
If ihe words he has set are clearly made out, 
And a look on his face that tells of his scorn 
Of the old-fashioned quill and ink in a horn, 
And the scrawls on his copy, meant to be words 
That looks like the tracks of snails or of birds. 

Bui pat 

, and learning, and good-natured 


Won\ turn into sense these words with a quill. 
He peers up and down for the cap letter O 
As a key lo the noun that puzzles him so — 
He spies out a letter, and has it he thinks, 
When lo ! it's an i in the spelling of sphinx ! 

He rubs up his glasses and starts off again 
To get ai the thread of the intricate train, 
And a tear trickles down on the end of his nose 
As he carefully quarries the words of the prose. 
He\ doubtful of p and the /"and the j — 
"They're made just alike !" he whispers to say — 
''SVritwitli /■'lit ink on the end of a quill 
By a gaveruitient clerk, 'wifh his usual skill P' 

He reads along further to get at Ihe gist, 
And scans very closely each pothook and twist ; 
But he finds that the <y is made like the^ 
And the r and the v exactly agree ; 
And as to the caps, why the 7" is an /, 
And that jV is an ^ there's none will deny; 
For Ahe has /"and sometimes the L, 
And which one is meant he can't always ttll. 

He finds now an / that looks like a ^ 

And an I, undotted, which answers for e ; 

And the u and the w are always alike, 

And look just as though they were made with a 

If he wishes for /; il's a very good k. 
But that never stands very much in his way; 
But the a and the o, when made just the same, 
Are apt to confound in a tough proper name. 

Vou may see how complete is the printer non- 
But never can feel his thorough disgust, 
Nor the dread that awaits the proof-reader'^ 

When the poor fellow's copy is writ with a 

The characters found on the tombs of Luxore 
Still live in the hand of Ben: Perley Poore, 
And the artistic script on Belshazzar's wall 
Is fairly outdone by Bob Ingersoll ! 

The Lojvell and Holmes and Whittier quill 
Ha^ made the world cry and laugh at its will; 
But, like gold in the mine, or pearl in the shell, 
It takeih much labor to quarry it well. 
The words that are said about each little line 
You may think are profane or truly divine; 
But you never may know, nor never can guess 
What trouble it is to correct for the press ! 

O. man of great genius! think not of thyself 
When wooring the muse for honor and pelf, 
Hut strive to obtain ihe printer's good will 
Hy writing quite plain, but not with a quill ! 
Ihiiik always of him who woiks in the night 
By the glare and the flare of the hot gaslight. 
Whose days are all told while yet he is young- 
\Vho dieth unl;nown. while thy glory is sung! 
—S. 7. Bates. 

The standard Pen Holder sent us by 
Mr. Madarasz is well udupteU to the u 
of professional penmen. Read Mr. M 
advertisement in another column. 

The art of writing, man's second 
tongue, should receive more attention 
than is accorded to it, and especially by 
those to whose success in many spheres 
of usefulness it may contribute so large- 
ly. In treating of the subject of pen- 
manship, in the hope of awakening a 
greater interest in this most useful 
branch of education, we must necessa- 
rily devote our attention to that depart- 
ment of the art which may be most 
easily applied to use in the business pur- 
suits of men. 

People are partial to everything that 
gives them facility in the transaction of 
business, and increases their power to 
make money; and to engage them in the 
matter of writing, it is only necessary to 
present some feasible method of ac(iuu"- 
a style of penmanship adapted to 
universal application. Many teachers 
of writing and schools of penmanship 
fail to accomplish the most desirable re- 
sults in this branch of education from 
giving too exclusive attention to "fine " 
penmanship, and not enough to practi- 
cal business writing. 

While a few persons may find it to 
their advantage to become artiatic. pcn- 
n, all should possess a, practical hand 
ting, which we deem to be a style 
that can be executed rapidly and easily, 
and possessing legibility and grace. 
Rapidity and ease of execution are the 
most essential elements of a good hand 

iting; without tliese, in the press and 
bustle of business life, whatever degree 
of excellence it may possess in other re- 
spects, it will most likely be allowed to 
deteriorate intonn unintelligible scrawl. 
Legibility is an important element, but 
it is valued more by the reader of writ- 
ing than by the writer. Nine out of 
every -ten business men write rapidly 
whether they make their writing legible 
or not, as they would rather waste some 
other person'stimethan their own. This 
fact alone is sufBeient argument to prove 
that only such instruction as shall ijut it 
into the power of the student to acquire 
a rapid hand writing with as great a de- 
gree of legibility as may be consistent 
therewith, can be expected to produce 
any very satisfactory results in making 
the study of penmanship popular and 

For those who wish to begin the study 
of business writing, we introduce the 
following suggestions and exercises: 

But little can be accomplished with- 
out a correct position at the table, and 
an easy, gUdiug movement of the hand. 

The above cut illustrates the cor 
position at the table. The position of 
the chair should be such that its front 
edge shall be even wltli the edge of the 
table. The writer should sit erect, 
the feet resting squarely on the floor in 
front, thereby tending to prevent the 

writer's leaning too heavily on the table. 
The arms should rest in an oblique posi- 
tion on the table, the points of the el- 
bows being about two inches from its 
edge, the left hand serving to hold the 
paper in place and to support the body 
in an erect position, leaving the right 
hand free to glide Ughtly over the paper, 
which is placed so that its ruled lines 
shall be at right angles with the right 
arm. The pen should be held by the 
first and second fingers and the thumb, 
the holder crossing the second finger at 
the roots of the finger nail, the end of 
the first finger resting on the holder 
about an inch from the point of the pen, 
and the corner of the thuiub resting 
against the side of the holder opposite 
the first joint of the fore finger. The 
holder should rest in the hollow between 
the knuckle joint of the first finger and 
the thumb, as shown by the lower line 
of the holder in the following cut illus- 
trating the position of the hand and 
pen. The third and fourth fingers 

should be turned under to serve as a 
rest for the hand, which at all other 
points should be carried clear frotn the 
table. The arm, resting on the table in 
an easy relaxed position, should be 
turned to the left, so that the end of the 
holder shall point directly over the 
right shoulder 

Assuming the above position, the stu- 
dent should practice on easy exercises 
adapted to the development of a free 
sliding movement of the hand from left 
to right in straight lines and in curves, 
the muscles of the forearm to serve as a 
pivot, at all tunes keeping the hand and 
pen in the same relative position, and 
permitting the third and fourth fingers, 
the support of the hand, to slide with 
the pen, describing the same movements. 

The following exercises are among the 
most suitable for practice, with a view 
to the development of the forearm or 
muscular movement, without which no 
proficiem^y in rapid business writing can 
be attained. These exercises should be 
taken up in the order in which they are 
presented below, each being quite thor- 
oughly mastered before the next is at- 
tempted. Following these, other similar 
combinations can be practiced with 
equally as good results. 





) achieve success in this most useful 
art, the student must work dilligently, 
observing carefully all directions in ref- 
erence to the position of body, arm, 
hand, pen and paper, an<l to the exer- 
cises, to develop freedom of movement, 
which gives the power to execute with 
ease, rapidity, and accuracy tlie forms 
of letters he may afterwards study. I 
would urge the great importance of the 
muscular movement, for I believe a fail- 
ure to comprehend its necessity ie the* 7 
cause of the ill-success many students , 
meet with in realizing their anticipated J 
skill in writing. Practice upon m 
ment exercises is to the learner of 1 
ing. what practice upon the scales i 
the learner of music, and it is as absurdj 
for the one to commence the study of*. 
letters and words before having devel-' 
oped the power to strike with grace and 
accuracy the simplest lines and 1 
as for the other to attempt to perform | 
classical music on the i>iano before hav- 
ing practiced the scales and acquired 
the power to strike with ease and accu- 
racy each individual note. 

As want of space prevents an intro- 
duction of all of the letters and the 
maimer in which they should be studied. 
I would merely suggest that they be 
taken up in a systematic order, those 
most simple in form to be studied first, 
as the small letters, /. u, n, m, etc., and 
the capitals involving the use of the 
sixth principle as Q, X, \V, etc., these 
being most simple in form and easily 
made with the muscular movement. 
Following these, capitals involving the 
use of the fifth principle, as f), C, £, etc. 
By examining carefully the letters, (suit- 
able styles of which are presented in 
most of the copy books in use,) it will be 
found that they can be arranged in 
groups according to their resemblance 
and simplicity of form, so that they may 
be studied to much better advantage 
than if taken up in the order in which 
they occur in the alphabet. 

He who undertakes the study of pen- 
manship in the hope of improving his 
style of writing must i-eganl the art as 
of sufficient importance to command 
his most earnest efforts and careful at- 
tention. Persevering study cannot be 
more richly rewarded than if applied to 
penmanship, which insoeiety is accepted 
as a rare aeeomplishmeut, and in the 
business world, a qualification than 
which none other is more highly valued. 


Writing is not a gift. It is acquired, 
and it is aciiuired only by thoughtful, 
patient, faithful practitre. 

What some people call "flourisir* in 
ordinary writing is only keeping up, 
"oft times," of that freedoui and easo 
of motion, without which no writing is 

Shade is not essential, and by some 
considered positively objectionable in 
ordinary writing. 

Mctttl-tipped penholders are positively 
detrimental. They cause "gripping of 
the holder," ■■crainppd lingers." and a 
consequent slow, jerky iiiotiun, 
the f<.rm of the lettt-r.s ami th. 
with which they should be ext-c 
A. K. }'An^ 
Wilton .Junction, 

Nov. 21, 1885. 




W. J. Kinsley, of Shenandoah, Iowa, 
in a iiiHKnifioently written letter, en- 
closes his subscription. 

WiUianm & Rogers. Rochester. N. Y.. 
.sends a beautiful written letter. 
Prof. Williams is a fine penman, 

C, A. French, P. O., BoPton. Mass.. 
favors us with his subscription and that 
ot F. C. Irving, in a well-written letter. 

C. H. Pierce, of Keokuk, la., gratifies 
us with one of his characteristic letters. 
Pierce is a man of ideas, and when he 
lets loose, look out. 

H. Russell. oftheJoliet (111.) Business 
College, writes encouragingly to Thk 
American Penman, and he promises to 
become a regular correspondent. He is 
a good man in the profession. 

('. M. Paulk. Principal of the Pen" 
niandihip Department of Macomb Nor- 
mal College, Macomb, III., 
sends a beautifully written 

C. fj. Swensburg. firand 
Rapids, Mich., favors us with 
copies of his CoUcf/e Journal, 
which are well filled with 
pertinent inaiter relative to 
his college. 

Robert Philip Designer 
and Engraver on Wood, Sac- 
ramento, Cal.. will exhibit a j 
spechiieu of his skill in a fu- : 
ture number of Thk Ameri- 
can Penman. 

D. B.Williams, Penman at ' 
Bryant's Business College, 
Chicago, 111., favors us with 
a beautifully written letter ' 
and a superb set of capital i 
letters. He is one of the j 
finest penmen in the west. I 

W. K. Patrick, Penman at i 
Sadler'ti Business College, ' 
Baltimore,Md.,sendsabeau- I 

tifuily written letter. Mr, P, ■ 

is well-known as a superior penman 
imd successful teacher. 

W. H. Lothrop, of South Boston, 
Mass.. encloses his subscription in a 
beautifully written letter. He prom- 
ises to contribute to the columns of The 
American Penman. 

r. C. Curtis, in a beautifully written 
letter.encloses fifty cents for The Ameri- 
can Penman. 

Mr. C. has Commercial Colleges at 
Minneapolis and St, Paul, Minn. 

A. E. Parsons, Wilton Junction. Iowa, 
^•'nds a beautifully written letter, the 
penmanshii) indicating a high degree of 
skill. He seems to be enthusiastic in 
behalf of the chirographic art. 

H S. Kneeland, Chadillac Mich., en- 
'Inses his subscription in a beautifully 
written letter. He says: "As a student 
"f writing, I hail Thk American Pen- 
man with delight." 

H. W. Plickinger, College of Com- 
iiieree. Philadelphia, in a beautiful let- 
ter. wi^hes us "abundant success." 

Mr. F. is one of America's most enn- 

I>r.W. F. Roth, of Manheim, Pa.,. sends 
11 It-tter, the writing of which is superior 

to many professional penmen. We ex- 
pect to have the pleasure of presenting 
to the readers of The American Pen- 
man several articles from his pen. 

E. L. Burnett, Business College, Provi- 
dence, R I., encloses his subscription in 
one of his finely written letters. Mr. B. 
is an able and popular teacher of pen- 

J. F. Burner, Elko, Nev., encloses 
specimens of his writing with his sub- 
scription, and promises to secure a club 
for Thk American Penman. We hope 
others will do likewise. 

W. W. Phipps, International Business 
College, East Saginaw, Mich., reports 
his school to be in a very prosperous 
condition, which serves Mr. Phipps just 
right. He is a fine penman and an ex- 
cellent teacher, 

A N. Palmer, editor of the Wc/tltrn 
Penman, Chicago, .says: "We welcome 
The American Penman to our ranks 
and wish it unbounded success." 

Thanks; your kind wishes are appre- 

O. C. Dorney, a student of H. W. 
Kibbe, Utica, N, Y., says : " I hope 

V. McKee, of Oberlin. O , favors us 
with his subscription in one of the best 
written letters received. 

Bro. MeKee is a popular penman, and 
made it so hot for Michael that he 
retreated to Deliiwaro. (rood for Mc- 

W. D. Showalter. Secretary of Bayliss" 
Business College, Dubuque. Iowa, says: 
" I know of no one in the profession 
more able to conduct a penman's paper, 
and you have my best wishes for suc- 
cess." We trust Mr. S. will find his 
ideal in The American Penman. 

E. C. Davis, Providence, R. I,, says: 
"Wishing to encourage the birth and 
success of The American Penman, as 
I believe such a paper is of great benefit 
to the masses, I enclose my subscrip- 
tion." Mr, D. is right. 

D. H. Snoke. Business College, South 
Bend, Ind., encloses very creditable 
specimens of card writing and flourish- 
ing. He says: "] like the name with 
which you have christened The Ameri- 
can Penman, and trust it will be a gen- 

E. K. Isaacs, Valparaiso, Ind„ in a 
beautifully written letter, says he wDl 

H. W. Kibbe. of Utica, N, Y.. sends 
|1 for The American Pksmax. a copy 
to be sent to his address and one u> (). 
C. Dorney, of AUentown, Pa. 

Mr. Kibbe is an artist in penmanship, 
and a successful teacher. His letter con- 
tained the first cash subscription re- 

W. J. Hart, Haddoufield. N. J., says: 
" Enclosed please find ^1 for my sub- 
acription to TheAmkukax Penman " 

He writes a beautiful tiaml, ;uid f vi- 
dentty anticipates mucii plcasnie and 
good wishes for the welfare of tlu- Pkn- 
man, as he encloses a larger sum by one- 
half than was necessary. 

C. (t. Prince. Secretary of Clark's 
Business College. Erie, Pa., writes a 
skillful hand and is destined to hold the 
fort as the "Prince" of Penmen. 

The American Penman wrappers 
were addressed by him. and our read- 
ers can judge for themselves as to his 

M, B. Cooper, one of the proprietors 
and Principal of the Actual Business 
Department of the Capital City Com- 
mercial College, Columbus, Ohio, en- 
closes his subscription in a letter, the 
writing of which would be a credit to 
aproffssional penman. Mr. 
C. thinks he cannot afford 
to be without The Ameri- 
can Penman. 

J. P. Medsgar. Jacob's 
Creek, Pa., in a beautiful 
specimen of box marking, 
says: "If The American 
Penman is as good as what 
generally comes from your 
Institution, you can expect 
my support." Mr. Medsgar 
was a former student in the 
Penmanship Department of 
Clark's College, and is a su- 
perior penman. 

1 Henry C. Spencer. 
j ington. D. C, late President 

of the Business Educators' 
I Association of America, sub- 
' scribes for The American 

PENMANand contributes the 

poem in this issue known as 
r* A Printerian Hint." Mr. 
I S. is a live man in the pro- 
j fession, and is principal of 

one of our leading business 

The American Penman will live long 
and prosper," which good wishes 
hope to experience, in having the best 
penman's paper published. 

Thomas May Pierce, Principal of 
Pierce's College of Business, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., favors us with his subscrip- 
tion. Mr, Pierce stands high as an able 
and influential business educator. 

O. M. Powers, principal of the Metro- 
politan Business College, Chicago, III., 
says: "I certainly wish you success with 
your new publication,'' etc. 

Mr. P. is publisher of the " Complete 
Accountant." a popular treatise on the 
of book-keeping. 

H. B. Bryant, Chicago, 111 , sends us 
a copy of his Manual of Book-keeping, 
which appears to be all the author 
claims for a six weeks' course in ac- 
counts. Circulars giving full particulars 
of the work may be had by addressing 
Mr. Bryant. 

W. N. Ferris. Big Rapids, Mich., writes 
us a beautiful letter and also promises 
to contribute to the columns of The 
American Penman. 

Mr. F. enjoys the reputation of being 
an e.\cellent penman and a scholarly 

contribute an article each month upon 
some department of penmanship. 

Mr, I. is a first-class penman and 
teacher, and our readers may expect 
something interesting from his pen. We 
also acknowledge the receipt of several 
beautiful slips of writing and flourish- 

R. F. Moore, Terrell, Texas, Professor 
of Penmanship in the Glendale Institute, 
writes that he has one hundred students, 
and heartily welcomes the forthcoming 
American Penman, promising to do all 
in his power to extend its circulation. 
He is in a position to do good work, 

L. Madarosz, of New York, who has a 
national reputation as a superior card 
writer, encloses a few samples that are 
e.\ceedingly fine. He certainly stands 
at the head as a card writer. He also | 
sends an elegantly written letter and 
flourished eagle, that are seldom if ever 

D, T. Ames, publisher of the Pcnman'a 
Art Journal, New York, says: "I shall 
give you no cold shoulder, and there 
will be no jealousy between the Journal 
and The American Penman." 

That is right: we shall try to merit 
the good opinion of all, and The Ameri- 
can Penman will leeiprocate, 

S. A. Drake, .\ssociate Teacher of Pen- 
manship in Clark s College, Erie, Pa., 
who has given the lesson in this issue of 
I The American Penman, is a thorough 
scholar, and though differing some- 
what, in methods of teaching with pen- 
men generally, nevertheless his lesson ft* 
well worth reading and practicing. 

C. M. Robinson, Principal of the Union 
Business College, Lafayette, ind., in a 
well written letter, says: "I will be 
pleased to do all I can for The A.meri- 
CAN Penman. I enclose ^1 for two 

Prof. Robinson also encloses specimen 
copy of his "New Exercise Book," which 
seems well adapted to learning move- 
ment exercises. Our readers may expect 
a letson from him in the February num- 

A. Bushnell. 105 S. 4th Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., favors us with a sample of 
his new copying book, which is the 
handiest thing we have ever used. It 
is superior to the old machine process, 
as it is easily carried from place to place 
and a copy of a letter can be taken with 
less trouble, producing even better re- 
sults. It only costs $1, and to any one 
in need of a copying book it is worth 


^Fhe Afnericafi Penrnan, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

By H Z. Clark, Editor and Proprietor, 

Erie, Pa. 

single wiplcH of Tns AMBBICAN Pbnman win be 

I receipt < 


Heading matter 
given on Reading A 


one of the best of Its class, anil we do»re tbouaands 
. of snliBcrlbers from ull pans of the countrr, and all 
pemons mibscrlbtng before January Ut, 1S86, will re- 



aile arraiigenieDls with th 

zine published In Chattanooga, Tenn., to furnish 

sabscrlplfuii price of the " Pruifress " alone. 

To all persons Interesting Iheniselves In be- 
half of Thk American Pknman and sending clnbs 
of two or more, a discount of 10 per cent, will he 
given the one sending the club on all subscriptions 
forwarded to Tbe Ambrican Penman. We prefer 
to give cash premlnma to those securing clubs, and 
this rule will lie Invariably followed. 

Rcniinances shoulil lie made bj N. Y. Draft, P. O. 

Money Order, Postal Note, or Registered Letter, to 

H. C. CLARK. Publisher. Erie, Pa. 

new enterprise will be a pronounced 
success. Rend the special notice, "To 
Our Readers," in another coUinin, as 
to clubbing prices with the 


We liavc just perfected an exceed- 
ingly favoral)le arrangement with the 
publishers of the Smit/icni Profjrcss, a 
In-nionthly of 00 to 1(H) pages, devoted 
to health, happiness and the ujj-build- 
ing of tlie South, printed at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. Dr. Rohbins has been 
engaged as editor of the new publica- 
tion. He was formerly an editor of 
Northwestern Pennsylvania, and for 
several years past a traveling corres- 
pondent for leading daili{fs. His de- 
scriptive writings from the West and 
South have been perused with i)leas- 
xy:e and profit by many of our read- 
ers. The doctor lias advanced ideas 
on health and hai)i)iness, and his 
philanthropic views in that direction, 
are perhaps excelled only by Dr. Dio 
Lewis, of New York. The I^-ugr&sn 
is well worth its published price (Sl.OO 
per annum), but to subscribei*s pay- 
ing in advance it will be sent for 1886 
with our pajjer atSl.fX) for both. Sub- 
scribe at onee. Address 

Lock Box 7(>. Ehik. Pa. 

We have received advance pages of 
the Southern /Vogrcw, a bi-monthly 
magazine devoted to health, happiness 
and the advancement of the South. 
Our old friend. Dr. D. P. Robbins.form- 
erly of this city, is wielding tlie pen 
and scissoi's, and from his well-known 
ability as a writer, editor and mana- 
trer, we do not hesitate to sav that the 


There seems to be no inconsideral)le 
number oi people who advocate the 
discontinuance of what may be termed 
fine penmanship, and would offer in- 
stead the old-fashioned round hand, 
which is claimed to be much easier to 
read, giving advantages in learning to 
writ'\ which the present styles mostly 
used do not. But it must be confessed 
that while the old-fashioned round 
hand is plain, devoid of flourishes, 
Ac, its tendency is toward a slow 
and awkward movement, which, if 
carried into practice,would prove a for- 
midable obstacle to 1he work of cor- 
respondents and book-keepers. Busi- 
ness men are constantly demanding 
legibility and speed, and are not after 
that sort of writing having the largest 
number of hair lines or flourishes, 
but want such a style as will look neat, 
being perfectly plain, and free from 
superfluous lines not materially con- 
tributing to the finish or plainness of 
the letter. Such a hand is what com- 
mon sense demands, and one that the 
professional penman must be able to 
write and teacli, or else he will fail 
in his efforts to instruct the boys and 
girls in his school those principles of 
business which they will be called 
upon to use in every day life. 

There ie no disguising the fact that 
many of our professional writing 
teachers seem to care more for the 
delicate hair line or the evenness of 
the shade, than for the actual legibili- 
ty and speed necessary to practica- 
bility. The motto : "Teach your boys 
that which they will practice when 
they become men," pertains to writ- 
ing as well as other branches of ])rac- 
tical education, and if the teaclier of 
writing is anxious to comjdy with the 
solicitations of the business com- 
munity, he must jmt himself in a po- 
sition to teach a good business hand, 
and not pay too much attention to 
perfect forms, at the cost of not giving 
the public such a style of penman- 
ship as will be adapted to the require- 
ments of a business man. The old- 
fashioned round hand should not be 
encouraged, but any of the systems 
now published are good enough to 
draw from, to obtain such styles of 
letters as will be the pride of ac- 
countants and correspondents. 

The American Pekman will be 
pleased to ]mhlish the views enter- 
tained by business men upon the sub- 
ject of practical writing, and respect- 
frdly solicits the same. 



Be then showed from exnmlnatloD papers, 
provemcnt made by the children Id the schooli 
Erie, their ages ranging from 

Daniel T. Ames in writing up the 
debate between Prof. Clark and our- 
selves, inanufaotureil the above false 
hood. We will donate to Ames a nego- 
tiable check for $500 to find the above 

I assertion in Prof. Clark's speech, which 
I we will print in full in the next issu 
the Adiocatf. Aiues, let us inforin , 
that Prof. Clark knew better than to go 
to the AV/r public schools to get speci- 
mens of penmanship to exhibit when 
discusfijtig the negative side of the ques- 
tion. Prof. Clark sent off to H. C. Spen- 
cer, of Washington. D. C, to get speci- 
mens to exhibit to the judges on the 
evening of the debate. Spencerian 
copy books were used in the public 
schools of Erie, Pennsylvania, and of 
course it was wise for the affirtnative (Q. 
W. Michael) to obtain specimens there- 
from, as he did. 

The above article is clipped from 
" Michael's Advocate of Rapid Wriliny 
and Biisinenti Education" which hi 
been before the public altogether too 
long for policy sake, and was some 
few months ago branded by Prof. 
Ames, publisher of the Peyiman^s Art 
Journal, as " The Slang Advocate " which 
of course puts Michael in bad light, 
and his paper is certainly a disgrace 
to modern civilization. 

Mr. Michael a few months ago is- 
sued a challenge to debate the merits 
of the copy book system of teaching 
writing, to any teacher in the United 

His challenge was accepted, and 
he came to Erie May 22d last, and he 
was effectual beaten in his attempt 
to prove that the copy book should 
be abolished from the public schools. 
Three gentlemen,all professional teach- 
ers, sitting as referees, Hstened very at- 
tentively, rendering an impartial de- 
cision according to the argument, pro- 
duced, and ever since Micnael has 
been misrepresenting the facts as 
brought out in the debate, which of 
course can not be wondered at, ac- 
cording to the unwholesome reputa- 
tion he has acquired as a defamer of 
the truth. 

We reply to the points taken by 
Michael in the above article, as fol- 
lows : 

First — Prof, Ames never wrote up 
the debate, as alleged by Michael, and 
even if he did, the article to which 
Michael takes exceptions is true, as 
we produced upwards of oOO speci- 
mens from the public schools of Erie, 
showing a fine improvement from 
copy book instruction. 

Secondly — Mr. Michael has never 
seen the negative's speech printed in 
full, as only a summary was ever pub- 
lished, and that appeared in "Clark's 
CoLLE«E Quarterly." 

Thirdly — The specimens of stu- 
dents' improvement in the public 
schools of Washington, D. C, were 
ftunished by the Superintendent of 
Public Schools in that city, and were 
undoubtedly effective in disprov- 
ing Michael's vague theory regarding 
the improper use of copy books. 

Fourthly — Michael never present- 
ed a single si)ecimen or scrap of jtaper 
showing the imjirovement of any stu- 
dent in Erie or anywhere else, and he 
knows better than to publish any such 

The facts are, his whole speech was 
a miserable failure, and proved a great 
disappointment to the audience and 
the negative of the question, as it was 
generally thought that the " Goliah " 
of Obcrlin would annihilate the nega- 
tive side, so as to disable him and 

every oi\e else for life that attempted 
to defend the (ropy book. 

Had we known so much about 
Michael at tlie time the debate took 
place as wc do now, we should have 
promptly declined having anything 
to do with such a slanderer and 
abuser of the best system of practical 
writing published. 

It may not be generally known that 
Michael is a failure as a teacher, as he 
has never turned out a good writer in 
his whole career of unusefulness, and J 
during the past three yeai-s has not 1 
had but one good penman in hiflV 
school, and he is admittedly a studentf 
of other professional iienmen, which | 
illustrates the superior (?) methodflJ 
of Michael as an instructor in penmaaKj 

Perhaps there are more congeniall 
professions where Michael could ex-^ 
cell, but in our oiiinion it is gettin 
altogether too hot for him in the fiel3 
of penmanship, and he should at ondcr 
identift' himself with a barbaric racel 
where he could jjossibly become i 
chief, or at least find such company 
as is most suitable to his tastes and 
educational qualifications. 

In the future we shall decline to 
recognize the theories and unreason- 
able ideas advocated by Mr. Michael, 
as he was expelled from the Business 
Educators' Association of America, 
and therefore is not a member of any 
standing in the profession. 

The following letter answers the in- 
sinuation made by G. W. Michael a:* 
to the specimens used in debate with 
him last May: 

Washington, D. C, Nov. 20, 1885. 
Prof. H. C. Clark, Erie, Fa.: 

Dear Sir — The "Specimens of Compo- 
sition and Penmanship '" sent to you 
from this city, to be used in your public 
debate, were prepared entirely by the 
pupils in our public schools, in the pres- 
ence of exauiiners, and the time allowed 
was thirty minutes. 

These facts were certified on each 
package in my hand, as clerk of the Su- 
perintendent and secretary of the Board 
of Trustees. 

Washington schools have produced 
large quantities of such examination 
papers, which are indisputable evidence 
of the excellence of the Spencerian sys- 
tem as presented in the copy books, 
taught by the regular public school in- 


It has come to our notice that one 
A. Tigniere, of New Orleans, La., is 
claiming to have received silver 
medals on his penmanship at the New 
Orleans Exhibition over other well- 
known penmen, and as D. L. Mussel- 
man, of Quincy, III., was the only one 
in the profession making an exhibit, 
it would seem as though this man 
Tigniere had a superfluous amount 
of cheek, even exceeding that of any 
man before exposed for similar prac- 

Webelii-v,. !,.■ i- tin-;,,!,- ni;in uIm. 
a few year- wiu ,i |.l i Im^i- 

neSS in In.inni;,. ami mM; I a l;il-c 

iber of Mil.M.-nl.ri> t:.i 77,. /V,,.- 
\ Art Jnin-nal, luit tln' piil.Iislicr 
r received the nnmev. c.nsc- 

quentlv we think Tignieiv railrd to 

t)ok out for hi 
doubtedlv bear wat^ 




To the Students of Clark's College, Erie, Pa., 
Friday Morning, October 23, 1885. 

ISpeclully roponi'U for 'TiiR Auiricak I'bkiian" 
by l>ror. H. K. Whitman, M. Ph.. lustnictor In Pho- 
netics, Clurk'tt College.] 

Mr. Prt:itiden(, Ladies and Ocntfrmcn 
—I feel thiit a few words of apology are 
necessary to preface the few words that 
I ehall say this morning. Some six 
weeks ago I was waited ujion by your 
honorable President and invited to join 
the corps of lecturers for the coming 
year. 1 promised with the proviso that 
it was to be in the last part of the year. 
He asked me to take something out 
of the regular line of my business, and 
1 also promised to do this. Now a prom- 
ise is a very easy thing for me to make. 
The other day I was waited upon by the 
speaker who was to have been here this 
morning, who informed me that I had 

The topic that I have taJcen this morn- 
ing is "The Law of Commercial Paper." 
that is, bills, paper money, notes, drafts, 
and bills of exchange. All these are 
comparatively of recent origin. In 
former times there was no such thing ae 
having goods for sale, everything was 
bought and sold by barter. If I wanted 
a pair of boots I would go to my boot- 
makLT and tell him that I would give 
him 8o much legal advice in return for 
the boots. The farmer would go to the 
maker of cotton goods and say that he 
would give him so much farm produce 
for cloth that the farmer needed for 
his wife and daughters. Of course all 
this was done by giving an ecjuivalent 
in every case. The other day a man 
came to me and said that he needed 
help and that he would exchange farm 
produce, such as butter, eggs, chickens, 
etc. But if I would go to the shoemaker 
and say I needed a pair of shoes, 

and placed upon it ihe amount of actual 
produce which it would purclmsse. But 
the last and most important stop of the 
whole is the sale and purchase of com- 
mercial paper. I will make an estimate 
of the business transact«d in New York 
for one day. How much gold and silver 
do you suppose passes from hand to 
hand in the payment of debts? I can 
safely say that not five per cent, of the 
whole amount is other than Notes, For- 
eign and Inland Bills of Exchange and 
other commercial papers. These rep- 
resent actual amounts and are, by the 
law of commerce, eiiuivalent to that 
much cash. Now allow iiie to hold your 
attention as a ieacher for a few mo- 
ments and I will explain this more fully. 
You young men and women who are 
to go out in the world and take the hard 
knocks that are necessary, many of you 
will possibly not be able to afford the 
assistance of a lawyer, so if you pay 

on my promise iC possible, but I cannot 
as long as I am worth one hundred dol- 
lars. I say "Thirty days after date I 
promise," and I am obliged to pay. The 
form of the note may be varied, but all 
must say "I promise" This form of 
a note is "negotiable," that is, it can be 
sold, as H. C. Clark can put his name 
on the back and I will have to pay the 
money to the one who holds the note at 
the end of the time, but if the words 
"or order" were omitted, the note 
would be " non-negotiable," and of no 
use to any one except H. C. Clark. The 
note may say "to H. C. Clark or bearer," 
and it would then be nogotiable. Here 
is another kind of "Promissory Note" 
(Here the speaker holds up a dollar bill) 
If you have read what it says on the 
note you will have noticed that it says 
"The United States Treasury will pay 
to bearer upon presentation." The 
statutes provides that a Promissory 

j^ot to speak— remember, got to speak— 
this morning, as he was called away 
from the city on business and could not 
iippear before you this morning. I re- 
member of reading of Prof. Holmes 
when in the same predicament. Rufus 
' 'boat, the silver-tongued orator, was in- 
vited to lecture before Dartsmouth Col- 
lege, but a few days before the time he 
was called away on business, and going 
I" Holmes, said that Holmes would have 
I') take his place that time; he did not 
iisk him to do it. but said he would have 
to do so. Holmes is a regular good fel- 
low and a great punster ; so while he 
was on the train on his way to Darts- 
"louth College a man asked him whether 
I'e was the lecturer for that morning, 
but Holmes said that he was only the 
>liadow of the lecturer and would not 
try to fill his place, but would just rattle 
Jiround a while and do his best. Well, 
"lis is just my fix this morning. I shall 
I I'ttle around and do the best I aiu able to 
' lo. and so you must try and bear me out. 

and in return would give him legal ad- 
vice, he would say that he could not af- 
ford that, as his stock cost him money, 
and he did not need the legal advice. 
He could not readily sell my advice, but 
he could my note or the currency I 
should give him. This is termed an ex- 
change, and things of equal value are 
given. Gradually the demand for these 
things increased, then gold and silver 
was discovered. These had a fixed and 
certain value, so a man could exchange 
them for those things which he most 
needed. There was no money in Abra- 
ham's time. When his wife died and he 
wanted to bury her iii a cave, according 
to the custom of the times, he went to 
the owner of the field where there were 
some caves, and made a bargain with 
him for a cave. Abraham then weighed 
out 300 shekels of silver to pay the man. 
You tee in this that money was weighed 
out and was worth so much an ounce. 
The next step in this direction was the 
use of the stamp which gave the coin, 

careful attention I will try and give you 
some good advice. You will probably 
very often desire such advice, and in 
many eases it will be necessarj'. Poor 
Sturgeon found it advisable to take the 
advice of his lawyer and fly when there 
was no other way of escape. 

In the first place I would impress upon 
your minds the idea of a promise. You 
thereby bind yourselves to do some- 
thing at a certain tnue ; it may be the 
payment of a bill, the lending of money, 
or even taking a lady to the opera. 
These are all promises and must be ful- 
filled. Now look at this (pointing to the 
following Promissory Note which was 
written upon the blackboard): 

* 100. 00. 

Erik. Pa.. Oct. 23, 1885. 
Thirty days after date I promise to 
pay H. C. Clark or order, One Hundred 

H. A. Strong. 
This is a promise that I will do this ; 
r I was dishonorable I would go back 

Note like this on the board will be out^ 
lawed in six years, and after that it is 
impossible to get anything for it. but a 
"Promissory Note" of this class (hold- 
ing up the dollar bill) is never outlawed 
and the gold or silver can be secured at 
any time as long as the bill remains. It 
has often happened that bills have been 
burned up, but the ashes were sent to 
the U. S. Treasury and there examined, 
and if found to be all right the money 
was sent to the person who held the 
" Promissory Note." The man who 
made the note is called the "maker," 
and the one to whom it is to be paid is 
called the "payee," but in law we say 
the "maker" is the "promiser," and 
the "payee" is the "promisee." The 
signature attaelied to any note is the 
sign whether it is good or bad. No two 
men have exactly the same style of writ- 
ing, so there is no great danger in con- 
founding the signatures. 

is important to have a legible hand: 
1 so unfortunate that I am unable to 


write my own uame. I will tfll you how 
it is. I was taught to write in the old 
country districts. My teacher told nie 
to follow the copy; this I did, and day 
by day I did nothing but try to write as 
I saw. The result is that I have not the 
proper movement, but a combination ot 
the arm and flijger movement, which is 
laughable to see. When I got into busi- 
ne^n I found that my hand would easily 
tire out and that my writing was too slow. 

You who have done business with 
hanks know that when you take money 
to the bank to be deposited, the cashier 
hands you a large book, in which he 
keeps the signature of all those who do 
Ijusiuess with the bank. When a check 
is brought to him to be paid, he looks at 
the siffnature given in the book and that 
on the check, and if both are exactly 
alike he knows that the signature on the 
check is genuine, and that he can safely 
pay the money. I went into the bank 
the other day and asked for the signa- 
ture of Judge Gaibraith. One thing pe- 
culiar about I he Judge is that he always 
writes his name the same. Here is a 
very good imitation of his hand (point- 
ing to the signature on the board.) 
Holliday, the Clerk of the Courts, also 
has ail exce'lent and uniform signature. 
One movement for every letter, a dash 
of the pen, and he is done. 

You ,ask one hundred men which they 
think to be the most important, a rapid 
or a beautiful handWTJting, and ninety- 
nine will say a rapid hand. Life is too 
short to spend five minnt«8 in signing 
your name. In this College you are j 
taught the proper way of doing things., | 
Learn to write neatly and rapidly. Prac- i 
tice your signature until you have it- so | 
simple and plain that it ean at once be I 
written. You will then save time in 
business and never be afraid of having 
any one counterfeit your handwriting. | 
Be uniform as well as rapid. Once you 
adopt a form of signature, do not 
change but use it continually. You will 
then have it ready at all times. The in- 
dividuality of a person is as pronounced 
in the signature as it is in the looks, 
dress. 01- walk. 

Possess this characteristic and you are 
safe. You Will then be successful busi- 
nes.'i men and women. [Applause.} 

So doubtless other curious penmen 
and even teachers of the art flourished 
in our nation before this Peter Bales, 
but as their names, characters and la- 
bors, for ought I can find, are entirely 
lost, 1 shall begin this my collection of 
the lives and printed works of our Eng- 
lish writing masters with him. Foreign- 
ers I do not treat of; and all the rest 
after him I intend to speak of in the 
alphabetical order of their names; 
which method, I conceive, will be the 
most clear and useful to my readers.aiid 
I I hope they will be content with such 
short memorials, as I could procure, con- 
cerning many of them; for my endeav- 
ors in some places are only like the 
picking up of a few fragments on the 
seashore after a shipwreck, discovering 
there was such a vessel to which they 
belonged. Upon the whole, I shall be 
glad if the occasional observations that 
I shall make in the course of this work 
may conduce to the encouragement of 
keeping to a sound, clean, practicable 
and consequently useful method of writ- 
ing; for as it is remarked by an ingen- 
ous author: "The same motives that 
"make us present ourselves to bur species 
"with decency and an intelligible lan- 
"guttge.engage.usto study to arrive at a 
"legible, as well as a neat and well or- 
"dered way pf writing; none but those 
"who respect nobody, and think them- 
" selves exempted from all regards due 
"to society, can well neglect to have a 
"tolerable handwriting.'— -Vpco^. rfe la 
Nat . Vol. VII. 

second Orthography, or true writing; 
and the third Calligraphy, or fair writ- 
ing. This was imprinted at London, in 
quarto, by T. Orwin. His rules in the 
iast part, or key of Calligraphy, are 
written in verse as well as prose. "And 
indeed," says Mr. Oldys, "we may ob- 
serve several of liis fraternity since ad- 
dicted to poetry, which may be natur- 
ally accounted for from their being so 
conversant with the poets; by transcrib- 
ing their moral sentences, short max- 
ims and districks, to set their scholars 
as copies ; which is certainly laudable, 
to season tiieir youthful minds with ele- 
gant admonitions at the same time that 
they are forming their hands to busi- 
ness. Besides, the precepts of any art 
are well known to be most successfully 
communicated in verse." In fine Mr. 
Bales con(;ludes his book with the fol- 
lowing epigram : 

" ywilr, true and fair, gooil reader, I present 
Art, pen am! hand have play'ii iheir parts in me. 
Mind, wit and eye, do yield their free consenr; 
Skill, rule and grace, give all ihcirgains to lliet; 
Swift art, true pen, fair hand logeiher meet, 
Mind, wit and eyt, skill, lu'es and grace to 
greet " 

The second edition of this book was 
published in twelves, 161)7, with eighteen 
copies of reconuiiendatory verses before 
it. by several learned hands. 

What I have seen of our authors, 
from the letter press, urf eighteen lines 
in blank verse (a rarity at that time) in 
ecimmendation of George Ripley's "Com- 
pound of Alchy-juy;'" published by Ralph 


. Hand and Golden Pen for his sign, yet 
[ was obliged to remove from place to 
I place for fear ot disturbance from his 
creditors, and that which favors this 
suspicion is a proverbial speech matle 
use of afterward, when speaking of peo- 
ple in debt; they were said to want the 
friendship of Peter Bales, /. e.., stood in 
need of some friends, who would be 
their bails. But this, however, is no 
more than conjecture, which might 
have perhaps no other foundation than 
the invidious expressions in the aforesaid 
epigram. However, be that as it may, 
the above mentioned trial of skill whs 
made on Michaelmas Day, in the year 
aforesaid, before five judges chosen by 
the consent of both parties. The particu- 
lars of this contest is now m the British 
Museum, supposed to be written by 
Peter Bales hiiuself. It is dated Jaiui- 
uary, the 1st, ISOO. 

I am informed by a short note, hi Mr. 
Joseph Ames'. F. K. S., handwriting, 
that Peter Bales was once servant to Sir 
John Puckering, Lord-keeper, and that 
the book containing his account of the 
trial of skill for the Golden Pen with 
Daniel Johnson, was once among Lord 
Worcester's MSS., No. 216. 

One of the first things that grave our 
Bales a reputation in the world for 
writing was it seems, a micrographical 
performance, which he wrote in l.^TS, 
(being then about twenty eight years- 
old) as Hollingshead takes notice in his 
chronicle of that year, viz.: The Lord'* 
Prayer, the Creed, the Decalouge, with 
two short Latin prayers, his own name, 
and motto, with the day of the month, 
year of our Lord, and that of the 
Queen's reign, (to whom he presented it 
at Hampton Court) all within the com- 
pass of a silver penny, inchased in a ring 
and border of gold, and covered with . 
crystal, so nicely wrote as to be plainly ^ 
legible, to the admiration of Her Majes- 
ty. (Queen Elizabethl her Privy Council 
and several ambassadors who saw it. 

[Specl:i1ly prepared fur ' 
by W. II. Lotlirop, o( South Iloston, Muss.] 

It is the purpose of these articles to 
give some account of the lives of Eng- 
lish penmen as found in the work of W. 
Massey, published at London in 1763. 

The introduction to the second part is 
given ui full. 


"After the art of prmting began to be 
generally in vogue there succeed as gen- 
eral a neglect amongst penmen for the 
improvement of the art of writing. 
This, as I have taken notice before, was 
occasioned for want of due encourage- 

"The first, who with a happy genius 
(accompanied with remarkable applica- 
tion and industry,) restored the practice 
of fine writing, and taught it by certain 
rules in England, was one Peter Bales; 
at least he is the first that I find upon 
record for being a very excellent teacher, 
and performed therein. I beheve, how- 
ever, we may safely apply to him what 
Horace does to Agamemnon:" 
" Vixere fortes ante Agamemnon 
Mulli; sed omnes illacrymabiles 
Urgentur, ignotique longa 
Node, carent quia Vale sacro. " 

— Carm. Lib. IV, Od. y 
" Before hiii time there many lived, 
Whose glory in these lists wai great; 
hut all unmourn'd.und now unknown. 
Are in a dark oblivion lost. 
Because no sacred bard has wrote 
What they perform'd." 


Peter Bales was born A 
1547, but the place of his nativity and 
who his parents were I have not found. 
A. Wood, in his "Athenae Oxonienses," 
saysi "He spent several years in 
sciences aiuongst the Oxonians, particu- 
larly, as it aeenis, in Gloucester Hall, but 
that study which he used for diversion 
only proved at length an employment of 
profit." This account is not only very 
short but defective, for it does not ap- 
pear by this that he was ever a regular 
student in that University, but rather 
that his business was 1o teach others 
writing and arithmetic ; probably to the 
college scholars. 

It i*. not certain when and upon what 
motives he left Oxford, hut in the year 
1586 I find he was in some employ under 
Sir Francis Walsinghatu, the Secretary 
of State, but what his business was or 
how long he continued therein, I cannot 
tell ; in all likelihood it was something 
in the writing way 

In 1590 he kept a school at the upper 
end of the Old Bailey in London, 
and taught the children of many per- 
sons of distinction at their own houses. 
There were several petitions, letters, 
etc., written in fine small secretary and 
It-alian hands by this Peter Bales in the 
Harleian Library of Manuscript*!, which 
I suppose are now transferred into the 
British Museum. In this year, also 1590, 
he set forth the first fruits of his pen, as 
he calls them, and coiimiunicated to the 
public his Writing Schoolmaster in 
three parts. The first teaching the art 
of Brachygraphy, or swift writing; the 

Kabbards, 1591, which are prefixed to 
the said book. And at the end of the 
book the said liahbards tells us "That 
in correcting Ripley's old ill-written copy 
(Ripley was chanon of Bridlington, 14701 
he had the assistance of Peter Bales in 
the Old Bailey, who was," he says, "a 
most notabli' and experienced decipherer 
of old and imperfect writing." 

In 1595 he had a trial of skill in writ- 
ing in Black Friars, with one Daniel 
Johnson, for a golden pen of twenty 
pounds value, and won it, thoiigh his 
antagonist was a younger mati by eigh- 
teen years, he himself being then forty- 
eight years of age. Yet upon this victory 
his contemporary and rival in the art of 
writing, .lohn Davis, in a fatyrical and 
ill-natured epigram, could not forbear 
making the following envious remarks: 
This is the 2l5th epigram, in his book 
entitled "The Scourge of Folly." 

The hand, and golden pen ctophonian, 
Sets on his sign to shew (O protid poor foul ! ) 
Both where he wonnes, and how the same he 

From writers fair, tho' he wrote ever foule; 
But by that hand, that pen, so borne hath been 
From place to place, that for this last half year 
It bCKtce a fen' night at a place is seen; 
That hand soplies th.ii pen, tho' ne'er the near, 
For when men seek it, elsewhere it is sent, 
Or there shut up (as for the plague) for rent; 
Without which slay, it never still could stand 
Because the pen is for a running hand. 

By this epigram it appears as if our 
Bales was then in necessitous circum- 
stances, and though he had set up the 

intimations, in Mr. 
'. Bales in the Bio- 
ca, that he wtt» 
trouble, (about the 
tly, by copy- 

We have some 
Okly's article of Y 
\ graphia' Brittanni 
brought into some 
year 1599) though i 

ing some of the Earl of Essex^s letters, 
by the deceitful contrivance of one John 
Daniel, a mercenary Tlependent upon 
the said Earl; but I do not find thaV 
Bales' reputation suffered by this in tho 
estimation of the impartial. • 

Besides his Writing Schoolmaster, that- - 
mentioned above, I have met with noth- 
ing else published by him, except one 
piece in secretary hand without a 
a book entitled, "Theatrum ArtisScrib- 
endi Judico HondioCaclatore." Itwaa- 
printed at Amsterdam from the rolling- 
press, 1614, when, I suppose. Bales was 
dead.though that piece might be written 
by him long before; for in the said book, 
which contains forty-two plates, some 
are dated 1594. so I suppose that which 
I saw dated 1614 was not the first im- 
pression. Lastly, when, where and in 
what oircumstances this great master of 
the pen made his final exit I have got no 
certa-in iutelligenee 

Ait-ongst the Harleian MSS., (now 
in the British Museum) No. 2368. there 
is a thin vellum book, in small (piarto, 
called Arebeion. At the end of that 
treatise is a neat flourish done by com- 
mand of hand, wherein are the letteru, 
P. B., which shows (says a tiote in that 
book) that this copy was written by tha a 
hand uf Peter Bales, the then famou* j 
writing master of London. 

" The (Trant Memc.rial " is the title of ^ 
a new and elegantly executed specimen 
of pen work by D. T. Auies and Mr. 
Rollinson, of New York, and for artistic 
lieauty. we have never seen its equal. 



Ho t all who labor, all wh. 
lofiy power, 

Po wiih your might, do with 
every golden hour. 
One of the main reasons that 
paratively few acquire good penman- 
ship is from an utter lack or realizing 
sense of the amount of labor 
to secure the result. We see young as- 
pirants who expect by a few weelts' 
practice to become the greatest livinu' 
penman, fail. The humbug writing 
master who has made the people be- 
lieve, and especially those who know 
nothing of penmanship, that he 

vast amount of mischief. (But if the 
butterfly derides the bee in summer he 
was never known to do it in the lower- 
ing days of autumn.) By and by the 
poor, foolish, deluded young man who 
has listened to the soft, seductive words 
of the humhui; ti-.tihrr, is awakened to 
the truth and Iih iniiN jiv ni:iny another 
before him has liaiti.. I in -i,ru experi- 
ence, that there |> Jim .■~Ur,r>S without 

great labor. If e\fiy tiaclier would, by 
est appeals and example, impress 

I should I 
r young i 
nestly to make the 

this fact upon his pupili 
far less failur 
He should labor 
understand that 
luck or glittering lucks, but 
onlv to those who are ready to work for 
it. Happily for young penman there are 
scores of aids and helps to cheer him on 
Among these are our pen 
man papers, who are doing a grand 
work. The experience of veteran teach 
ers who have achieved the grandest 
success is given for him to imitate and 
upon every hand the words of 
agement and sympathy that greet hii 
is abundant evidence that he 
ceed if he has the will to work i 
dilTereut were things twenty-five 
ago. when I " ' 

ignorance and p 
ers of peni; 
possessed of indi.M 
try teaching, and 

lacked thi 

and Work 

most eminent divines that this counti 

ever produced, is what gave 

and the same admiral doctrine i ight 

probably be truthfully reiterated b\ 

those who have 

every rank and sphere in life, and upoi 

every reader of your paper I would like 

to impress this fact — 

Thu in life's earnest battl. 

Who d; 


This Institution is attracting students from all parts of the United Htates and 
Canada, and is now considered the representative Bu-siness College of America. 
It claims points of superiority in its genera! course of study, in presenting the 
best course of actual business practice and theoretical book-keeping ever devised. 
It has a national reputation, and its graduates are filling nianv important posi- 
tions of trust, to the delight and satisfaction of their emplovers. The following 
'■-■•■*"-' -"*:— ->= -> ' the Erie Sunday Gascffe of Dec. a, iBS5, shovfS 

_Clark'8 College 1b an laatltatioD ol which Erie people should i)e proud. CommeQclDg t 

The Celebnttd Uiscih; UoTmiit Feinu, 

For 30 Cents 



Oaa Dozen Curds niltt Name, 


Or nil oflhi nlm !■„ «»]VIi: IJOI_LA.K. 


lallud for AO Cents. 


Book-sellepg, Stationeps 


Catalogue giving full particulars uiailed to any address. More than 2U0 i 
dents are in daily attendance, the College occupying the entire two floors of the 
elegant Casey Block, Nos. 72.5 and 737 State Street. Those intending to enter a 
business college are cordially invited to investigate the excellent advantages 
of Clark's College. 

H. C. CLARK, President. 

N. I, y. Sc/wol», Vulpara 



715 State Street, 

tor Iho K.ll .nd WInl.r .nrfe. lo b. found In lU. cllj. 

Qray Bros. Fine Shoes for Ladies, 
Coz, Qardner & Sorris' Fine Oants' Shoes. 


710 Utntc et. JanSll-tf 

I F. W. MORGAN, ^^^^^!!^^J''^ 


iFine Teas, Coffees, 


Short Hand DcpartD 


Mutual Assessment 



Gnarantees t he Face of its Certifi- 
cates, Defines tlie Cost, Pro- 
vides tor Contingencies. 



EooeBty, I Quaranteed Deposits 

Solidity, and 

7ecmases:7, I Certlfioates of Credit. 



The best selected stock ot 


No. 3 Noble Block, 

[WM COlLSI)E"'StputBnt of FeiBUik^,; 

• Tenth..,' Coune 112 w«,H) for $26 .OO 

aradu.l. Count (12 »o.-k.) lor 25. OO 

Prortuionnl Count (lime uDllD.lttd) 50.00 

(>u3iUU Investing tpZiDU 

To Sample our New Cards and Specialties 


ni, tio.. In pl>t> or Jl.OO 
■J itiUbtrcTunrftd. Wtonly 


Leadiug Treatise on Book-Keeping 

Arranged for TTse In BnsineEs Colleges, High 
Schools, and Academies. 

HUH in Om tanntrif, a»d I tnnmd^ Mm lX» flntM pmman o/ hit 
igrin the umrtd. HU prnmamiltip u artuHeaJlj/ ftr/toL"— 
'I. C Cl,ARK. Eilihtr. 

4a-Wlih ever}' « piic)>ng<>* onlvrcd •( ono Umo an ozln 
»cka«.orQllt Itevfl Wg* Crti will iK. «o>it frc. wlih 
iny riHiiie wrIUen on. Willi it IIiUb nffort you can cmIIj 

Number of Ttrd, in i«ck«g* ; 18 36 

itjU A.— PlatnWhtte, hi-ki quaitij to.lfl #(1.00 

'■ li.-Weddlng Bristol, rory bMt.,.. M M 

" c.-GUt Edge, — i.ri«l S8 IM 

" ]>.— Bevel cut Edge. ibeDDNi „ M 1.00 

" K. -Bevels of CreamandWhitfl JSm 1.10 

" U.— Silk and Satin BevelB «0 1.18 

" II —Eight-ply BevelB. MBortwl, 62 1.21 

■• l.-Ellle, U',. i«io9tMyi™ H 1.36 

Addreafl Lines-Extra .■-'" .40 


t BO oiDnoted th»t the point nf 

tUe cBUire or axis of tb« holder, tli« bsius a 

nicii IS tue correct and natural posltioD (br 

: in tmportanco is the fact tha". owing to the 

i Edition cowtftin* 3-5fi |ifta;ei 

The High School Edition c 
I reqiiirtd in High ScboolH, Acade, 


79 Madison St.. Chicaffo 

The Western Penman. 

ETer7 Number Contains a Lesson In Writing, a Lesson in Lettering, a Lesson in Flourishing. 

Tho crimping of tho flngara by contlnaoua writlne, and wMoh IB 

ITgi. 2 and 3, Usdloa; 1 tnd 6, sxtri w 

Ho. U at hand. I regard It a> (be beat specimen of a penman'a paper ever iMued.— J. C. Kline, Wooditock, III. 
Will vou pleaae lot me have tweni; or thirty of the Seplemher No. or ihe WMterti Penman lui sampler. Il 
he best you've turned ont.— W. D. Kinslby, Penman Nonnal Ootltge, Shtnandoah, loimi. 

The Subscription Price is Only 60 Cents a Year, 

*ilb choice from a long list or Taloablepremiume, or a magnificent T-\Vo r>olla.r TSfiolt, and t 
pie copy will l.e Rent for ex.iminatioo, npou recei 

jr»AJ_.Mk;R. «fc <JO.. Box 466, Chicago. janSe-tl 

rOiie X>olla 



By P. A. WRIGHT, 769 Broadway, New York. 

Sadler's Hand-Book of Arithmetic. 

.ess than 400 Pages— More than 6,000 Problema.— Essential b Carefully Retained.— Non-Es- 

s Religiously Excluded. 

-SooU fo 

the Understanding.- Relieves the Uemory. 
dcrn Teaclicrw. 

mplute, and entirely fi 

LB^SUNS is to primary initimclion. Progreaalre toachi 

Price: Complete, $1; Part I (to Percentage), 46 ct 

As a Teaohir's desk copy from which I 
work, the HAND-BOOK has no equal. 

contnt'tis every jliinciple of arllhmetlr. cislom of buslnei 
will be likely ton, 
'■ ■ Oomple 

MEiTIC is unaurpaaVed 

elect problems for supplementary olnss 
*ir.in8iriicting nrithmetic, send for Sadler's iDdnctive Aritbmetlc. It 

,A8 a reference book to young or inexperienced Teaohera, our INDUCTIVE AHITH- 



rincipala < 


iiorclrcularcontaluiOBt.,ilrii.,Miiil,. Coi,„,i,..- , $2; I' " 
Ortoii JSc ti<adlcv*t> Kiii^liit-Hhs < ;■ 

Holder, inalant rellet Thp 
iaway entirely with gxlpr""" 
,e_of iiarro«r_iiietrf til 

L. MADARASZ, Box 2116, N. Y. City. 


. To students who vish t^rood models 

ttg to practice from, these will be 

bCuhe thing. " Price. $1.06 p;r paoH- 

( quAlxti/ tf 

of flourishlag i 
found to be ■ • 
age of 13. 

WKix'ruiw EjEtter. 

xmiMUd p'di'fT. price 30 c 


Tf yon wish yoi.r name .rriU^. m a«,orlcd -Ujlf, .md eovMk 
na[ion<, send 61 cents, ami the handsomest lanl* I CM 


Elegant specimens ofofr-h^nd lionrl.l.lnc. ^'Kb a. blnlt, 

easle*. jiwans. etc., on unruled paper, which 3X6 Con- 
ceded by all to he the most spirited work OTSr 
sent out by any penman Price. 26 cents eaotl. 
2 for 46 cents. $2.10 per dozen. 


style of tbi' att, and winning U 

-SV. H. SA.1>JL«k:i 

6 and 6 N. Charles St., BALTIHORt. AID. 

manufacture, 30 cents. 


The Favorite per bos 40 eta., per grow, $1.19fl 

Card Writing, No. 1. " 60 " 1.00 


P, 0. Box 2116, New York City. 

^SAMPLE CARDS, showing a wonderful-, 
command of the pen, with your name on, 1» 
one cent stamps, also a complete circular of 



Vol. -1— No. 2. 

The regular writiiij; lesson, which 
should have !i])pe:nv(l hi this nuni- 
her, is crowdcti .>ul (.. 'jivr room for 
Prof. W. P. rnM|,ri'- r\,-, ll.nt articlc, 
" For Thk A.MKiMrAN I'i:nm v\," which 
will prove fully as interesting as any- 
thing we could have published. 

A GENTLEMAN in this city recently 
undertook to test his si)eed in w-i-iting 
with a pen, against the skill of an 
operator of the type writer. The 
subject to be written was the Lord's 
Prayer, and in all probability the 
penman would have won, had he 
known the words of the prayer a little 
better. As it was, he suffered defeat. 

The Penman's Art Journal, in a re- 
cent number, attacks the compen- 
dium publications with great severity. 
We shall be pleased to receive the 
opinions of those who have used the 
compendium, for publication in Thk 
American Penman, and a friendly dis- 
cussion of the merits c)f any one ol 
the several compendiums now pub- 
lished, is in order. 

There is a larger number of young 
men and women attending business 
colleges than ever before, which is 
gratiij'ing to college principals, and at 
the same time indicates the drift of 
popular education away from classical 
schools. There is no doubt that busi- 
ness colleges are soon to become the 
acknowledged superiors of all other 
schools, as far as a practical education 

The Amekican Penman is receiving 
a very cordial and liberal patronage 
from penmen, business educators, stu- 
dents, and those interested in the 
chirographic art, which is encourag- 
ing indeed. We sincerely hope that 
our Mends mil help to extend its cir- 
culation until there shall be no pro- 
fessional writing teacher, or admirer 
of good penmanship, who does not 
receive it regularly. 

E.\TENsiVE preparations are being 
made to insure the success of the next 
meeting of the Business Educators' 
Association of America, which is to 
convene in New York City July next. 
Every reputable teacher of writing or 
of other commercial branches, is eli- 
gible to membership, and it is hoped 
that every live teacher will be ready 
and willing to do whatever he can in 
bringing about a large attendance. 


Only eight of New York's thirty-six 
UepresentJitives in Coneress enjoy <'.ol- 
leL'i.tmiMiii!;.,.lT„..i,ti«:i Harvard 

rii:ill. Mr Ilrivilt 1- ;, -inlii ,1,. of Co- 

Iuiii1h;i, Mi M. iMiii: I I|..l,:il1,, Mr. 

\-U-lrni\Vr,t | '. ,1, il , ,\i I \ , |:i I„S .)f thi 

College of the City ot New York, Mi 
Spriggs of Union,' Mr. Mallard of Wil- 
liams, Mr. Payne of Rochester Uiii- 

Messrs, K.lix iiihlTiiiMitliv .r. Camp- 
bell, Mr I'niit/rr Mi ,1. Mr. Ma- 
hone, Jlr Mulli I, .Mr, l;li>-, ;,n.i M 
Dowdney, who eomirletc tlie list of 
New York City and Brooklyn mem- 
bers, enjoyed only common school 
privileges, as did Messrs. Hisoock, Da- 
venport, and other members from the 

The proportion of college men in 

the New York dolr-ratii 
in any other Statr ill li- 
men seem to tiiii in -m 

IS large as 
( 'ollege 

1 -■■ '■■■■iL'i F, Kilniini.l.s, and 

■'■'' ' -' Ulliilirr llilrllr.'tuallv 

^1'- il'-Hliiiliiii: iueli,ard not go to 


A few collegians, however, have 
made their way to the front. William 
Maxwell Evarts tiKik a slin |iskin at 

Yale, James Dnii,ilii Ci mn bears 

the imprint of ,i.'i II 11 1 nlil I'n-livterian 
Princeton, and John .Vlixamlrr Logan 
was polished off at Louisville Univer- 
sity.— iVac York Sun. 

The above list of prominent men, 
mostly from New York, rank among 
the wisest of our statesmen, and as it 
will be seen that very few of them are 
graduates of Iit«rary colleges, it would 
seem that such institutions can 
justly lay claim to any great superior- 
ity in the way of fitting men for pub- 
lic life, even over our common schools. 


The Pcfmian's Art Journal for De- 
cember is a very interesting number, 
the special and most attractive feature 
being Prof E. K. Isaac's writing les- 
son It is a beautiful journal, well 
worth the subscription asked D, T. 
Ames, Publisher, 205 Broadway, N.Y. 

The Penman's Gazette comes to hand 
enlarged and improved, which makes 
very desirable paper It lias un- 
dertaken to give regular lessons in 
book-keeping and stenography in ad- 
dition to penmanship, and we hope it 

' jirove a success. The (I. A. Gas- 
kell Publishing Co., N. Y. 

Tlu: Wetlmi Penman is a bright and 
parkling journal, edited by A. N. 

Palmer. It contains much valuable 
information regarding penmanshii), 
and its illustrations are very well se- 
lected, giving to the paper a beautiful 
appearance. A. N. Palmer & Co., Pub- 
lishers, Chicago, 111. 

" Catalogue of the Seven-Account 
S.ystem of Book-keeping," contiiins 
120 pages of nicely printed matter 
upon the subject which its title indi- 
cates. Its author claims to have pro- 
duced good results in practical work 
with the method he has adopted and 
published, which is a strong argument 
in its tavor. There is certainly a field 
for usefulness and improvement in 
the book-keeping text books, and the 
.author of the seven-account system 
seems to have apprehended the appar- 
ent need of a jiractical treatise, rather 
than a merp theoretical outline of ac- 
counts. C. 0. E. Matthews, 22 N. 
Clark Street, Chicago. 

We acknowledge the receipt of the 
following college publications, which 
are of a high order of excellence: 

Eastman's 0>llege Journal, Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. 

The Srhtml Visitor, N. W. Business 
College, Madison, Wis. 

Hectld's College Journal, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

The Colkge Record, Jacksonville, 111. 

Th^ Practical Educator, Trenton,N. J. 

Business University Journal, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Haling' Ledger and Classtical Adver- 
tiser, Fall River, Mass. 

Etmira Busimss Colkge Journal, El- 
mira, N. Y. 

Hill's Colkge Journal, Logansport, 

Common Sense in Education, New 

Tlie Colkge Quarterly, Jersey CHty, 

Business College Journal, Springfield, 

Tlie School News, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Wk desire to make the future num- 
bers of The American Penman un- 
usually interesting, and to this end 
respectfully solicit the co-operation of 
the profession. There is plenty of 
material to select from, and if our 
friends will endeavor to let their light 
shine through these columns, it will 
give us much satisfaction, as well as 
benefit those who are fortunate enough 
to be subscribers. 


Noteworthy letters have been re- 
ceived fi'om : 

J. P. Medsger, Jacob's Creek, Pa., 
encloses a club of subscribers. 

G. G. Zeth, Mountain City Business 
College, Altoona, Pa. 

G. A. Hough, Business College, Fort 
Scott, Kansas. 

E. E. Chikls, Hampden Business 
College, S|)ringfield, Mass. 

W. H. Sadler, Business College, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Iran Dunn, EIroy, Wis. 
C. B. McClurc, Munson\dlle, N. H. 
W. F. Roth, M. D., Manheim, Pa. 
W. P. Cooper, Kingsville, 0. 

F. B. Costelo, Uniontown, Pa. 
L. Madarasz, New Y'ork V\iy. 
N. S. Bcardsley, St. Paul, Minn. 

C. N. Crandle, Business College, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

S. S. Packard, New York City. 

E. K. Isaacs, Valparaiso, Ind. 

C. M. Robinson, Union Business 
College, Lafayette, Ind. 

Bro. Francis, Commercial College, 
St. Joseph, Mo. 

R. A. Lambert, Winona, Minn. 

H. Russell. Business College, Joliet, 

H. J. Michael. Engrosser, .\llentown, 

P. T. Benton, Teacher of Penman- 
ship and Drawing in Public Schools, 
Creston, Iowa. 

W. F. Morse, Portland, Me. 

F. I. Temple, W. Tisbury, Mass. 
W. H. Franzell, Roe, Ark. 
L. W. Hammond, Batavia, N. Y. 
E. E. Salisbury, Phcenix, R. I. 

W. P. Richardson, Business College, 
Fayette, 0. 
S. E. Bartow, Cassville, 0. 
A. H. McGregor, Augusta, Me. 
Geo. O. Davis, Mount Palatine, 111. 

G. C. Sharer, Flint, Mich. 

L. T. Harinan, WeUsville, Pa. 

There is a goodly number of writ- 
ting teachera who do not meet with 
the success their writing merits,which 
is due, in many instances, to negli- 
gence or carelessness in teaching. It 
is always better to be in earnest and 
work hard in the interest of the stu- 
dents one has to instruct. 

A oreat deal of attention is being 
given to the subject of proper move- 
ment exercises of writing, which will 
undoubtedly produce good results. 


The ArTiericafi Penrnan, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

By H C. Clark, Editor and Proprietor. 




KiNOsviLLK. Ohio. 

The various pen journals have already 
voluminously discussed every topic con- 
nected with the art. Article after article 
has appeared, able and perhaps conclu- 
sive, but still the public seem slow to 
comprehend the philosophy and logic of 
pen teaching or pen practice. 

The pupil may read carelessly, indeed 
he may he slow to comprehend, or he 
may have no faith in his author, or fail 
to see the force of his reasoning. These 
may be assent, but no conviction or giv- 
ing assent, he may feel no necessity of 
testing these ideas thoroughly in prac- 
tice. We therefore tliink we can see the 
propriety of a clearly 
stated review of many- 
very important things 
aboutthis business,urg- 
ing attention every- 
where to these matters. 

all public schools as well 
as everywhere else. 

First allow us to urge 
some things in regard 
to pens, ink and paper. 
We know that not only 
public schools, but even 
the old scribes them- 
selves, very often blun- 
der and produce most 
imperfect work through 
the imperfections alone 
of these agencies. We 
care not what inks are 
used; one thing is evL 
dent, they should be 
kept entirely clear of 
dustand dirt.and should 
be exposed to air only 
when used. Dirt will 
utterly disqualify any 
ink (or use, but, a 1- 
though it is, or should 
be, universally under- 
stood, offices, counting 
rooms and school rooms 
exhibit inkstands half 
filled with dust and dis- 
quahfted for use. Clean 
out these dirty inkstands, fill them with 
new ink fresh and clean, and keep them 
corked when not in use, that they may 
furnish a good article when you need it. 
But ink must not only be kept clean, 
but above all, it must be that quality 
that caust 

open ink. If clear and fine grained, ink 
will generally flow smoothly, if it does 
not, get better if you can. Mineral inks 
very often give a hair line that in new 
or raw paper will enlarge and show 
roughness. You want a smooth and 
steadfast hair line that never roughens, 
alters, or fades. 

Every quality,escept the one of color, 
described above as essential to good 
inks, should also be found in the or- 
namental inks, or they should be dis- 
carded entirely. 

Inks used in a class should be all alike, 
no vials should be employed as ink- 
stands on the desks. All inkstands 
should be broad based and large- 
mouthed; a small-bottomed inkstand is 
a nuisance and should not be permitted. 

When a class goes into session, noth- 
ing further should be done until there is 
perfect cjuiet. Inkstands should not be 
uncorked until required for use. as ink 
may be thrown about them; they should 
never be fast in the desks, but they 
should still remain in their places and 
never be handed about. Each one, or 

first learn these peculiarities of each new 
pen that he uses, hence the longer he 
can use one pen. to say nothing about 
expense, the better. The late treo. C. 
Gaskell said no penman in America 
would use the gold pen, as it is wholly 
unfit. Two of these we used twenty-five 
years, writing and flourishing with both, 
in academies, colleges, and everywhere 
else. Please then, to benefit yourself 
with a good gold pen; two would be 
better. Hunt them over cards until you 
find these, and wear these out yourself 
and my theories you will accept as cor- 

Everybody is familiar with steel pens; 
we all know their faults and their vir- 
tues. One dollar should supply us with 
these three months. We can break in 
the one hundred and forty-four each in 
turn, and then buy more. 

However, suppose as we determine to 
use them, that we observe the laws of 
their use and structure, in order that 
we may get from this use the greatest 
possible benefit. 

First, learn the power of the spring of 

T/tclabove specimen of flouHshing was furniahed for The American Penman by Prof. U. MeKee, thepopular pen- 
man and teacher of Oberlin, Ohio. It ie an original design, executed by the Professor, photo- 
engraved for re-production. 


two at most, should dip 

But why these hints? Why encum- 
ber the valuable journal with them ? 
When any person who has visited any 
considerable number of college halls or 
public school rocmf, fails to see the ne- 
it to flow easily, freely and j cessity or the utility of such observa- 

e shall try more clearly to show 
the necessity of their being brought 

We hardly ever visited an Academic 
Hall or any other school room, counting 
room, or office, where the careless hand- 
ling of ink had not done mischief, or 
poor and dirty inks had not left blots, 
blurs and disfigured work behind. 

readily froui the pen. 

The school pens of our day have fine 
points, hence if the ink is either gummy 
or sticky, it may refuse to flow at all. 
You try pen after pen, and throw them 
away, while the fault generally is not in 
the pen, which with very free flowing ink 
would nearly all write. Test then the 
(lowing quality of your inks or all inks 
at hand, select the best, and never use 
ink having the above fault if you can we ever have, that 
help it. Your ink next should have ^1,^ good goj^ pen is the best bu 
color when put on. Every line, fine or pen in the world. It ismore elojitic, 
coarse, should be palpable in any fight; I flexible, and a thousand times more 
black ink is then the ink you want You I durable than any other pen, and it is 
luuy l)e bothered to get good ink. San- 1 perfect enough for any practical busi- 
foid'y Black Ink, of Chicago, we know uegg purpose. The quill pen must be 
to be as good and cheap as any we ever continually reproduced, and the steel 
used. If this brand is not at hand get j pen at best lasts but fifty hours. Each 
the best you can in your market. gold pen, or quill pen, or any other pen, 

Many inks will thicken up if exposed i has its peculiarities; each is essentially, 
to the air. You will generally find the in spring and uoint. unlike any other 
1 roper degree of thinness when you nr.^t pen. Any scribe. I care not who, must 

each, and don't overtax this power; sec- 
cond, use more or less shade in all writ- 
ing. Be careful by pressing both points 
aUke to reach smoothness and freedom 
of mark; and lastly, never put away a 
pen dirty or loaded with ink. Dip your 
pen in the ink one-fourth of an inch 
carefully and not hastily. Never hit the 
point against stone, wood or glass. 

Secure a penholder, the socket of 
which will not strain or alter the curve 
of the barrel of the pen; for any cramp of 
the barrel destroys both elasticity and 
spring. In regard to what pens to buy 
or use, we would say. there are a dozen 
popular brands, in general use, of about 
equal merit; take your choice. Use a 
large holder wholly of wood. Such 
leaves the hand free and clear of cramp. 
The most desirable thing in a penholder 
is a socket exactly fitting to the pen. 

Thin-barreled pens are. of course, the 
best. Such ha^e the most spring and 
are most elastic. A sheath to protect 
the pen when put up, is a good .hing. 
To get a holder about right in all o( 
these respects may not be so easy, but 
such are someti^ues to be had. 

without good paper good writing is uu- 
possible. It is not easy to judge at 
sight of the excellence of paper for 
writing purposes. Young scribes often 
find it very difficult to get good paper. 
The market is always surfeited with 
raw, new, poor paper — unfit for use, hf- 
cauae wanting age. Old paper is very 
often good for nothing, being dry, 
spongy, porous, or rough. Bristol board 
is too unyielding, expensive and heavy 
for common work. The copy books are 
generally put up of a heavy, practical 
article of paper. 

Unruled Flat Cap is the penman's 
favorite paper for all purposes. It should 
have age, a smooth surface, and a firm, 
heavy body. When permitted to, when 
you buy paper in any quantity, try it 
with pen and ink. By frequent practice 
with different papers you will soon grow 
too wise to bo cheated with worthless 
trash called paper. The old-fashioned 
Cap letter paper, one size smaller than 
Foolscap, is a very convenient paper for 
use. It is the only perfect size of sheet, 
and is better i-han any other for letter 
writing. Neverroll your 
paper; never break with 
thumb and finger the 
body; never begin to 
write with a pen over- 
loaded, or lay your pa- 
per on a surface covered 
with dust or dirt; never 
permit others to handle 
your sheets of choice 
writing, or your book. 
When you buy have 
Master Clerk carefully 
fold the package full 
size in the heavy wrap- 
per, and take it at once 
in your own care and 

These hints about 
papers, pens, and inks 
would surely be of great 
value to the uninitiated 
if well attended to. 

Good materials may 
surely be had some- 
where, and they are, 
with penmen, indispen- 
sible forerunnerso f first- 
rate writing. All here 
said about these mate- 
rials is suggested by 
long experience, and 
every hint is backed by 
a good reason. Much, 
more in regard to eaoh 
particular topic might 
be wisely added, but this article will 
now crowd on other matter in the jour- 
nal too much. I 
Note.— When you purchase steel pens, | 
their cheapness renders it not worth, 
while to try them before purchasing. 
But with gold pens your best way is to 
carefully, and not carelessly, try your 
pen before making it your own. Good 
ones are possible and can be had Pa- 
tiently hunt until you possess one or 
two good ones. My young business 
friend, this would be your best invest- 

W. P. Cooper. 

It UlUtti 

jTOod the penman. 

■'Callias," said I, "if your nons were 
colts or calves, we should be able to find 
some master, probably some horse- 
trainer or farmer, whom we could hire 
to bring out and improve the good 
qualities of their nature. But now, see- 
ing they are human beings, what master 
have you in view for them ? AVho under- 
stands those good ([ualities which belong 
to the man and citizen ? I ask you, be- 
cause, I suppose that, having sons, you 
littve considered the matter." 


the best book 




Opinions of the Press, and How it is Re- 
ceived by Educators and its Sub- 
scribers in General. 

The Amkrican Pbnman, H.C. Clark, 
of Clark's College, editor and proprie- 
tor, is the Ifc-teet journaliatic venture. It 
is a handsome journal and deserves suc- 
cess. — Mric Sunday Gazette. 

A new paper. The American Pen- 
man, is announced, by Prof. H. C. Clark, 
of Erie, Pa. We haven't seen the young- 
ster, but are quite sure it is for will be) 
a very lively one. The venture ha« our 
warmest wishes for its success. — Pcn- 
man'n Gazette. 

The Dispatch neglected to notice the 
appearance, a few days since, of the in- 
itial number of The American Pen- 
man, a neat and hiteresting journal de- 
voted to the cultivation of practical and 
ornamental penmanship, published by 
Prof. H C. Clark, of this city. Like all 
the Professor's ventures, the new jour- 
nal promises to be successful, and is 
likely to be of permanent value to those 

Vol. 1, So. 1, of The Amehicajt Pen- 
mas, edited and published by Prof. H. 
C. Clark, principal of the flourishing 
Biisiiie>s < 'ollege at Erie, Pa., is at hand 
and \vi' tinil it as we expected, well filled 
with matters of value to those who take 
an interest in penmanship. 

It is ably edited and typographically 
very neat. Mr. S. A. Drake gives the 
lessons in writing, and takes the same 
ground thai we have taken in our les- 
sons, viz.: that position and movement 
are the first essentials in learning a rapid 
business-like style of writing. Shake, 
brother Drake. 

We are sure we are right, and we are 
going ahead. — Western Penman. 

Prof. G. G. Zeth, Secretary Mountain 
City Business College. Altoona, Pa., 
says: " I have received a sample copy 
of The American Penman. I find it a 
neat and attractive journal, fully abreast 
with the times. It deserves to be a reg- 
ular visitor to all who are interested in 

Prof. W. P. Cooper, Kingsville, O., 
says: "The first number is excellent, 
containing appropriate matter well ar- 
ranged, well printed, and handsomely 

S. S. Packard, New York, says: "Your 
paper is a creditable production." 

E. K. Isaacs, Valparaiso, Ind , says: 
"Let me congratulate you on the first 
born. It is GOOD." 

Prof. C. M. Robinson, Lafayette, Ind., 

says: "We are much pleased with the 
first number of The American Penman, 
and wish you mt 

Brother Francis, St. Joseph's Com- 
mercial College, St. Joseph, Mo., says: 
" I like your paper very much, and will 
do all I can to have niy pupils subscribe 

Prof. C. R. Bales, of the Evergreen 
City Business College, Bloomiugtou, 111., 
says: " I think from the character of 
the first issue it is worthy of eminent 
success, and if I am a competent tribu- 
nal, it is an able exponent of a worthy 
subject and a gem in the field of cali- 
graphic journalism.'" 

Frank E.Vaughan, Manager of the G. 
A. Gaskell Publishing Company, New 
York, says: "We take great pleasure in 
entering Thic American Pen.'^ian on 

L.W. Hammond, Bataviife, N. Y..8ay8: 
"Enclosed please find my subscription. 
The paper is far better than I expected, 
and you may count me a life sub- 

W. H. Franzell. Roe. Ark., says: "The 
American Penman came to hand to- 
day. I must say it is the brightest of 
its kind now published. You may count 
me a life subscriber.'" 

W. P. Richardson, Fayette Normal 
and Business College, Fayette, O., says: 
"Please send me a few more samples of 
The American Penman. 1 have re- 
received the one you sent and have 
made no effort at all yet to get up a 
club, and have four subscriptions al- 
ready, and want to send the largest club 
for this month. It is the best pentuan's 
paper I have ever read, and it is a per- 
fect gem." 

J. P. Medsger, Jacob's Creek, Pa., 
says: "The American Pensian re- 
ceived. I am pleased with it, especially 
its independence and the freedom of its 
columns for the discussion of disputed 
points and methods, and for its bold 
stand against fraud and imposters. I 

interested in first-class chirography.— 
Erie Daily Dispatch. 

The American Pknman from Erie, 
Ph., for January, is a splendid number 
and a bold push for the superiority in 
publishing a penman's sheet. Our "S" 
to Bro. H. C. Clark, and best wishes for 
the success of The Amerk-an Penman. 
—Holmes^ Ledger. 

The first number of The American 
Pknman. a monthly journal of attrac- 
tive appearance, has been issued by 
Prof. H. C Clark, of this city. As its 
name indicates, it is devoted to the im- 
provement of penmanship, both plain 
and ornamei.tal, and those interested 
will find in it much that is instructive. 
Prof. Clark's name is a guarante'e that 
it will have a most prosperous future. — 
JCric Sunday Gazette. 

We have recently received a new 
paper entitled The American Penman, 
published by H. C. Clark, of Clark's 
Business College, Erie, Pa. This, the 
first number, is exceedingly good, and 
the publication promises to become one 
of the leading penman's papers. One 
of the articles contained in this number 
entitled, "Should Fine Penmanship be 
Encouraged r we quite fully agree with. 
The School Visitor. 

presented to the public. There is no 
ability wanting on the part of the edi- 


Prof. E. E. Childs, Hampden B 
College, Springfield, Mass., says 
contains more sense and l 
than some of the penman's papers." 

Prof. C. B. McClure, Muuhonville, N. 
H., says: "I received the first number 
as a specimen copy, and it is certainly a 
handsome paper." | 

F. B. Costolo, Uniontown, Pa., says: 
" It is excellent. Enclosed find my sub- 
scription for one year." 

L. Madarasz, the eminent card writer 
of New York, says: "I like the appear- 
ance of your paper." 

Prof. C. N. Crandle, Business College, 
Indianapohs, Ind., says: "Thanks for 
initial number of The American Pen- 
man. It is good and I wish it a bright 
and happy future." 

W. C. Howey, La Crosse. Wis., says: 
"The initial number of Thk American 
Penman received. I am delighted with 
it. Enclosed you will find Postal Note 
for a year's subscription. Wish you un- 
limited success with Thk American 

our exchange list, and desire to compli- 
ment you on the general appearance 
and tone of the paper. We wish The 
American Penman a full measure of 
success, and would be g'ad to be of ser- 
vice to you in any way we can." 

H. J. Michael, Allentown, Pa., says: 
"I enclose fifty cents for The Ameri- 
can Penman. Judging from the first 
number it will be well worth the money 
to any out- iiittn-ested in penmanship. I 
nni MM-e that any teacher or pupil of 
Busiiifss iMhication, or person engaged 
in btii-ini^^s, will prize it far beyond its 

P. T. Benton, Teacher of Penuumship 
and Drawing in the Creston Public 
School , lowo, says: "Success to The 
American Penman. Of course I want 
it, and one of my scholars is afflicted in 
the same way. Let our subscriptions 
begin with the first number." 

F. I. Temple, West Tisbury, Mass., 
says: "A copy of The American Pen- 
man came last night. Am very much 
pleased with it, and as I am interested 
in everythingpertaining to Penmanship. 
I cannot show my appreciation for The 
American Penman in any better way 
than by sending in my subscription, so 
enclosed find fifty cents." 

, could name some who claim to be pen- 
mim who are a disgrace to the cause. 
To build up the profession. we need men 
of sound moral principles, and 1 feel 
certain The American Penman will 
encourage every honest effort and de- 
nounce evil, thereby elevatuig the pro- 
fession and the cause of popular educa- 
tion. I am already reading three pen- 
men's [lapers, but I feel I cannot afford 
to be without The American Pknman. 
so I send in my subscription with several 

S. E. Barton, Cassville, O., says: "A 
copy of The American Penman is at 
hand. I am so highly pleased with it 
that I cannot resist the temptation of 
being one of its subscribers. I am a 
boy 17 years of age. all alone to do the 
best I can in the world, and as I need 
help I thought a paper of this kind was 
more valuable than anything I could in- 
vest the same amount of money in." 

W. F. Morse, Portland, Me., says: 
" Have received your gem of a penman's 
sheet. For the first issue it was far 
ahead of what 1 expected. I wish you 

A wise man will desire no more than 
he may get juhtly, use soberly, distri- 
bute cheerfully, and leave contentedly. 



The ArneriGan PeFirnan, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

single copies of Thb Ambhican Pen 
niullcd to uny address on receipt of 8 i 



fore January I 
e fumlabed for 


We hiive made arrangemeots with the pnhllsher of 
lie Sonltiern Progrpsi!, a new and desirable maga- 
:lne pimilshed In Chattanooga, Tenn., to fiirnlBti our 
mtiBcrlbere with both Thb Aubrioan Pemman and 
tie Soiitht-fn Progi-esH one year for $1.00, whioli la the 
utiacrlplloii prlre of the " Progress" alone. 

Tt fill pcrnonB intercBtlng themselves In be- 

nding c 

given ihe one sending the club on all subscriptions 

to give r.a.iti premiums to those securing clubs, and 
this nile will be Invariably followed. 

RemlttHnccB should be made by N. Y. Draft, P. O. 
Money Order, Postal Note, or Registered Leiter, to 

H. C- CLARK. Publisher. Erie, Pa. 

We have received from R. E. Bean ' 
& Co., Franklin, N. H., samples of the 
" Ready Binder for Paper ami Pam- 
phlets,'' mimufactured by them, which 
are well adapted to the purpose for 
which they an- intended. 

We are in receipt of a nnmber of 
specimens of writing and flourishing, 
all executed in a superior manner, 
from the pen of Prof. E. K. Isaacs, 
^'alIJaraiso, Ind. We think our readers 
will derive much benefit from reading 
Prof Isaac's valuable article on " Let- 
ter Writing," which appears in this 

imber of The American Penman. 

In an elegantly written letter Prof. 
MoKee, of Ol.erlin College Depiirt- 
[■iit ■>\' I'r.niinnsliip. says: "I Hke 
IK Ami i;h \n I'inman. It is full of 
e lM■^t tlniui;lifs nil a most import- 
it (lei)aitnient of practical educa- 
tion. There are tens of thousands of 
ng people in this country who 
need to know just what The Amkri- 
Penman proposes to furnish, and 
witli Prof. Clark at the helm it cannot 
fail to fulfill its mission. I consider 
the first number worth the subscrip- 
tion price.*' 

■If you 

Just as we go to press we have re- 
ceived a club of sixteen subscribers 
from Prof. W. P. Richardson, Teacher 
of Penmanship in the Fayette (Ohio) 
Nonnal, Music and Business College. 
Prof. Richardson has set an excellent 
example in this respect, and if our 
fi'iends would each respond in like 
manner The American Penman would 
soon have the largest circulation of 
any similar publication. 

The next number will contain a 
lesson on practical penmanship and 
pen flourishing, which will be of un- 
usual interest, finely illustrated. Now 
is the time to subscribe, in order to 
get all the back numbere. Send along 
your subscriptions and those of your 
fi'iends, and you will never regret it. 

By Rev. W. H. Pearce, No 

(Specially reported I 
Prof. H. H. Wliilmai 
Clark's College.] 

Instructor in Phonetics i 


Harold Harmitage, Penman, New 
Orleans, favors us wilh several neatly 
written card specimens, 

A thoroughly artistic and beautiful 
specimen of letter writing from Prof. 
Lyman Spencer, of Washington, D. C, 
adorns a page of our Scrap Book. 

Prof C. R. Bales, of the Evergreen 
liusiness College, Bloomington, Iowa, 
encloses us a beautiful bird flourish, 
together with cards. 

Prof. W. J. Elliott, Canada Business ,,„ .-„ tt, ■ ^^ rm, ,, 

' . My ioung I^rtends:— The addit-ss i 

College, Chatham, Ontario, encloses | shall deliver this iiiorning is not so much 
his subscription in a well-written let- j in form, but will be a few practical 
words, which I trust will be of use to 
you. I shall endeavor to impress upon 
your minds those impoi-tant maxiius 
which govern the success of every man 
and woman. It is not so much what a 
person has, as what he can do. All start 
out in life upon nearly the same equal. 
The question of wealth and useful pos- 
sessions has but very little to do with 
the prominent results of any man's life. 
The youth of to-day is prone to com- 
plain, and with homeliness he says: "I 
have none of the opportunities of suc- 
cess ; I have not the advantages of a 
commanding social position, but have 
been raised and educated in the school 
of necessity, battling against life's stern 
and necessary realities." What matters 
it whether you have wealth; its absence 
will demand your working for a victory, 
and such are the models after which 

Prof H. W. Shaylor, Portland. Me., 
favors us with a number of elegantly 
engraved copy-books, together witli a 
letter in superior style. 

J. M. Harkins, of Calhoun, Ga., 
sends us specimens of his card work, 
which, we think, justify his claim of 
being the champion card writer of the 


W. C. Howey, La Crosse, Wis., 
ss College, sends us a New 

card, together with specimens 
ishing, etc., which dLsplay much 

l;iste and skill. 

good Christian young men have been 

These are the fulcrum on which no- 
bility of thought and strength of pur- 
pose are to be found; these are the cra- 
dle of achievement. The men who 
have the greatest trusts are those who 
have worked for those trusts the long- 
est. Some of the greatest and best bio- 
graphies of the present age have been 
written with tears and in the obscure 
corners of some unused loft. If you. 
likewise. will be great, loved, and sought I y^ luxuries; it 
after, allow the circumstances of the 
time to influence your motives. 

There are three things which are ne- 
cessary for a successful life. Sound 
health, sound sense, and sound charac- 
ter. With these, none of you can say 
that you are not well equipped for life; 
with these, and the attendant capability 
to use them on the right side, you can 
and must succeed. Cast the mark of 
imperial character in everything you do 
in the circle of life. You must not sit 
down for three or four years of your life 
and think of what you will do. It is 
evident that work must mark your track 
all along the line of achievement. If 
you will qualify yourselves thoughtfully 
and by all human instrumentalities, you 
will have the flag of the victor at 
the close. God has not created one of 
us without having some place to put us, 
and having something for us to do in the 
great expanse of ether. We know there 
is very fierce competition for places, and 
yet I want to know whether there has 
ever been a boy or girl in the country 
who has been afraid to try for the top 
on this account V All the departments 
of trades and professions in the centres 
of trade have been subjected to the 
some strife, yet who has suffered ? Only 
those who fold their arms and say : 
"There is no use for me to try." If you 
make a foremost start in character, you 
will never fail The -world will then 
want you for the world. 
A business man in this city came 1o 

me a few days ago and said: "I want a" 
young man, between the age of 17 and 
20. to take charge of my but*iness; the 
remuneration will be considerable, but , 
the charge is important. Is there any 
young man of good solid character you 
can reconunend ?" This man did not 

want a young man of uncommon attain- 
ments, but he wanted a good Christian 

young man. He wanted a young man 

of sterling character and powerful indi- 
viduality. Young men, there is this 

difficulty with the young men of to-day: 

\'ou have no purpose or character in 

life. If you rouse yourself up and be a 

model young man, everyone will be 

pleading for your assistance, and you 

•wiW always have a good position. I 

could get places for a hundred young 

men of real sterling and sound charac- 
ter. I had a young man, who was very 
j poor, in my employ while in Detroit. 
I He used to make fti-es, sweep the church 

and do other such work. One night 

when I went down stairs for something. 

I found this poor young man sitting in 

front of the furnace with the door open, 

and he was studying a book he had 

Was this not enterprise? That young 

man is now occupying one of the best 

positions in Detroit, and is the recipient 

of a lucrative salary. He worked him- 
self up, and like thousands of others, he 

has achieved success. 
Young men, now is your chance, and 

all improve it before it is too late. I do 

not want you to settle down and not 

enjoy yourselves I plead for a sound 

character, for a rollicking and jolly dis- 
position. With these you will have suc- 
cess and happiness in this life and a 

home in the next. [Continued applause, 

and thanks extended to the speaker by 

the President and students,] 

to get a good general 

haraeter, find out from 

hat his opinion of his neighbor 

"Titles are valuable; they make us 
acquainted with many persons who oth- 
erwise would be lost among the rub- 

"We should be careful how we encour- 

i step forward 

from hoe-cake to plum-pudding, but it 

ile and a half by the nearest road 

we have to go back again." 

is a great deal easier to be a^ood 

dove than a decent serpent.'' 

" Dissatisfaction with everything we 
come across is the result of being dissat- 
isfied with ourselves." 

" People of good sense are those whose 
opinions agree with our.'*." 

" The highest rate of interest that we 
pay is on borrowed trouble." 

"Counseling with fear is the way 
cowards are made; counseling with hope 
is the way heroes are made; eounselinff 
with faith is the way Christians are 

" Curiosity is the instinct of wisdom." 
the wet-nurse of preju- 

the melody of the fea- 

silent flattery." 

just as much of a study 

" Ignorance 

" Beauty is 

"Deference is 

"Goodness is 
as mathematics. 

" No man is rich who wants any more 
than he has got." 

"The wealth of a person should be 
estuuated, not by the amount he has, 
but by the use he makes of it." 

" Health can be bought, but you have 
got to pay for it with temperance at the 
highest rates." 

" You can't hire a man to be honest ; 
he will want his wages raised every 

•'Toil sweats at the brow, but idleness 
sweats all over," 

"Self-made men are most always apt 
to be tt little too proud of the job." 

"Trusting to luck is only another 
name for trusting to laziness." 

"An insult to one luan is an insult to 
all. for it may be our turn next " 

" It is better to know nothing than to 
know just enough to doubt and diflfer." 

"I honestly believe it is better to 
know nothing than to know what isn't 

"To be thoroughly good-natured, and 
yet avoid being imposed upon, shows 
great strength of character." 

"If you analyze what most men call 
pleasure, you will iind it composed of 
one part humbug and two parts pain. " 

"We are happy in this world just in 
proportion as we make others hapjiy." 

" It is a great deal easier to look upon 
those who are betow us with pity, than 
upon those who are above us without 

" Kn^-y is an insult to a man's good 
sense, for envy is the pain 
excellences of others." 

" It is a good deal more pr 
make ten men think they are 
than to make' one think you 

"Indolence may not be a ci 
is liable to be at any time." 

" I consider a weak man im 
ous than a malicious one. 

i feel at the 

rofitable to 
) above you 

es have no 
' Method : 

cliaracter, but weak 

everything, especially to 
ordinary men; the few men who can lift 
a ton at pleasure have a divine right to 
take hold of it at a disadvantage." 

"Be humble, and you are sure to 1 
thankful; be thankful and you are su 
to be happy." 

—X. >'. Cliristian Advocate. 




The Amrkican Pkxmax promise;* to 
be an expon«^nt of the pratitical nnd or- 
namental in penmansliip. The practical 
value of penmannhip is measured by its 
application to the practical affairs of 
life. Penmanship in itself may not have 
much value, but applied penmanship is 
invaluable. This may be said of any or 
all branches of education. Perhaps no 
one branch or departnient in the eurri- 
euluni of social or busine^* Hfe 1 vys such 
a daitji on the art of penmanship as 
does Letter Writing. With the idea that 
the readers of the Ambrican Penman 
appreciate suggestions and directions 
with regard to this important depart- 
ment of applied penmanship, these ar- 
icles are written 

These are single sheets and usually 
ruled on one side only. They have a 
margin or blank apace at the top. of 
from two to two and three-fourths 
inches, for the printed heading. 

The ordinary size of Note Heads in 5J 
x8i inches: extra size, called " Packet 
Note," 0x9J inches. The ordinary Let- 
ter Head is 8xlOi inches; extra size. 
8^x11 inches. 

Neither Poolscaj) nor Legal Cap should 
be used in letter writing, nor is it proper 
to tear off and use a half sheet of Note 

Color. — Pure white is always elegant 
and in good taste, although a cream I 
tint is not objectionable. Of course, in 
fashionable circles, there will be a craze i 
at times for different colors, hence we [ 
find some of our leading paper niatiu- , 
facturers are putting up fine writing 
paper for correspondence in a variety of 1 

forwarded to the Dead Letter Office at 

/nA.— There is no color as desirable as 
black. For business purposes, writing 
fluids or so-called "blue-black" inks, 
are used extensively. These penetrate 
into the paper, and after a few minutes' 
exposure turn black. They are sup- 
posed to be more durable th'in ordinary 
block ink. A copying ink is of a thick 
consistency, so that when dry a portion 
of it will lodge on the surface of the 
paper, and when a dampened sheet is 
brought against the written page by 
proper pressure, a "copy" of the origi- 
nal writing is obtained, which is pre- 
served for future reference. 

Young people frequently take a liking 
to colored inks— red, green, blue, violet, 
etc., but it should be remembered that 
black is the proper thing for letter writ- 

coarse business pen, I- have no advice to 
offer. One kind is about as good as an- 

I other, but the best is the kind you like 
the best. 

I But the article is already long enough. 

■ I told you at the beginning that I did 
not know just what I was going to say. 

; Since writing that statement I have 
thought the matter over and have 
mapped out ajirogramme something a« 

I shall treat of: 1. The Mechanical 
Structure of a Letter, as already begun, 
which will include the eight items al- 
ready enumerated at the beginning. 3. 
The Peniiiansliip of a Letter. 3, The 
Rhetoric of a Letter. Don't get scared 
at the word Rhetoric, for I shall not 
write a paragraph, sentence, or phrase 
that you will have any trouble in under- 
standing. I shall not soar into the sub- 
lime or scholarly (if such a thing were 

I am not sure that I know myself yet 
just what I am going to say, nor how 
many of these articles I will have to 
wTite to get through. But I am strictly 
opposed to preludes, and as I will have 
to begin somewhere, we will go right to 
work at the 


Under this head will be considered 
briefly: 1. Materials. 2. Heading. 3. 
Introduction. 4. Body. 5. Conclu- 
sion. 0. Folding. 7. Superscription 
8. Stamp. 


Paper.— Care should be taken to select 
paper of good quality and suitable for 
the purpose. Social letters are usually 
«Titten on note paper, the ordinary 
of which is 5x8 inches. It may have 
side fold or legal Cend) fold. Ladies fre- 
quently prefer the "Royal" note, which 

is about inches, or the "Octavo" 

"ote, inches. 

For business correspondence, " Note 
Heads" and "Letter Heads" m-e u 

tints, such as cream, rose, opaline, silver 
gray, sea shell, azure, heliotrope, etc., 
but it is quite certain that white never 
offends good taste. 

Mourning paper has a black border, 
as has also the envelopes to match. 

Envelopes. — The envelope should be 
adapted in size to the paper, so that 
with a minimum numbtr of regular 
folds the paper wilt fit the envelope. It 
is not necessary, however, that the en- 
velope should fit around the letter "like 
paper on the wall," for, as a rule, a let- 
ter is opened by tearing off the end of 
the envelope, and unless the envelope is 
from one-fourth to one-half inch longer 
than the letter, the latter is apt to be 
torn in the performance. 

In business it is customary to have the 
writer's name and address printed near 
the upper left-hand corner of the en- 
velope, so that in case the letter is not 
called for at the delivery offire it can be 
returned to the sender, instead of being 

Pen*.— It would be folly to dictate as 
to what pen to use. We writing mas- 
ters all have our favorite pens for dif- 
ferent kinds of pen-work, and we have 
a right to recommend to our pupils such 
pens as uiir r \ | ii-rieiice has taught us 
art- \\'-\\ nlipir.i t.i the learner while 
praiTh iii^' Mm iitrer writing i.s applied 
peiiiium-!iip iiii-iriess penmanship and 
applied peuuianship presupposes pre- 
vious instruction and practice in the art 
of writing; hence the question of pens 
ought to be a matter of individual 
choice. But it is possible that many 
who read this have not had such in- 
struction, and I will mention a few kinds 
that are well adapted for correspond- 
ence: Spencerian No. 1 and No. 24, 
Eclectic No. 100, Esterbrook No. 128, 
Gillott's No. 004, Payson, Dunton & 
Scribner's No. 117, Ames' Penman's 
Favorite, Gaskell's Compendium Pen, 
Musselman's Perfection, and Isaacs' 
Penman's Ideal. These pens are all of 
niediuiu firmness. It you want to use a 

possible for a penman), but will confine 
myself to the more jjractical divisions, 
and under the head of Rhetoric will in- 
clude (a) Spelling, (ft) Capitalizing, (c) 
Punctuation, (d) Diction, (fi) Construc- 
tion, (/) Miscellaneous. 4. Classifica- 
tion of Letters. 3. Cards and Notes. 
6. Miscellaneous. 

(To be continued.) 

A learner on the cornet in New York 
City, being ccnsiderate for the nerves of 
his neighbors, did his three hours' prac- 
ticing each day in the cellar. This cel- 
lar had always been infested with rats, 
but it was noticed that after he had 
practiced a few tiiues the rats all disap- 
peared and never returned. Beginners 
on that instrument hereafter need not 
wait for musical fame to earn a liveli- 
hood, but can hire out immediately for 
two or three hours each day as the only 
genuine "Rough on Rats," warranted 
to kill every time or money refunded. — 
Tituaville (Pa.) Herald. 


Colonel John Ayres. 

[Speciftlly prepare'I for Tiir AmrHican Pbnm. 
W. H. I»mrop. of South %^D. Maas.] *' 

A» the Miooti in a clear niglit shines 
very (!onni)ir:uous amongst the stars, so 
Mr. .\yres ('(niiiiiands our particular at- 
tention in the heniispbere of English 
penmen. Yet his first appearace was 
small and his rising scarcely noticed, 
for we are told he caine np to London 
a poor lad out of the countiy, and 
served in the capacity of a footman to 
Sir Williani Asburst. But his master 
perceiving hini to be a youth of a proni- 
i^itig and unprovable genius, put him to 
.school to learn writing, arithmetic, etc., 
in which, by a peculiar bent of mind, 
seconded by assiduity and care, he 
made a surprising proficiency. 

What part of England he came from, 
and who his parents were, I have not 
been able to learn; but after continuing 
some years with his aforesaid kind and 
worthy master, in whose service, it is 
presumed, he might have laid up some 
money, as well as fitted himself in some 
measure for his future employn:ent as a 
tpacher of writing and accounts, he 
married a fellow maid servant, with 
whom, it is said, he had about 200 1., and 
then began to teach a school at a chair- 
maker's in St. PauPs Church-Yard. 

From this small and obscure begin- 
ning, his industry and abilities, by de- 
grees, procured him many scholiirs. "Or- 
iiafiir propuft industria donis" says the 
poet, and it has hardly ever been more 
truly verified than in the increase of Mr. 
Ayres' business, which, I am informed, 
brought him in, when it was in its most 
flourishing condition, near 800 1. per 
annum. A fine income for a writing 

The first book that I have met with 
that he published from the rolling press, 
was his ' Accomplished Clerk," in 1688. 
It contains S5 plates in a variety of prac- 
tical hands, and was engraved by John 
Sturt, who, I believe, was the best en- 
gi-aver of writing at that time in Eng- 
land, and was master, in that art, to his 
celehrated scholar, Mr. George Bick- 
hain. He dedicates it to his honored 
master. Mr. Thomas Topham. who then 
t)ui;j;ht a writing school at the Hand and 
Pen, in F<'tter-Lane, London, and 
though Mr. Topman was not an eminent 
penman, with regard to practice, as far 
as 1 can learn, yet lie had the honor (if 
report says true) of being master of an- 
other of the Worthies in Calligraphy. I 
mean Mr. Charles Snell. 

in 1700 he published another edition 
of this "Accomplished Clerk," re-eu- 
graved with Pome little enlargement, 
having his picture ut the beginning in 
his own hair, and under it this inscrip- 

" Johannes Aj/rea, arithmeficcB ac artis 
i-ritionaritE, professor apud Londonalea 
jiixta divi. PaulV^ 

He has a preface in letter press work, 
in which he tells us, that he had carried 
the engraving of writing to a higher 
degree of excellency, and made it more 
like to natural penmanship, than any 
one in England. Yet he was convinced, 
he says, it was difficult (if not impossi- 
ble) for the graver, in some hands, to 
come up nicely to the nature and 
freedom of the pen. 

This observation has been made by 
succeeding accurate penmen, and I be- 
lieve the best of engravers will allow it 
to be true. 

After his preface there is a copy of 
some verses, consisting of nine ogdoastic 
st>inzas, entitled "The Inditferency." 
Py This time he had made such consid- j 
erable improvement in the practical 
and most useful parts of writing, that 
Mr. Robert More, In his short essay on 
thf first invention of writing, says: 

"Colonel Ayres was the common father 
of us all." This was a grateful acknowl- 
edgement of a true son of the calli- 
graphic art." 

In 1(!87 he published his " Tradesman's 
Pocket Book, or Apprentice's Compan- 
ion." It contained 20 plates in an ob- 
long quarto, being adopted to common 
business in trade, containing copies of 
bills of parcels, receipts, etc. But some 
performance of that kind of later mas- 
ters are supposed to exceed it. There is 
no engraver's name mentioned. 

In 1694 he published from the letter 
press. "Ai'ithmetic Mad>^ Easy for the 
Use and Benefit of Tradesmen," in 8 vo. 
It is dedicated to Sir William Ashurt, 
who was then Lord Mayor of the city 
of London. I don't observe that there 
is anything extraordinary in it, though 
plain and practical, yet it has been very 
well received by the public. That edi- 
tion of it that I have is the twelfth, and 
was printed 1714. In that edition, there 
is added a short and easy method after 
which shop-keepers may state, post and 
balance their books of accounts. This 
was added by Mr. Charles Snell, writing 
master in Foster-Lane, London. It is 
probable it was what he made use of in 
his school. 

I think the oldest book of merchants' 
accounts, that I have met with, in Eng- 
lish, in the way of memorial, journal 
and ledger, is one printed in 1588, set 
forth by one John Mellis. who taught 
writing and arithmetic, nigh Battle- 
Bridge in St. Olaves, Short Southwark. 
But in his preface he tells us that that 
work was only a revival of an oldercopy 
printed in London in 1543. 

But to return from this digression to 
Colonel Ayres. 

In the year 1605 our author published 
his "Tutor to Penmanship." John 
Sturt engraved it. This grand work is 
divided into two parts, and contains in 
the whole 48 large folio oblong plates, 
besides his picture in the front. He 
dedicates it to King William the Third. 
It is indeed a pompous book, and very 
valuable on many accounts, so that they 
who are possessed of one of the first im- 
pressions are possessed of a valuable 

Anno Dom. , he published his 

Alamode Secretarie, or Practical Pen- 
aan." in 28 long octavo plates, contain- 
ig examples of the mixt running hand 
and mixt secretary. In this piece I find 
nothing superior nor even equal to 
some of his other works. The (!Opy I 
saw had no date, but he then lived at 
tlie Hand and Pen. in St. Paul's Church- 
Y'ard. It was engraved by John Sturt. 
In 1700 he published his "Paul's School 
Round-Hand." It is only an alphabet 
of copies, with ornaments above and be- 
low them, of fishes, etc., of free striking, 
performance is clear and bold. 
John Sturt, Sculpt. He also published, 
but without any date or engraver's 
,e, a "Striking Copy-Book." It con- 
tains 14 narrow plates. 

Anno Dom., , he published the 

Penman's Daily Practice," a cyfering- 
book, (it is so spelt) showing much va- 
riety of couHuand of hand, with exam- 
ples of all the runninc mixt hands now 
use. It contains 34 plates, and was 
graved by John Sturt. but the exem- 
plar I saw had no date. Our author has 
one plate of en grossing- hand dated 
1005, in George Bickham's "Penman's 
Companion." These are all the works 
of this laborious. and eminent writing 
aster that I have met with, and I have 
little more concerning him, buc that his 
was by small degrees, so his depar- 
ture out of this life was sudden, as I 
have been informed. He went to a vil- 
lage a little way out of town (I think it 
was Vauxhall) to regale one afternoon, 
with a few friends, and he, retiring into 

the garden from his company, was there 
found dead soon after. His detith by 
this seems to have been the effect of a 
fit of apoplexy, but the particular cir- 
cumstances attending it, and where he 
was buried, I have not been able to 
learn. Nay. I have not been informed 
in what year he died, but I guess it was 
in Queen Ann's reign, and before the 
year 1709, for Mr. Uayner, who had been 
the Colonel's scholar, and who published 
his "Paul's Scholar Copy-Book" in that 
year, speaks in his preface of his master 
OS being then dea<l." 




j Every pupil wants to succeed, likewise 
every teacher, but just how to realize 
j this success is often painfully perplexing. 
I The teacher has discovered, however, 
that certain principles underlie success 
in every line of human action; in other 
words, every successful effort has cer- 
tain characteristics. This fact, though 
trite and simple, cannot be too ftrudy 
impressed upon the mind of both in- 
structor and pupil. In penmanship the 
learner meets many difficulties at the 
very outset— po-si^/on (of body, arm, 
hand, fingers, and book), pen holding, 
wse of ink, inovemenf, form, etc., etc.. 
Usually he is led to make war upon 
every one of these difficulties all at 
once. If he continues this mode of war- 
fare defeat is certain, because he has 
utterly disregarded one of the leading 
characteristics of success. He has not 
learned, or else he has forgotten, that 
"one thing at a time" lies very near the 
base of making the most of every human 
effort. Begin, therefore, by training 
pupils to assume, with military precision, 
an easy and graceful position of body. 
Let the attention be directed to this one 
thing in the prelinunary drill. In like 
manner train the pupil in all of the de- 
tails of positions, considering only one 
thinff at a time. But little systematic 
drill will be necessary to enable the 
learner to assume almost automatically 
the correct position. He can then con- 
centrate his mind upon the other fea- 
tures of the art. Pen holding anil use 
of ink must each receive very careful 
consideration. It is not sufficient to 
tsWi. to the pupil about these two points, 
he must be tiained to know and practice 

The " reason why " so many teachei-s 
fail iu leading children to adopt an easy, 
graceful movement, is that the mind is 
directed to half a dozen things at once. 
Let movement be the lesson of the hour, 
the one leading thing, and success is 
certain -movement without holder, and 
pen movement with holder and dry pen, 
movement in simple tracing exercises, 
movement in producing independent 

Let the child's study of fomi be spe- 
cific, not haphazard— possibly by con- 
tinuing his tracing exercises in his early 
lessons, and by analyzing in a common- 
sense manner each letter. We might 
very properly press our doctrine of "one 
thing at a time,'' still further in the 
doing of this foundation penmanship 

We now call the attention of teachers 
to the importance of inducing students 
to search for their own characteristic 
faults. Having discovered these faults 
he should be trained to go at them sing- 
ly. Perhaps one of his faults is irregu- 
lai'ity in slant. If so. instruct the pupil 
to concentrate his mind upon regularity 
and practice with a real determination 
to realize this one characteristic. He 
must attack each fault In a similar man- 
ner. The student's mental attitude is 
the one great factor in the mastery of 

any art. It is the mind that difi-n-. 
wisely or unwisely. It is the mind that 
first compels the fingers, hand and arm 
to act with unerring precision. By ami 
by the nerves and nmscles memori/i- 
these mental behests and act autoumii 
cally; then, and not till then, do w- 
have the real artist. 

We, as successful teachers, must recog 
nize these simple facts in the work uf 
muscle-training, in the work of teaching 
one of the most simple, useful and hcati 
tiful of the arts. In conclusion, we 
again ask what is worth more to iln- 
learner than the power to persistently 
compel intelligent airtiou along the lim- 
of doing " one thing at u time ? ' 

By W. P. Cooper in the Penman's Art 

etting hi 

"Well," said Uncle Bei 
staff against the counter, a 
the store, and turning to the clerk, '* I 
have just returned from a visit to that 
Coiumercial College on the corner. A 
fine concern upon the wliole— a fine 
concern that. Those profet-sors are well 
qualified, energetic and elficient. Tliey 
evidently understantl everything about 
their business, and they spare no pains 
to pu t theu- pupils ahead, and they, " said 
Uncle Ben, emphasizing the word tliey, 
"sir, themselves work early and late. 
They deserve encouragement and soTiie- 
thingmore — they should reach success. 
But in tliis, as in other business, there 
are difficulties, perplexities, obstruc- 
tions. Yes, sir, I luive looked about ; I 
think I comprehend Ihe situation." 

"There are grand fellows at some of 
those desks; noble fellows. 1 could 
pick out chaps worth their weight in 
gold in any office, any coiming-rooui — 
sharp, quick, critical and correct." 

"Yes, sir," repeated Uncle Ben, in a 
voice loaded with terrible emphat'is, 
"They are critical, temperate, reliable 
and con-eet. That is the sort wanted 
here, there and everywhere. Those fel- 
lows need no urging : they are on hand 
at eight in the morning ; they leave 
when the halls close and n«>f before. 
Not a note, principle, paragr)i|ih, ex- 
planation, or suggestion escapes them. 
If they crowd their teachers a little with 
business they treat these masters with 
the most profound respect. Tliey know 
their value to themselves and they have 
faith in their words," 

" But in that school there are other 
fellows — other fellows of quite another 
sort, in fact, many sorts. They are not 
from any special craft or quarter. They 
hail from all localities. These younp 
men are, first of all. our countrymen- 
Americans to the manner born. They 
have health, muscle, physical stamina, 
brams, (juick eyes and ready ears, and 
plenty of means, but they want back- 
bone, steadfast energy and firumess of 
purpose. They retiuire urging, need 
watching, long for flattery, ask too 
many graces, beg too many privileges, 
fag the professors with repeated impor- 
tunities too often, and, most of all, they 
lack attention, perseverance and appli- 
cation. They abound too much in fits 
and darts, in stops, in absence and rests. 
Some of these fellows are spoiled boys, 
loaded with the perniciou.s fancies, 
whims, caprices of jirincely names, Op 
they have rocked off the golden days of 
many a season in the well featliered and., 
wadded cradles of Hamilti 
other priiu;ely endowed institutioni 
These are not all alike, are not all 
fectedin the same way, They till up the 
benches, but are poor stock. The win- 
dows are too near their desks. They 
see too umch of the outside of the col- 
lege, too many pretty faces, fast horses, 
gay equipages, fine fancy articles of 


dress, &e. Their uiinds are absorbed 
with foreign matters, trifles, fictions, 
stale and unprofitable trash. All of 
these drawbacks are not the fault of the 
original material, but they are the un- 
happy drawbacks of accident — of 
national, local and home foolishness and 
nonsense. I say it is a great pity that 
all this sort of college stock could not 
be revivified and converted to use." 

"This thing is possible. I wish," said 
Uncle Ben, after a moment's pause, "I 
wish that I could reach the capable ears 
of all these fellows myself a few times. 
I believe that I could impress their 
really bright minds naturally with the 
true status of the situation. I should 
love to welcome them to a place in the 
front Une, Indeed, I have in my life 
given the right hand of fellowship to a 
great many of these very fellows. The 
college is a good thing and I heartily 
wish it success, and I am ready to help 
and encourage these enterprises on as 1 
have in the past. I have had grand 
clerks from these very concerns, and I 
may want them again." 



m BusLneaa College, 


Book-sellers, Stationers 

Ar%» NE^VS»EAr.ERS. 

Also Steel Engravings, Apto-Tj'peB, 

«nd all florle of STATIONEHY at the 

•S"A Liberal Discount on Books to 
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Twelfth Edition Now Ready. 

Class-Sool! of Coininercial-Law 


A Plain, Practical Explanation of the Laws of 



Especially for Class or Private In- ' 

struction, ,' 

By C. E. CARHART, i 

President of the Albany Business College 
Used in all the leading colleges and I 

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For circulars or specimen copies, ad- 

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This Institution is attracting students from all parts of the United States and 
Canada, and is now considered the representative Business College of America. 
It claims points of superiority in its general course of study, in presenting the 
best course of actual business practice and theoretical book-keeping ever devised. 
It has a national reputation, and its graduates are tilling many important posi- 
tions of trust, to the delight and satisfaction of their employers. The following 
unsolicited notice clipped from the Erie Sunday Gazette of Dec. 6, 1885, shows 
how the College is regarded at home: 

s College iB an iQStltatlOD of wblcb Krle people should be prond. CommenclDg two years ago witb 
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t of SI. SO. 



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Leading Treatise on Book-Keeping 


^QR nn .'^^'^^.''y CO Rfl Arranged for Use in EuBinessCoUejes.Hlgli 
(DuUiUU InveStinglD^iJU schools, and Academies. 

To Sample our New Cards and Specialties 









Ml Car 

d Pen, 


'^S S/^OHi4KA^>f^ 

"Tlipreii probably no maa on the contine 
quallfled than ProfeiBor Ames In codcIucI bucIi 

to.\ pen are many and beauilful, and show that 
■D M. P.— not Member of Psrllament, but Mat 



'■It la evidently cdlled b; one wlio nndcni 
bnittuen, wbo Ik not only a caligrapbist blmielf 
mUoknowshow togetupiUBtiMfora really li 
p«per for his brother penmen. TI.e low price of 
tiOD •honld secure It a large cfrculaUon."— Wo 

fr« Dam» 

" PorBoua who are Bijdea»oriiig to Improve tb 
wrltlDic will And cfflclunt aid In thia JimmaX 
Utlie'i Boj,.' ami GlrW Wttkly. 


Uenlion the Am^^n P^man. J 






The Countlog-Hoase Edition ^ 

The High School Edition c 

D.— Bevel cut Edge, thn flnmi so 1,(1 

E. -Bevels of Cream and White 56 1.1 

o.—SUli and Satin Bevels SO 1.1 

u— Eight-ply Bevels. MMTled 62 1.^ 

I. -Elite, ih. i«iMt •1)10. 64 l.a 

Address Lines— Extra 20 .t 



79 MadiBon St., Chicago, 

The Western Penman. 

Every Number Contains a Lesson In Writing, a Lesson in Lettering, a Lesson in Flourishing, 

lahlp you poaaess I 


jou plewe 

rOne r>olla 

Eelohuib, Light 

ifOoUegr, Shmandoah, 

The Subscription Price is Only 60 Cents a Year, 

:entT-*Vo liollar SooU, ai 

le copy win he aenl for e»«mlnat1oD, up..n i 

I»A.i-iAIli:B. «fc <JO., Box «6, Chicago. jan 

Sadler's Hand-Book of Arithmetic. 

Tho Eiamplng of iho flngan V7 continnous writiag, and wUsh 13 
PEK TO BEIHO IT DOWII TO TaS PAPEE, ii wlioUy overwao. 

Ho. 2, LoDj*, 7 behOD, 35 emtt. 

ITst. 2 isd 3, UoUain; 1 asd 5, ( 

^ ■ -iway entirely with grlpptuif 

It"' .-.of uarrow metal tipped 

L. MAOAfiASZ. Box 2116, N. Y. City. ' 


tHBiB and -kill. To studeuta who wfah Rood modeli 
of flourlaning to practice fiom, tbese will be 
found to be "the thing.' Price, $1.06 per pack- 



), send 01 c 

Less than 400 Pages— More thai 

— Esaentlala Carefully Retained.— Non-Es- 

s Religiously Excluded.— Addresses the OnderBtandlng.— Relieves the Memory. 

A. modern Text-JiooK for JModorn Teaoliers. 

Contatna notiinializing rulea or deflnilloii«, no iheoretlcnlabsimctioiiB.tDgetardforgei; but, iDBttad.dellgbl 

IhrintMrnilirnirto'ihe^ighrBt. ItTa to'adTanced rna^niclion lu'arUhmellc w'^hat WARKEN COLBUKN'S FIB81 
LE8SON8 Is to primary InBlructlon. Progreasive teaohera, It will be certain to pleaae you. Try U. You run n. 

Price: Complete, $1; Part I (lo Perft-ntnge), 46 eta.; Part II, 70 cia.; wiib Ihe privilege of retomlng (b< 

As a Teacher's desk cop7 from which to select problems for supplementary cIqbi 
work, the B Alf D-BOOK has no equal. 

-, price 30 cents. 




^cim^na of ofl-hiind flourisblus. 8"ch aa binJi, 

ce'ded by all to be the most spirited work ever 
sent out by any penman. Price, 2& cents each. 
2 for 46 cents. $2.10 per dozen. 


Executed Id tbe highest atyle of the ait. and wlnolDgUie 
honor of being •n'perior to the work of q«u Ma- penman IW 
the worid. K«ch 25 cenia, 2 sets (dilTrreut), io cent(i,3 a«W 
(different), ti'Z cente. Mention if you denlre plain or orna- 


this ink in all my work. Sue »amplea. ReClpe fOF ItS 

manufacture, 30 cents. 


I, $1.10 

.ciple ol 
: complete, $1.60; 

- Sadler's IndactiTo Arithmetic. 

ily to need. Fairoralily c 

■ * '. (10 PerceutHge) an eta.; Pari IJ, Jl 

book to young or inexperienced Teachei 



anna inn 


[ia«d. Send for circular coninlnlng t^Biimonlula. Pnc«: Complete, $2; Part I (to Percentage), T6c.; Part II, $1.00. 
Ortoii Ac Sadler's Business Onloulator, 81.00. 

JanSS-Sm!**"* "* ®'*^"^^"* '"""'''"' V^'i^S!"c£le'?8t.!''BiLTrM0Rt. MD. 


p. 0. Box 2116, . New York Ctty. 

! on, 15 

rcular of 

ill mv specialties. 

BO"V S I 1 warn 

r Sample Book 
w Tork Cfir. 


' ft> / 

^ A wrp^ raw 


Vol. 1— No. 3. 

The Omiilia Daily Bee pays a very 
flattering notice to the Omaha Busi- 
neps College, conducted by Messrs. 
Ruthren & Dailey, which is well 

Into these three classes all teachers 
may bi divided: Teacliers who have 
nothing more to learn; those who are 
imitators of methods; and lastly, those 
who study and a])ply principles. In 
which class are you ? 

There is a world of truth in Josh 
Billings' statement, that " Tu sta is to 
win." How many golden oijjjortuni- 
ties are lost for want of persistence. 
In,stability is the shoal upon which 
more lives have stranded than upon 
any other, excepting, perhaps, intem- 
perance, and the two arc very close 

Xo teacher is too poor to subscribe 
for a good educational journal, and 
occasionally buy a standard work on 
teaching. The live teacher must read. 
He becomes liberal by understanding 
the methods of others. There is no 
I ttlier way of teaching, and the teacher 
who is satisfied with what ho knows 
will make no advancement in the pro- 

It is with pleasure that we an- 
nounce tlie fact that C. U. Johnson, 
late manager of the Erie Dispatch 
Printing Co., has become a partner of 
T-J*rof.^01ark, v,f Clark's Business Col 
\ lege, and that the firm, in accordance 
I witli the progress of the age, have 
I deemed it advisable to give an addi- 
tional impulse to the promotion of 
practical education by establishing a 
Commercial College in Buffalo, N. Y. 
Tlie new College has an excellent lo- 
cation, being in the Coal and Iron 
Exchange Building, and possesses all 
the facilities that can in any way con- 
tribute to the convenience and advan- 
tage of students. The most modern 
and improved methods of actual busi- 
ness practice have been introduced, 
afl'ordiug students the advamtiges of 
doing business %vith the mein jers of 
the various de])artments of actual 
liusiness practice in the College at 
Krie. The Institution is in every re- 
plied well adapted to meet the de- 
mands of the great commercial city 
in which it is established, and it will 
no doubt achieve the distinction its 
superiority merits. 

No AMOUNT of instruction, come 
from whatever source it may, can 
enable a student to become a good 
penman except he apply it in a syste- 
matic and continued study and prac- 
tice until that degree of knowledge 
and, skill desired, has becoiyie a part 
of himself, a confirmed habit, which 
leads him to do most easily and 
naturally, the thing he aimed to do. 
In fact, this principle is true in any 
department of knowledge over which 
one may seek to gain a mastery. It is 
only by systematic, earnest, and con- 
centrated study and effort that success 
can be realized in any field of human 
action. By this means, the profes- 
sional man, the student, the business 
man, and the athlete many times 
multiply their" power of achievement. 
For lack of systematic eflbrt, the ma- 
chinery of success, many a worthy 
amlutiou and good resolution have 
come to naught. 

"Why do we not teach writing in 
our schools?" a question proposed for 
discussion at the last Teachers' Insti- 
tute of Erie County, seems to liave 
elicited neither explanation nor com- 
ment, though one teacher ventured the 
opinion that children should be 
taught to make things on the board, 
but it need not be called writing 
The indiscretion on the part of the 
teacher who proi)0.sed the above ques- 
tion brings before the people the fact, 
long known to those who h; 
s( TVed the work of ck ])ublic schools, 
that the study of writing has been 
cast a.side, and the fact that this tiues- 
tiou brings to notice a grave derelic- 
tion of duty on the part of teachers, 
or an imputation to that effect, and 
that it received neither answer nor 
refutation in a convention of teachers 
and school superintendents, is a tacit 
admission that they do not teach 
writing, and that they do not wisli to 
expose the causes of such neglect. 
The suggestion of the teacher, given 
above, that children may be taught to 
make things on the board, but that 
we should carefully avoid calling it 
writing, probably inipfiea that writing 
is distasteful to teachers, which is no 
doubt true, as they arc generally sup- 
posed to have a decided aversion and 
contempt for everything they do not 
undcrettrnd. It certainly cannot im- 
ply that pupils would take inter- 
'St in the exercise to call it writing in- 
;tead of "making things," for there is 

no other branch of study in which 
they take so much delight as in prac- 
ticing penmanship. Are not teachei-s 
of common schools, by giving little or 
no att«.-tion to so essential a branch 
of education as writing, betraying an 
important trust? Arc they not sup- 
posed t-o be preparing our boys and 
girls for usefulness, and have they 
found somesubstitute for penmanship, 
in this age of great commercial enter- 
prise, business activity, literary de- 
velopment, social intercourse, and low 
rates of postage? No, nothing has 
been, and never can be, found to take 
the place of penmanshii). Skill in 
writing is second only to skill in 
speaking. Parents deplore the fact 
that their children do not learn to 
write, in consequence of which busi- 
ness men have difficulty in securing 
efficient assistanls, and boys and girls 
are deprived, of an important steg- 
ping-stone to usefulness. 

Superintendent Lord, in an address 
before the Annual Institute of Craw- 
ford county, speaking of the faults of 
the common schools and common 
school teaching, as an example, re- 
ferred to a youth who had finished a 
course in the ])ublic schools at seven- 
teen, entering a business man's eni- 
ploy, where it was found that " he did 
not know anything that he should 
have known." 

In employing improved methods of 
instruction teachers should not over- 
look entirely the practical side of edu- 
cation, if they would serve the best 
interests of their patrons. 

Let teachers make the same prepa- 
ration to t-ach penmanship that they 
make to teach other branches, and let 
superintendents require such i)repara- 
tion before granting certificates, and 
one great stride will be made in the 
du'cction of practical usefulness of 
common school education. 

Every young man, no doubt, wishes 
to achieve success in life, a success that 
shall- contribute to his own welfare, 
and that of others; and he, no doubt, 
looks anxiously about bin: for a 
starting point upon which he may 
begin to build. Very many spend 
their lives in a vain search for some- 
thing to do that shall bring them a 
little nearer to the desired end; and a 
singular feature of this fact is that the 
very thing.-^; they need are spread all 
about them in abundance, among 

which are the means of acquiring use- 
ful education. 

Every young man, by utilizing his 
leisure houre for a few months, can 
gain a skill in penmanship, that will 
prove to him an invaluable resource 
in whatever he may turn his atten- 
tion to. From writing, he may go to 
most any other useful branch of 
study, and then to another, and so on 
until, in a few years, he finds himself 
in possession of a capital stock for 
usefulness, of which any man miglit 
well be proud; and all accumulated 
without taking one moment from his 
accustomed employment, but merely 
by using judiciously those hours that 
would otherwise, most likely, be 
frittered away in idleness, and jirobably 
in the indulgence of habits having a 
pern cious mfluence on himself and 
his associations. It is the part of wis- 
dom for every :i~]MiiiiL' VMun^ rii;ai to- 

fix Upon Millie UMi'll V |Plir|ii.,-r. ;i[i.| \,h 

begin at uncr, hy uril .IiutIi,! and 
systematic effort to employ his leisure 
in bettering his condition to liattle for 
an honorable place in the world's field 
of action. 


There is no accomijlishment that 
speaks more tor you tlian a good, 
plain and rapid handwriting. It is 
what business and professional men 
admire, and what practical life de- 
mands. It is a substantial mark of 
soliolarship that gives yon preference, 
place and larger salary. It is one of 
the secrets of success antl a golden 
key to prosperity. The boy who 
writes best gets the first place and the 
first raise in salary. You can turn 
many idle half hours and evenings 
into a capital that will pay compound 
interest hy practicing this most useful 
and vahiable art. Don't think you 
write well enough; nine out of ten 
who think and say that can hardly 
write their names. Experienced teach- 
ing and vigorous training will greatly 
assist you, and practice will improve 
you. Avnilyoui-self of both means.if 
possible, and you will find it tlie bei,i 
investment of your life. — Penman and 

H. J. Michael, Engrosser. Allentown, 
Pa., thinks "that every person who re- 
ceived the first two numbers of The 
Americak Penman inust admit that he 
is getting the fiilj value of his money 
with a good rate of interest." 



While walking down a wooded glen, 

And thinking o*er the pasi, 
I sat to rest upon a bank 

And soon was sleeping fast, 
I (ireimed I saw the gates of Heaven, 

AndheAid the music sHcei, 
And, through its gleaming poMat)'. 

Appeared the mercy seat. 
I saw the good and great men 

Of every land and clime. 
And heard their tuneful voic««. 

In glorious anthem chime. 
I thought of all the penmen; 

The great ones and the small. 
Their rising and their falling 

On this lcrr:stial ball. 

The Commoti Idea Among Boys of What 
Constitutes Manliness— Training 




I looked in at the gale, 

ould I see; 
I stood there wondering, 
ngcl came lo me. 

■aid I : "Oh, blessed angel! 

May I a question ask ? 
(, within those shining portals, 

.A penmttn ever pa&sed ?" 

what : 

"I guess I do not know— 
Oh yes, I do remember — 

You'll llnd 'em all below." 
My heart grew faint, 1 turned to go, 

But saw, approaching near 
The gates of Heaven, a band of penmen, 

And waited 

With bold and steady steps they came; 

Friend Gaskell led the van; 
A troop of mighty soldieis, 

They had turned out lo a man. 
There were Michael, Mussclman, and Ames- 
Isaacs and Palmer walked side by side. 

And Pierce brought up the rear. 
Shaylor. Hinman, and Madarasz— 
~ Dennis, Schofield and all the rest- 
All closely following their leader bold. 

Close to the gates they prest. 
They halted, and friend Gaskell knocked; 

An angel, bright, appeared; 
And, when he saw this august (?) band, 

He turned his back and sneered. 
"We've come to stay,'* said Gaskell; 

"We have traveled many a day, 
The dusty road to Heaven, 

And now, we're here to stay." 
The angel turned him round about, 

While the penmen shook with fear; 
lie spoke with voice as thunder loud: 

"No peii'iian ahall enter here!" 
They turned away in calm despair; 

A council short they took; 
"If we can not stay here," spoke Michael, 

"For some other place we'll look." 

[And they looked 


"Born and raised on the farm." A 
boy should thank God for being so for- 
tunate as to be born and raised on the 
farm. There is no place on this green 
earth so well adapted to perfectly de- 
velop mind, muscle and manhood as a 
farm; there a boy lias the purest air, 
the freshest and healthiest food, plenty 
of unrestricted exercise, the brightest 
sunshine and the soundest sleep — the 
very conditions necessary for the higli- 
est development. Nine-tenths of all 
the men who have made their mark 
in any business, profession, or pursuit 
have been born and raised on the farm; 
this is not so much because tiiere is 
better blood on the farm, but because 
the surroundings of farm life are bet- 
ter calculated to call out what there is 
in a boy and develop a full-grown, 
healthy, perfect, self-reliant nnwi. — Tole- 
tlfi Blade. 


The Philadelphia itfdflfcr recently pub- 
lished an excellent article on the world's 
ideal of manliness of character, and 
makes very nice distinction between the 
real and the sham article. It is so welt 
written that we produce it as far better 
than anything we can say on the sub- 
ject, and it contains in no small compass 
great and fnr-reaching truths:— 

"There are few things more really 
admirable than a manly character in 
the true sense of the phrase, yet there is 
nothing about which people make more 
mistakes, or exhibit greater confusion of 
thought. Every school-boy and every 
youth commencing the business of life 
desires to becomp manly, or at any rate 
to b& considered so; but the conceptions 
they form of manliness, and their 
notions of the elements it contains, are 
not only crude and unformed, btit often 
shallow, superficial, and false. The boy 
of twelve or fourteen who forms his 
ideal from a set of dissipated youths a 
few years older than himself, a^ies their 
dress and manners, learns to smoke, per- 
haps to drink and gamble in a small 
way, struggles to free himself from 
parental control that he may join in 
their amusements and vices, and per- 
suade himself that he is thus cultivating 
a manly character. To cut away as fast 
as possible all traces of childhood and 
youth, to break all bonds of restraint, to 
obey no will, but self will, to spend 
fltTTSiTij tuiu irvB TeuRftfsttiy; seeiu to 
many youths to be the very essence of 
manliness, and they accordingly strain 
every nerve to accomplish so desirable 

" Some, brought up under diiTerent 
influences, have other and higher no- 
tions of manliness, which yi>t are far short 
of a true ideal. Courage and daring, 
with some, constitute its grand element. 
To conquer natural timidty, to overcome 
the fear of danger, to rush into fire and 
water or battle with unshaken nerves, 
seem to them the most worthy objects 
of aspiration. Others think the acquisi- 
tion of money is the great step leading 
to manliness. They will relax no effort 
to become wealthy, will sacrifice health, 
friends, leisure, amusement, even a good 
name, and sometimes integrity itself, to 
reach this longed-for goal " 

The common idea of what constitutes 
manliness held by boys, at the very time 
when character is being formed, is gen- 
erally a false and a low one. Some 
think careful consideration of and obed- 
ience to tlieir parents' wishes and com- 
mands are weak and unmanly traits. 
They are afraid other boys will say 
they are "tied to their mother's apron 
strings." and so they cultivate the habit 
of disobedience. All parents do not act 
in a manner to win the respect and con- 
fidence of their children, and therein 
frequently may be found the secret of 
the boy'?i eagerness to break from par- 
ental ccmtrol, but where parents govern 
kindly, liniily, and well, such conduct is 
inexcusable, for nothing is more beauti- 
tiful than perfect confidence between 
parents and children. In John Quincy 
Adams' letter to his son, extracts from 
which have been published at different 
times in this department, he says: "It is 
due to gratitude and nature that I 
should acknowledge and avow that such 
as 1 have been, whatever it was, that 

such as I am. whatever it is, and such as 
I hope to be in all futuinty, nmst be as- 
cribed under J^rovidence to the precepts 
and example of my mother." ^Vhat a 
noble tribute to a mother's memory. It 
is true that all mothers have not such 
noble characters as had Mrs. Adams, 
but I have great faith in the final 
triumph of early training, and can oidy 
blaire parents for not having disco\fered 
the correct way to moll and train each 
peculiar disposition, when boys and girls 
develop into bad men and bad women. 

Again, as the JAdger says, some boys 
think that smoking and drinking are 
"manly," and at an eai-ly age have a 
fight with nature, to win a victory over 
the stomach, which rejects such poisons 
at first, and thereby contract not only 
uncleati but decidedly injurious habits. 
Others think to swear roundly on all 
possible occasions is a true sign of man- 
liness, hereby contracting a mean and 
wicked habit. A truly manly man 
would rather treat an offense with con-, 
tempt than show his anger or indigna- 
tion by an oath. Swearing is a mark 
of cowardice. It is not genteel, and, 
says Webster, a gentleman is a genteel 
man— wtfll bred and refined. It is in- 
decent, and "want of decency is want of 
sense." It is abusive alike to the mind 
that conceives it, the tongue that utters 
it, and to the person at whom it is 
aimed. It is venomous and contempti- 
ble, violating the divine law of Him 
who "will not hold him guiltless who 
taketh his name in vain." 

Fre(iuently men of the roughest ex- 
terior, who all their life have had to fol- 
low the plow, or do the roughest, of 
manual labor, are real gentlemen at 
heart, and have more manliness than is 
found in the costly homes of their more 
successful fellow-men. Indeed he who 
is the humblest in the liarsh judgment 
of a cold and selfish world, is adjudged 
the kingliest in point of manliness and 
real worth by Him who is "no respecter 
of persons." It is this thing of charac- 
ter that tells more truly than anything 
else that training from infancy and asso- 
ciation is stronger and more reliable 
than heredity. 


Nobody abuses "small talk" unless he 
be a morose and selfish person, or a 
stranger to its convenience, Small talk 
is the small change of life, and people- 
society— could not get along without it. 
There are times when it is "folly to be 
wise," when nonsense is palatable and 
refreshing, and when sedateness and 
gravity are well dispensed with. A 
philosopher cuts a sorry figure in a ball- 
room if he carries his wisdom and phi- 
losophy with him. If his philosophy 
does not teach him that he must make 
the best of matters and take things that 
he cannot control as he finds them, then 
indeed has his time been wasted in the 
study of philosophy. It should teach 
him not to go to Rome, unless when 
there he is willing "to do as the Romans 
do," in a certain sense at least. Meta- 
physics are as welcome in the midst of 
strains of the waltz as a skeleton at a 
wedding feast. There are men who are 
entirely too lofty for stnall talk, and 
regard with a mild contempt those who 
indulge in it. They are above attempt- 
ing to make themselves agreeable, 
above pleasing, and being pleased. 
They are all wisdom, all gravity, all 
dignity, and all tedlousness. They do 
not believe that the art of pleasing is 
the soul of good breeding, and by the 
course they pui-sue they make their con- 
versation as desirable and appropriate 
as would be the sounds of a Strauss 
waltz on a violin in a church on Simday 
morning. For all such we quote the old 
time couplet: — 

"A little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the wisest men." 



The above pointed interrogation caiin' 
to me from a young aapirant, who say>: 
"I desire nothing on earth -so iimcli us 
; to become a successful teacher of pen- 
manship, and as you have had upwanls 
Inf tv'enty-five successful yearn hi tli.- 
hari.i !s 1 look to you feu- a few point- 
in The Amkricas Penman, of which 1 
am a subscriber, also to all other pen- 
men's papers that I have yet heard 
of." This is a very sensible letter, for 
every young man that will take an<l 
read all the penmen's papers and follow 
their advice, need never fear that he 
will fail. Every penmen's paper that 
has ever existed in this country I believe 
I have taken and have contributed 
something to make it interesting. I 
have many bound copies of these papers 
in my library, which I regard as a treas- 
ure better than gold. While I could givt- 
this young man my individual experr 
ence, these papers can give the experience 
of scores and hundreds of the ablest \et- 
erans. which wilKtell yfju what to do. 
when, and how to do it. Every young 
penman who des'res to stamp improve- 
ment on the wing»«f time will draw in- 
spiration and courage for the good work 
before him, if he will take and read all 
of the penmen's papers. In addition to 
many excellent copies for practice, they 
contain a vfest fund of valuable informa- 
tion that will be of great use to him 
every day and hour of his life. Any 
penman, young or old, who neglects tu 
read these papers is penny wise and 
pound foolish. In conclusion, let me 
emphasize the importance of following 
the advice of those who have been suc- 
cessful, and take warning from those 
who have proven failures, always re- 
membering that— 

Better than gold is a studious mind. 

That in the realm of books can find 

Treasures that surpass 'he Australian ore, 

And live with the great and i,'ood of yore. 

The poet's pen and sage's lay, 

And glories of empires passed away, 

All these a pleasure will unfold. 

And leave us a treasure better than gold. J 


All the good, whether learned 
unlearned, high or low, r: 
feel that there is one treasure t 
to them all, and that is the fame j 
character of Washington. They reuound 
his deeds, ponder over his principlei 
and teachings, and resolve 
and more guided by them in the future. 
— Webster. 

George Washington may justly be ' 
considered one of the greatest men the 
world has prodtieed. Greater soldiers, 
more intellectual statesmen, and pro- 
founder sages have doubtless existed in 
the history of the English races,— 
perhaps in our own country— but not 
one who to great excellence in each of 
these fields has added such exalted 
integrity, such unaffected piety, such 
unsullied purity of soul, and such 
wondrous control of his spirit.— X B. 

Liberty unsheathed his sword, neces- 
sity stained, victory returned it. If he 
had paused here, history might have 
doubttd what station to assign him; 
whether at the head of her citizens op 
her soldiers, her heroes or her patriotv. 
But the last glorious act crowns bia 
career, and banishes all hesitation. 
Who like Washington, after having 
emancipated a hemisphei-e, resigned 
its crown, and preferred the retirement 
of domestic life to the adoration of a 
land he might be almost said to have 
created. —Phillipi. 



In a previous article on Pructical 
penmanship, we gave directions in re- 
gard to position and the first steps in 
acciuiring the muscular movement, which 
seems to be gaining recognition among 
progressive penmen as the most essen- 
tial requisite leading to a mastery of the 
art of writing. While, from the first, 
perfect freedom and ease of movement 
should be employed, and t-areless, 
sprawling, irregular strokes studiously 
avoided, the learner should keep con- 
gtantly in view the desired end, and aim 
to execute accurate forms of letters,pos- 
sessing correct proportions, harmony in 
slant, graceful curves, and even shaxles, 
that he may, while developing move- 
ment, study form, and cultivate a taste 
for the beautiful in writing. 

Free muscular movement is indispen- 
Bable in achieving suci-ess in the art of 
penmanship, but it should be considered 
the means and not the end, and in gain- 
ing a mastery over it. one should not 

tention. and this attention should not 
consist altogether in practice, butshould 
include a great amount of carefui.critical 
study of copies and all writing that may 
conie imder the learner's notice. 

Success in learning to write, like suc- 
cess in almost everything else, depends 
upon a well-directed and energetic ef- 
fort, and by the application of these re- 
quisites one can never fail to accomplish 
most satisfactory results. 


The design of this exercise is to teach 
the combined movement, and it is the 
best eiercise I have ever tried for break- 
ing up the finger movement. I think 
the proper movement is the muscular 
and finger movement combined. The 
important point in teaching this move- 
ment is to impress firmly upon the stu- 
dent's mind that every stroke of the pen 
outside of the downward stroke should 
be made by sliding the whole hand, and 
that the last two finger nails should 
move with the pen. When the pupil 

of business constitute a very small pro- 
portion of those who embark in it. 
Almost as 1 write 1 come on the follow- 
ing item in a daily paper. Of a thous- 
and medical students who graduated 
from an English institution fifteen years 
ago, twenty-three have achieved distin- 
guished SUCCPS8 and siity-six considera- 
ble success; the remainder are strug- 
gling for a bare Uvelihood, have failed, 
left the profession, or died. Other pro- 
j fessions and occupations would tell sub- 
stantially the same tale. Commerce 
forms no exception. Even in the cases 
of emyloyees in our large houses or cor- 
porations, it is a fact familiar enough to 
business men, but not generally appre- 
ciated perhaps by outsiders, that the 
men in receipt of one thousand dollars a 
year or over form a very small percen- 
tage of the whole staflf. When competi- 
tion is so intense and the prizes so few, 
it is easy to infer that the man handi- 
capped in any way stands a poor chance 
of forging to the front. In point of fact, 
the great majority of those who attain 


In yom- February issue you expressed 
tt wish to hear from those who have used 
the compendiums, as to tite benefit de- 
rived from them. 

I must say that they have been of 
benefit to me, for. although a poor 
writer, yet I have made a great im- 
provement by tlieir use. and have be- 
come such a lover of the art that I hope 
to make much greater improvement. 

The compendium was the first thing I 
saw in the line of penmanship to awaken 
me to a sense of the beautiful in writ- 
ing. It was Gaskell's Compendium that 
I first used, and I still lik'> to take 
it up and follow the copies A'ith their 
fine shades and beautiful curves through 
again and again. 

That compendiums have been a great 
incentive, and are still so. there can be 
no doubt. We see stated time and again 
that such and such a penman or famous 
card writer, is one of the compendium 



1 J 


1 [ 



-^O— J 







/- 7 



^^/ — -y/ — 7b — ■ 







1 Movement, by Prof. C. M. Bohinaon, of Lafayette, Ind. 

lose sight of the ultimate object to be 
attained. The exercises introduced be- 
low are admirably adapted to the de- 
velopment of movement and the idea of 

has learned to slide the back of the last 
two nails on the paper at the same time 
he slides the pen, I think he has learned 
the most important feature in writing. 

[The exercise and suggestions on move- 
ment, here presented, are given by Prof. 
C. M. Robinson, of Lafayette, Ind. In 
the next number of The American 
Penman there will appear an extended 
lesson on movement by Mr. Robinson.] 

The oval in the small letter o is equal 
in width to the extended loop in the 
other letters in the combination, and by 
keeping this fact in mind, the learner 
a<^()uire8 the power to detect any inac- 
curacy in respect to width. These exer- 
cises illustrate the manner in which 
most of the letters of the alphabet may 
be combined to form excellent exercises 
for private learners, and for use in classes 
wliere they may be profitably employed 
for practice in concert, to secure the de- 
sired degree of rapidity. The capital 
letter exercises afford the advantage of 
being so closely connected that the stu- 
dent, by comi>arison. can easily detect 
irregularities and defects in form, and is 
rnabled to secure a degree of uniformity 
that will add much to the beauty and 
utility of his writing. Many learners 
are inclined to think the capitals are 
more important than the small letters, 
Kiid consequently apportion their study 
and practice in accordance with this 
••rroneons idea. The small letters, com- 
bined in words, should receive most at- 

Does college graduation tend to aid a 
business-man in earning his livelihood? 
I very much doubt it. A trained intel- 
lect is a fine tool. But we know that in 
many mechanical operations the very 
fineness of an implement is a bar to its 
usefulness. It either cannot do coarse 
work, or it does it imperfectly, and to 
the injury of the material on which it 
operates, as well as with almost certain 
damage to itself. Every-day experience 
tells us that the analogy holds in the 
ordinary business of commercial life. 
There are a thousand contingencies in 
the store, the warehouse, the shop, and 
the counting-room, wherein the average 
cultured mind finds itself out of place. 
Too generally it regards the work as 
beneath it, and, therefore, humiliating; 
almost uniformly it finds it commonplace 
and uninteresting, often positively irk- 
some and distasteful, or absolutely 
painful. The result is discontent with 
— not rarely contempt for— the position 
m which it is placed. "O quam miserri- 
mum olim fuisse beatum!'' was the 
pathetic cry wrung from the desolate 
heart of Coleridge when serving as a 
private in a British regiment of dra- 
goons. It wotild be vain to look foj- 
anything but a perfunctory and unsat- 
isfactory discharge of duty from any 
one who regards in tliis spirit the work 
he has to do. Coleridge never rose out 
of the awkward squad. The man of 
culture whom the humdrum drudgery 
of every day commercial Ufe affects sim- 
ilarly is certain to continue in a corres- 
ponding lowly position. 

The men who succeed in anv branch 

even this comparative degree of 
have entered their house as boys, have 
grown up in it and identified themselves 
with it. It is their world; it satisfies 
their mental appetencies and aspira- 
tions, and gives scope for all their ener- 
gies. They are, therefore, abundantly 
contented in it, and the deft and nimble 
execution of its most mechanical details 
is matter of pride to them. They are 
parts of a machine. Is it to be expected 
that the average college graduate could 
compete on fair terms with such men? 
Nor must the fact be overlooked that, 
irrespective of special qualifications, 
mere length of service is an important 
factor in promotion. Here, too, our 
student is at a disadvantage. While he 
was cultivating his tastes and forming 
his habits in the groves of Yale and 
Harvard, his less cultured rivals were 
putting four good years to their credit. 

It is much the same in other walks of 
non -professional life. The men who 
attain the highest positions in the exec- 
utive departments of our railroads are 
not college graduates, Ttie same holds 
in the various departments of govern- 
ment. Few chiefs of division or heads 
of bureaus who have worked themselves 
up without political influence are 
college-bred. They are, for the most 
part, practical business men. 

Why. then, it may be asked, do so 
many business men give their sons a 
college education? Largely, it may be, 
because such persons attach an exag- 
gerated importance to any branch of 
knowledge or learning in which they 
feel themselves deficient; and, more 
legitimately, because they have learned 
by cxp.-'i'Irnrn that a certain degree of 


■a. It 

. the 


I to 

i of 

such men have not to commence thoir 
business life at the bottom of the difli- 
cult ladder, but are at once placed on 
the higher steps and have all advantages 
in climbing. And yet, withal, it would 
be curious matter for inquiry to deter- 
mine what proportion of those youths 
born with the silver spoon in their 
mouths, could better or maintain their 
fathers' position. — Lippineott's Montlthj 

That the compendium-now published 
may not be up to the times as the jour- 
nals of penmanship and commercial 
schools say, may be true, I would not 
presume to judge; but that they were 
the first medium offered between the 
master and the pupil cannot be gain- 

We are well aware that a student in a 
school of penmanship has many advan- 
tages over the self-instructor, or the pri- 
vate or corresponding student. In the 
school he has usually more than one 
master of the art, from whom to receive 
instruction. Then again, he has an op- 
portunity to criticise and to compare 
not only his master's, but his fellow-stu- 
dents' work, which is worth more to him 
than all the copies that he could get in 
the world. But, knowing all this. would 
it be wise to discourage young men and 
women who, from circumstances, are so 
situated that they have not the chance, 
or any prospect of a chance, to obtain 
the benefit of a school or master, from 
getting what they can for a dollar, and 
thus putting themselves in the best con- 
dition they can by self-instruction, for 
the active duties of life that may de- 
volve upon them now, or for the oppor- 
tunities that may come later. 

While there are many who could, but 
do not, there are very many who cannot 
avail themselves of the superior advan- 
tages of the school, and to this latter 
class the compendium proves itself an 
invaliuible assistant, and its use should 
be encouraged by all who would see 
progress in the art of penmanship. 

A. B. DAhZBlx, McKean. Pa. 

The other evening a corner loafer in- 
sulted a lady, and a man passing, who 
observed it, jumped in and thrashed 
that loafer all over Ihe sidewalk, so that 
the brute was sore, skinned and bruised 
ver, and felt as though he had been 
to a picnic. And the lady thanked the 
gentleman, while the crowd cheered. 
He said: "Oh, you needn't thank me 
ma'am; I'm glad to do you a service, 
and I was going to lick the fellow any- 
how. I recognize him as the cross-eyed 
pirate who put a bee down my back at 
the M useum, 'tother ni^ht, and I 've been 

looking for hi 

-Boston Post. 


The flrneriGari Penrnafi, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

By Clark & Johnson, Editora and Pro- 
prietors. Erie, Pa. 

in ornamental work, but they should 
eceivc very little attention from the 

student before he has laid the founda- 
on for excellence in the " art " by 
lastering the muscular movement. 

single copies I 

1 receipt of B 



$8S 00 Vif. 

Itioo oi 

1 re«r. 




irtcr CulnniD .. 
e Inch 

■.■.•.:;: »" "S 


Until further nol Ice 

caab within fiO liaja fi 

Ilendlng matter w 

line. Nine words m 

given on RetidlDg Ma 


its class, and we desire thoiinands 
1 all -pani of the t-ouiUry, uud all 
persons snbacrlblug tjefore January 1st, issc, will re- 
ceive ft copy one year for 50 cents. When a clnb of 
6 to 10 la sent, It will he furnished for 4S cents each. 


We hiive raatle flrrangenienta with the jinbllsher of 
the So'iUd-rn Progrpss, n new anil desiiable maga- 
zine published lu Chattanooga, Tenn., to furnish our 

the Soiiltiern Prowess one year for {1.00, which is the 
SDbBcrlptlon price of the " Pt-ogress" alone. 
To All persona Interesting themselves In be- 
' Pbnuan and sending clubs 

forwarded m The AiiEBiCAN Pknman. We lire 
to give cash premiums to those securing ilubs, j 
tlilB rule will be Invariably followed. 

Jloney Order, Postal Note, or Registered Letter, 1 

iNnnsw.'itoW. P. Z. Tlie obli<iue 
holder lias advantages over any other, 
particnlarly for the student and the 
]jrofessional penman. In its use the 
hand is i)erinitted to rest in an easy, 
natural position, well suited to the 
exercise of the muscular movement, 
and the position and slant of the pen 
point is more nearly in accord with the 
.slant of tlie letters, making a smoother 
hair-line and an evener shade than is 
])Ossible with the straight holder. 

Cure should be exercised in the 
lection of an oblique holder, as many 
of them, from their imperfect con 
struction, are worse than useless. A 
good one holds firmly the i>en, whicl: 
should fit perfectly, so that its i)oint 
will be in line with the center of tl; 

Among the pens most suitable for 
the student's use are Musselman's Per- 
fection Pen.Spencerian No. l,Gillott's 
No. GO-1, and Isaac's Ideal. There are 
other varieties that would no doubt 
give satisfaction, but the above named 
varieties we know to be good, and 
recommend them to learners, who 
should have good material with which 
to ])ractice, if they would secure the 
best results from their effoils. 

Tlic muscular movement should" be 
employed almost exclusively by the 
student of plain penmanshii). Other 
inuvemeiits are used I>y professionals 


The March number of Th^ Penman^s 
Art Journal does not fall below its 
high standard of excellence in any 

The Western Penman continues its 
movement (-niitscular) onward and up- 
ward toward a lofty plane of excellence 
in chirographic journalism. 

The Penman's Gazette comes regular- 
ly, well-filled with a variety of inter- 
esting and instructive articles peiiain- 
ing to penmanship, short hand, etc. 

We have received a copy of each of 
the following college publications, all 
of which reflect much credit upon 
their editors, by their attractive ap- 
l)ea ranee and interesting reading mat- 

Penmnn and Artist, Indianapoliti, 

Normal Penman, Fort Scott, Kas. 

The Amanuensis, New York. 

International Budnesa College Journal, 
East Saginaw, Mich. 

Business College Mirror, London, Ont. 

The College Review, Lawrence, Kas. 

The Lincoln Monthly, Lincoln, Neb. 

Normal andScientific Journal, Bloom- 
field, Iowa. 

Teacher and Penman, Smithville, 0. 

There is a world of truth in the follow- 
ing words of Dr. Lyman Abbott, that 
teacherR will do wpII to thoroughly 
study. Compressed into a few sentences 
is here a volume of most valuable 

"Tliere is a difference between learn- 
ing and wisdom. Learning is intellect- 
ual wealthi wisdom is intellectual power. 
Learned men are not always wise: wise 
men are not always learned. Learning 
tends to give wisdom, but wisdom is by 
no means always the accompaniment of 
learning. Abraham Lincoln was not a 
learned man, but he was a very wise 
man. James I. of England, is said to 
have been a learned man, but he cer- 
tainly was not a wise man. F. W. 
Robertson states admirably this diatinc- 

' Let us distinguish wisdom from two 
things. From information first. It is 
one thing to be well informed; it is 
another thing to be wise. Many books 
read, innumerable books hived up in a 
capacious memory — this does not consti- 
tute wisdom. Books give it not. Learn- 
ing coioes by studying; wisdom by 
thinking. Learning comes from with- 
out; wisdom from within. Learning is 
an acquisition; wisdom is a develop- 
ment. Learning may be forgotten, and 
so lost; wisdom is a pi^rt of the charac- 
ter, and so will abide forever. These 
two possessions are the greatest which 

J. M. Harkins, Calhoun, Ga., says; "I 
am in receipt of February number of 
your valuable paper. It went beyond 
my expectation in containhig so many 
good things on penmanship." 

Prof. C. R. Bales, of the Evergreen 
Business College, Bloomington. III., fav- 
ors us with a list of subscribers for The 
American Penman. Mr. Bales is a 
fine penman and a prominent business 
educator of his State, and we are grati- 
fied to receive favor at his hands. 


Article i*. 

For the benefit of those who may not 
have seen the February number of The 
Ambuican Penman, 1 will slate that in 
my first article I spoke about Materials. 
namely, paper, ink and pens. I also 
mapped out the subject of Letter Writ- 
ing OS I expect to treat it. and those who 
read the first article will pardon me for 
repeating the outline here. 

I shall treat of: 1, The Mechanical 
Structure of a Letter, wliich will include 
(a) Materials, (fij Heading, (c) Introduc- 
tion, id) Body, Ce) Conclusion, (f) Fold- 
ing, {g) Superscription. C'O Stamp. 2. 
The Penmanship of a Letter. 3. The 
Rhetoric of a Letter, which will be con- 
fined to the more practical divisions of 
(a) Spelling, (l>) Capitalizing, (c) Punc- 
tuation, (d) Diction, (c) Construction, (f) 
Miscellaneous. 4. Classification of Let- 
ters. 5. Cards and Notes. 6. Miscel- 

THE hkading. 

The Heading, in a social letter, is a 
statement of the place where the letter 
is written and of the time when it is 
written. BuBiness and professional men, 
as a rule, have printed headings, desig- 
nating the name and business of the 
person or firm, together with the place 
and a blank s.paee for the insertion of 
the date. 

The heading of every letter, then, 
should contain these two items: the 
Place and the Date. 

The Place must consist of two items; 
the Post-Oflice and the State. If written 
from the country or siuall town, the 
county should also be given. If from a 
large city, like Chicago, New York, or 
Boston, where the mail is delivered by 
carrier, the number and street should 
be given. As a rule, the Place portion 
of the heading is used by oztr correspon- 
dent in his return address to «», hence 
care should be taken to make it accu 
and full. 

The Date consists of the month, day 
of the month, and the year. 

Position and Arrangement. — The writ^ 
ten heading may occupy one, two, 
three lines, according to the niunber of 
items, and the length of the words coi 
posing it. 

MODEL headings. 

CNo. 1.) 
Valparaiso, Ind., Mar. l, 1S86. 
(No. 3.) 
59 State St., Cliicago, TIL, S-l-'Se. 

(No. 3.) 
Valparaiso, Porter Co., Indiana, 
March H, lS8(i. 
(No. 4.) 
S12 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 
March 10, ISSG. 
(No. 5.) 
Northwestern University, 
ISvanston, Illinois, 
March 20, isSG. 
If the heading consists of the post- 
office, State and date only, one line is 
usually sufficient. It should be written 
on the first ruierf liTie. beginning at or 
near the middle from left to right, and 
should end near the right edge of the 
paper, as shown in Models 1 and 3 

If the county is given, or if the sheet 
is small, or the writing is open or run- 
ning, it may be necessary to use two 
lines, in which ease the arrangement 
should be as shown in Models -i and 4 
above. It will be noticed that the first 
line contains the Place and the second 
the Date; also that the two Unes end 
even at the right, but do not begin 

When it is necesssary to use three 
lines the arrangement should be as in 
Model 5. 

Punctuation of the Headir^.— The dif- 
ferent items of the heading are separa- 

ted by comniOH, and a period is placed 
aft«r each abbreviation, and after tlie 
lost item. As will be seen by studying 
the models, an abbreviation frequently 
requires both a period and a conniiu 
after it. 

iVo^c— The heading is an elliptii-al 
sentence. Thus, " Valparaiso, Porter 
Co., Indians., March 1, 1886," means; 
This is written at Valparaiso, which is 

Porter County, which is in the State 
of IndiKua, on March I, 1S86. 

boBiness penmuriHliip, :ui<i :{;i)i!ii '\ ^<T■■•^^\[•[•••-l•1 jiri- 

etc. it should have read: "Bui letter writing l.i 
applied penmanship— business penmanshlp~and ai>- 
plled penmanship presupposes," etc. 

Also In the sentence, "These pens are all of lueiUuiu 
flrmneaa," the last word should have been "tluf- 

C. H. Jump, Sandusky, O. 
J. C. Knapp, Rushville, Ills. 
J. H. Sohoonover, Colo, Iowa. 
W. J. Bentley, Union City, Pa. 
E. J. English, Cherry Flats, Pn. 
W. P. Canfield, Cedar Rapids, la. 

, Business College, La- 

C. M. Rob: 
fayette, Ind. 

C. R. Bales. Business College, Bloom- 
isiness College, 
W. H. Sadler, Business College, Balti- 

D. L. Mussel: 
Quincy, III. 

, Md. 

D, B. Willit 
cago. 111. 

College, Altoona, 
Bryant's College, Chi- 

W. H. FranzeU, Aberdeen, Ark., letter 
and set of capitals. 

Myron Ryder, Ceresco, Mich., letter 

Prof. H. J. Williams, Richmond, Va., 
encloses his subscription, together with 
a superior specimen of flourishing. 

W. N. Ferris, Big Rapids, Mich., says: 
"Enjoyed reading first number of The 
American Penman. I anticipate a 
grand success for your paper." 

The finest specimen of letter writing 
received this month is from the pen of 
Prof. I. W. Pierson. Elliott's Business 
College, Burlington, la. 

From W. A. SeheU, Alion, 111., a nice- 
ly written letter, in which he speaks in 
complimentary terms of The Amebioak 

From C. B. Higpy, of Rioeville, Pa., a 
hearty endorsement of the Lesson on 
Practical Penmanship in the January 
number of The American Pknmak. 



W. n. Lotlirop, of South Roston, Mass.] 

In the account that I give of some of 
our penmen I am obliged to speak with 
iL sort of coldness and reserve. But in 
descTibing the works of this gentleman, 
I am under no apprehension of letting 
my pen run too fast, in the tract of the 

So many beauties, in every pari/of his 
Chirographic performancesappear; such 
a masterly conmiand in the execution 
of them that they merit a general indis- 
criminate applause." 

"He began very early to distinguish 
himself, and to manifest his fitness for 
that employ, in which he has since been 
engaged with great reputation, for 
above these twenty years. He is des- 
cended from a reputable family in Kent, 

years old. After he left Ur.Snell, he kept 
I a boarding school in Saint Paul's 
I Church yard; and has been much em- 
I ployed, as a private teacher amongst 
the nobility and gentry. He is now, 
(1701,) master of the new academy in 
Bedford Street near Bedford-row, from 
whom, (if Heaven prolong his life and 
health,} the world may still expect more 
curious, and useful productions from his 

''Anno-Dom. 1733, he published from 
the letter press, his Practical Arithme- 
tic. In the year 1747, he published The 
Tutor's Assistant in Teaching Arithme- 
tic, wherein the rules are explained.and 
variety of examples given under each 
head, with spaces left for the operations 
to be inserted in. It was principally 
designed for the use of schools, contain- 
ing 40 plates in quarto; the greater part 

accurate in many respects, is yet of 
good use to one who writes upon the 
subject I am treating of, by mentioning 
most of the celebrated penmen, both 
foreigners and those of our own nation. 
And Mr. Thorowgood, though he has 
performed the work of a curious en- 
graver, acknowledges that no graver 
can fully come up to the neatness, spirit 
and freedom that there is in the author's 
hand, a great eeonium from so prttper a 
judge." In the year 1754, he published 
his "New and Complete Alphabet," 
with the Hebrew, Greek and Genuan 
characters. 1 
plates In an ot 
Geo. Bickham. 
by the editor. 
0\-et'ton, where 

contains twenty-one 
ng folio, engraved by 
There is a dedication 
ir print-seller, Henry 
it is said that it con- 
tains the greatest number of alphabets 
ever yet performed by one person in 

S. Engrossing- hands for youngclerks. 

3. The Young Penman's Practice, in 

4. Two descriptions of Mr. Cocker- 
ton's wonderful Oyuxstone on two sepa- 
rate plates. 1758. 

5. A multiplication table in neat min- 
iature for the use of the ladies. 

6. A new interest table for any sum, 
etc. His most capital M. 8. S. are the 

1. A large body of penmanship in 
common ink, addressed and presented 
to the Royal Society in 1754. A labori- 
ous and curious performance in 20 folio 

2. The city freedom in vellum,for the 
late Prince of Wales. 

3. The Duke of Cumberlands.— ditto. 

4. The Honorable Mr. Pitts.— ditto; 
and Mr. Bilson Legg's. — ditto." 



as appears from a monumental inscrip- 
tion in the cathedral church-yard at 
Rochester, in which county our author 
was a free-holder, but was deprived of 
his birth-right by a fine raised to cut 
off the entail in that infamously 
memorable and destructive year to 
many families, 1720. 

"Mr. Champion war born at Chat- 
limn, in the county aforesaid, in the 
year 1709, and received his education 
partly at St. Paul's School in London, 
butcliiefly under that eminent penman, 
Mr. Charles Snell, who kept Sir John 
Johnson's free writing school In Foster- 
lane near Cheapside, with whom he 
afterwards served a reguhir apprentice- 
*'lilp, and so well qualified was he then 
for buRiuess, that he taught in a numer- 1 
OU8 public school before he was twenty I 

of them engraved by E. Thorowgood 
and the rest by T. Kitchin and T. Gard- 

While Mr. Champion kept school in 
King.shead Court, the south side of St. 
Paul's Church-yard, he published The 
Parallel, or Comparative Penmanship in 
1750, exemplified in four of the greatest 
original foreign masters, viz: L. Materot, 
an Italian of Avignon, 1604. L. Barbe- 
dor, a Frenchman. 1647. J. V. Veldp,or 
J. Van den Velde, Antwerp. 1G05. and 
Ambrosins Perlingh, a Dutchman, 
Amsterdam, 1079, It contains twenty- 
four oblong folio-i)lates, with his picture 
at the beginning. Mr. Thorowgood 
engraved it. The whole is an elaborate 
and curious performance; prefixed to 
this Parallel, there are four pages of 
letter press work; which, though not 

Anno Doui. 1758. He began to pub- 
lish The Living Hands, i c, several 
copy-books of the round-hand, round- 
text, Italian, runnirtg-hand, engrossing 
hands and German text. There are 
about 40 plates of them in quarto, en- 
graved by Messieurs, Thorowgood, 
Kitchin, Bailey, Howard and Ellis." 

Our author wns likewise a great en- 
I'ourager of, and contributer to that 
very large and elaborate work, Mr. Geo. 
Bickham 's Universal Penman, for which 
he df^signed and wrote 47 folio pieces, 
wherein is exhibited a delightful and 
exquisite ^variety of penmanship, both 
for use and ornament. He has pub- 
lished some lesser pieces, which well 
deserve public notice. 

1. The Czar's speech to King William 
III; engraved A. D. 17—. I 

"In fine, as the Muses borrow from, 
as well as are friends to every article of 
science, I shall conclude this account of 
Mr. Champion, with six lines addressed 
to him by the ingenious Mr. John Lock- 

"No sweeter force the orator bestows, 
When from his lips the graceful period Hows; 
Then words receive, when by thy matchless art. 
Charming the eye, they slide into the heart. 
When double strength attracts both ear and sight. 
And any lines prove ple-osing when you write." 
Mr. Champion, since above was writ- 
ten, has published a grand and elaborate 
work, entitled The Penman's Employ- 
ment, containing choice variety of ex- 
amples in alt hands of England. It con- 
tains 44 large folios which Mr. Champion 
began in 1759, and finished in 1763, the 
whole engraved by Mr. John Howard." 




There is no branch of popular educa- 
tion that stands in greater need of good 
teaching to-day than writing, and yet 
there is no branch taught in the public 
schools, or in the greater part of them, 
that receives less of good instruction, or 
coiTect treatment. Observation, and 
conversation with teachers and school 
olllcials during the post year or two, 
beHr out this statement. I have heard 
such remarks as: "I wish the writing of 
my school could be improved."' fall from 
the lips of many principals in recent 
years. There is need of a general 
brca/d/ig away in many schools from 
old methods of instruction. When this 
is done, there will be a general and de- 
cided improvement in writing in the 
public schools. 

The first step, however, is the adop- 
tion of some plan by which regular 
teachers, male or female, shall be re- 
quired to be as competent to teach 
writing as any other branch they may 
have to deal with. This will be not 
oidy a gain to them — adding to their 
other accomplishments — but will also 
add dignity and worth to a branch of 
education that has long been treated 
as a sort of foot-ball in the educational 
scheme, to be kicked out or in at pleas- 
ure—tolerated but not treated as an 
equal in the school curriculum. Teach- 
ers are not to be blamed for this state 
of things. So long as school boards do 
not require them to qualify themselves 
to teach penmanship, they will not take 
the trouble to do it. Let school boards 
or other competent authority require 
teachers to be proficient in this branch, 
and— with woman's well-known power 
to do whatever she undertakes^-she 
will surely excel. As a vast majority of 
department teachers are ladies, perhaps 
I am justified in alluding to sex. Male 
teachers, in general, should pass an 
equally strict examination. When this 
is done, we shall not hear those careless, 
off-hand remarks about writing that so 
often escape teachers' lips. "O, I am a 
horrid writer," said a teacher to me not 
long since, and many times I have heard 
such remarks from teachers, and with 
so much of nonchalance that they 
seemed to enjoy the distinction of being 
"horrid writers" rather than to consider 
it a defect, and by so nmch a loss to 
their store of accomplishments. I am 
anxious to prolong my terrestial career 
to the day when teachers in public shall 
be (is sensitive to their style of writing 
as they are to their proficiency in ortho- 
graphy. We shall then have a high 
standard of writing. 

The next step to take— after securing 
the first, and to be taken whether the 
first is fully realized or not — is to break 
away from old and unnatural methods 
of instruction in writing— methods that 
have been tried and found wanting— 
and pursue those that the best teachers 
everywhere follow and get good results 
from; such methods as will not only 
give the young lad of ten years a good 
handwi'iting— and should he be obliged 
to quit school at that age, something 
that will serve him every day of his 
life— but if he stays to pass through the 
full course, a handsome, well-rounded, 
and fluent style that will pass muster in 
the insurance office or bank, 


With proper instruction from the be- 
ginuhig to the close of the pupil's com- 
mon-school career, a large majority of 
pupils should leave the highest grammar 
grades in possession of a handsome 
handwriting. The notion in vogue 
twenty years ago that penmen are 
"born writers," has been pretty effec- 

tually dispelled by actual exi^erience 
the public schools, and ii 
schools perhaps more fully so. 
very handy to have a leaning < 
aptitude in any given direction, it 
much capital to start out i 
with,yet without practice it avails noth- 
ing. There is more acquired skill in 
the world than born skill: 90 per cent, 
of school children can become good 
writerni, if properly drilled. 


Admitting the value to every young 
person of a good command of the pen 
in starting out in life— and public 
opinion is about unanimous on this 
point— why not let the work be done 
largely in the public schools, and thus 
do away with the necessity of sending a 
boy to the business college, except he 
desires to extend his knowledge and 
power with the pen, and develop into 
the skilled pen-artist? We can send him 
out a ready writer, and that is sufficient 
to carry him through all ordinary work 
in commercial life. Do the principals 
of our public schools desire to bring 
about this result? I aui satisfied that 
they do and are ready to weed ont and 
cast away old and effete methods and 
take on something better, and this not 
to please any authors or publishers who 
may have books to be considered, but 
for the good of the rising generation 
and the uplifting of the standard of 
writing. Let there be a long and strong 
pull by teachers in every grade, from 
the principal down to the lead-pencil 
classes, and good results will surely fol- 
low, which will be a sufficient reward 
for the labor bestowed. 

The next article of this series will be 
devoted to the method of beginning and 
conducting writing in the lower grades 
in public schools, that has produced the 
best results wherever faithfully and per 
sistently followed. 

Provide each child with several short 
sticks, about the size of matches. 
(Wooden tooth-picks may be bought by 
the bos, 500 or more, for about ten cents. ) 
These may be kept either in small boxes, 
giving one to each child, or in one large 
box. from which they may be distribu- 

The teacher may take a stick and, 
holding it in a vertical position, ask the 
children each to take a stick and do the 
same. Ask some one to draw a line to 
look like the stick as he is holding it. 
Let theiu find several things in the room 
in the same position. Tell them this 
position is called vertical. 

Ask 80]ne one to stand in a vertical 
position, or hold a slate or book in same 
position. Have the class repeat: "I 
hold my stick in a vertical position. I 
hold my slate," etc. 

When this is learned, the teacher may 
hold the stick in a horizontal position, 
asking the children to do the same. 
Place the slates horizontal. Have them 
draw this line on the board, and find ob- 
jects in the room in the same position. 
Give the term horizontal. 

In what position are the walls ? The 
ceiling? The floorr The legs of the 
table? The top of the table? 

The slanting position may next be 
taken, and term given. 

What part of the desk is slanting? 
What part of the house? In what posi- 
tion are the easel and blackboard? 

Place two or more sticks parallel, and 
have them do the same. Lead them to 
see the lines will never meet. Let them 
find OS many parallel lines as possible in 
the room. Then let them place ■ the 
sticks forming vertical, horizontal and 

slanting parallel lines, and find objects 
in each position. 

After the oral lesson, the children may 
arrange the sticks by themselves, and 
copy the positions on their slates.— 
Education hy Dotrif/. 



One of the most common errors into 
which young and inexperienced penmen 
fall, is the use of coarse, inferior va- 
rieties of pens and muddy ink, the lat- 
ter being often of a blue or green color, 
which always betrays a deplorable lack 
of good taste on the part of the writer. 
Experienced and skillful penmen invar 
riably select their materials with the 
greatest care, as they are fully aware of 
the fact that no amount of skill will 
serve to produce a beautiful page un- 
less ink, pen and paper are of the best. 

Another fatal tendency of the young 
penman is toward the use of superflu- 
ous flourishes in his writing. Many an 
aspiring genius flourishes up a letter 
specimen in much the same manner in 
which he would a bald eagle, or a bound- 
ing stag, and then regards it as a nms- 
ter-piece of art. He labors under the 
idea that if he would gain a reputotion 
as a great pen artist, he must execute 
only the most intricate forms of capitals 
and throw as many compound curves 
around the small letters as possible. He 
should learn that more skill is displayed 
in the execution of a single page of per- 
fectly plain, systematic writing than in 
a whole ream of flourished letter speci- 

Our various penmen's papers can un- 
doubtedly do much to improve the style 
of writing now in vogue among a large 
class of penmen, by presenting copies 
for imitation, more simple in their con- 
struction, and devoid of useless and un- 
sightly flourishes. 


up to their highest 
Some fail through 
timidity or lack of nerve. Tney are un- 
willing to take the risks incident to life, 
and fail through fear in venturing on or- 
dinary duties. They lack pluck. Others 
fail through imprudence, lack of discre- 
tion, care, or sound judgment. They 
over-estimate the future, build air-cas- 
tles, and venture beyond their depth, 
and fail and fall. 

Others, again, fail through lack of ap- 
plication and perseverance. They begin 
with good resolves, but soon get tired 
of that and want a change, thinking 
they can do much better at something 
else. Thus they fritter Hfe away, and 
succeed at nothing. Others waste time 
and money, and fail through ruinous 
habits — tobacco, whisky and beer, spoil 
them for business, drive their best cus- 
tomers from them, and scatter their 
prospects of success. Some fail for want 
of brains, education, and fitness for their 
calling. Theylack a knowledge of human 
nature, and of the motives that actuate 
men. They have not qualified them- 
selves for their occupation by practical 
education.— Youift's Pilot. 


Every young man should aim to ac- 
quire a thorough business education — a 
thorough knowledge of how business 
transactions of a complicated nature are 
conducted, and a clear record of them 
kept. It matters not what the young 
man's station in society or aims in life 
may be, this is an ec^uipment with which 
he should provide himself. The young 
man who is to-day driving rivets may, 
in ten or fifteen years' time, be directing 

the operations of a great manufactory. 
That is if he has prepared himself to 
take advantage of the opportunities 
which present themselves to him; if, in 
other words, he has acciuired the knowl 
edge of commercial transactions, whicli 
must accompany his transition from the 
work bench to a desk in the private 
office, where it is as necessary to be able 
to understand accounts as it is to be 
versed^in mechanics. Ho, too, the young 
law student may have, at the very outset 
of his career, the possibilities of becom- 
ing the director and controller of great ,^ 
aggregations of corporate wealth— if he \ 
only understands business records as 
well as Blackstone and the Code. The 
same principle applies in every voca- 
tion, and nothing is handier to have 
around than a business education. Nor 
is this very difficult to obtain. — JVewa- 



papiT.subalantlBlly b 
WrlUDg, pboto-eDgra 

It {■ jDit Mch a 
ACRdemy.^High Schoc 

celplofONE DOLLAR" 

iddrew, po8lp&Id, apt 



Erie, Pa., and Buffalo, N. Y. 

Johnson's Lake Shore 

Home Magaxine. 

Prominent umong the fcutures will lie sertos of 
Tlirming Historical HOM.^NCES AND REALITIES 
ted In this region a greiicratlon ago. 

Choicest RcaOliie:, Literary and General, for Young 

Home Magazine Co., (L'td.) 

810 State St., Erie, Pa. 


Book-sellers, Stationers 

Also Steel Engravings, Arto-Tj'peg, 

Pioture Frumeii. 


0*A Liberal Discount on Uoolcs to- 
Teacliers and large book buyers. 
8I« Stale St., - ERIE, PA. 




Continued inquiry with reganl to "In- 
struction by Mair" has induced me to 

A Course of 50 Lessons in 
Writing . 

EliEeiE]. ^-f^-, aCLd- ^"CriF^^f^X-O, ^T- -ST- 

H.C. CLARK. .-.--- ^- - - . President, 

C. U. JOHNSON, .-----..- Secretary. 

CLARK & JOHNSON. - - Proprietors. 

A Course ol 150 Lessons in 

[■of EXKBGISES, tbe SIaikIbi 
•OABErS, Word Cople*, Seotai 

lotj of Fane; Oapllulu, Muacali 

«s' Capitals 


wi-o, ...^-v—JHodetpllcI- 
MOTEUENTS, poaltloD of 

plea, proporOone, il 


.'», ALL FEE 
oipllclt priD 

pi ot 81 

J°i. *°' "■ 







Bftr oomparison 

BUI Note. Mo 


B«KliUrea Lattai 

B. K. 


,1 N. I. N 

Schools, Valpara 


W. H. Slocum'.s School of Stenography is now associated with these Colleges. 

Twelfth Edition Now Ready. 

Class-Sook of Comnsrdal-Law 

A Plain, Practical Explanation of the Laws 


President of the Alhantj Business College 
* Used in all the leading colleges aud I 
schools throughout the United States 
and Canadas. 

Siasle Copies, J» 1 .OO. 
For circulars or specimen copies, ad 

Albany Business College, Albany, N. Y 



Penmen who desire first-class ink and 
wish to have it fresh and reliable, can 
secure two splendid receipts to make Jet 
Black Ink and Carmine Fluid in such 
quantities as they desire, at one-tenth 
of the cost at stores, by inclosing 26 
cents and addressing 

Prof. H. Russell, 
Drawer 3,175, Joliet, III. 

The Coal and Iron Exchange Building, Buffttii 

rk->^ Bus 

The course of study embraces the most thorough and complete the 
Scholarships good in either College. Students may enter at any time 


of reviewing at any future time, •■ 

Good board can be had in eitl 

Students enter into actual biiM 
by any other Business College. 

r Collegv is located. 
I the world. 

tical and actual business training i 

_th equal advantages. 

titling the holder to all the advantages of the Commercial Course, and 
V $50 

■ r I'.iiilalo at $3.50 per week. 

■ ■\t.-.- as conducted between the two cities, affording advantages not approached 
. .1 \ i>uiit,' men and women to attend either of these Colleges, as eciual advantages 

^.^ to be had in each school. 

The Institutions are in direct communication with the leading business men in aU parts of the country, and students 
are helped to the best positions obtainable, as graduates from these Colleges have no difficulty m securing honorable and 
lucrative employment, . . 

^•- .- - .. . -.-.._.. ,, .- „_.. *u.. .-„*„_., ...jii t,p pleased to furnish infor- 



Erie, I=a.., or EMffalo, 3Sr. "^ 




;i5 stale Street, 


fortlioF«n nod M-roler <,^; •- b. lonnd In ihj cllj 

Gray Bros, Pino Shoss for Ladies, 
Cox, Gardner &Dorris' Pine Gents' Shoes. 


710 Wtot 



Fine Teas, Coffees, 


The b**(*t selected stock of 


Always on Ilniid. 

No. 3 Noble Block, 


Mutual Assessment 



Guarantees *he Face of its Certifi- 
cates, Defines the Cost, Pro- 
vides for Contingencies. 



Honesty, I Qtiaranteod. Deposits 

Solidity, and 

Permanency, I Certificates of Credit. 

$u3eUU Investing O^iOU 

To Sample our New Cards and Specialties 

ott-2 50. PeliTsr^d free, i3.00. 

)LD BEVEL EDGE, 12 different ilyleg 

Gold Edge concave, roiini), nlipp^d cornem... 
Extra Weddlug Creum Wbito Tinted Cardo... 
Back Wine and Blue Cards, very flee, only.. 
Best 8-ply White and Gold Wcl, aworled ill 

I'll at -25 and 60 ceoti a doien, ca\l tbem only 25 oeuta 
.liev amount to 837.00: deduct coat of stock you mak< 

JtEAD—Bane elfared tlO In g day*' limt, hmt milf/ lutd « 
fco—Prof. Onbb, WOmmslott, DtL Cheap fol of cardi f<,\ 

ievj Orleant, La. ' large Il^l Show Card, Prict Lul, etc 

N. E. CARD CO., 75 Nassau St., N. Y. 


ABLE Pr,EMJUMtoself-i;jstruciion / 







,!t,.,il. .„p.rl„r f.riliil,.. t; lmp.rlli>E • SOUND 

BUSINESS THAINING. ^ w„kijr i.«i,„« i,y 
Music,,fr«, Short Band Department .^u.i to 

OBSKLIN COLUIi£'<lip»iDtiii of Feimuubip, 

liTM .Teaehe.,' Cours. (IZweek.J for $2 5. CO 

^n*t andD.1. Ooi-n. (12 w.«kB> lor _ 25. GO 

riiU PtorM.lDD.1 Course (llmo unUoiltMl) 50.00 

An .l.g.ol Diplom. I. ...rd«l to .11 On.dn.tM. 

Hor. thin 100 Sptdmra.of P.nn.n.blp. ™in«l .iSl.OW), 
l.coi«ti tn. ATOrlmente P.n Atti.t.' nnd T.ncb- 
,r.'Tr.lnlns« .p.tnliy. '^*„*'°^"j",|J'^'^J™|"'„'"o" 

j/t<w;v jw/**"— 



Gem Cifil Ji 

College, Quinci/, III. 


Or Seven Simple Principles. 

"Swift as Speech, Plain as P>-inr, Easy as A B C 

E. J. MARCH, Pres. Scio College, Scio. 0. 

&.— Plain Wblte. good qu»iity, $o.40 P-M 

B.-Wedding BiiBtol, <rery bMt i» .M 

C.-j'UtEdge. ai«>rt*d 53 IM 

0.-'' svel out Edge, the. 8o«t .» IM- 

£. -Bevels of Cream and White .se IM- 

3.— SUk and Satltt Bevels 80 Ll»*j 

1.— Eight-ply Bevels, BMorted, _. .62 Ui,^* 

I.-EUte, lUo laleat fltylM 64 IM 

Address Lines— Extra 20 ,0 


Thoetimplngoftbo flngen by coatlsaoiifl writiLg, acivhicliIE 

T^o. 2, LsDg, TiDchoG, 35 cnU, 

■sz.3. ■• e '■ « " 

Ho. 4, Gliort,G'," i6 " 

So.5, " 6'-,-' SO " 

Hob. 2 and 3, Uodion; i and 6, oitri wlis. 

Business "Wpiteps! 

,. by uM 

i>Et. win 

The Western Penman. 

Every Nnmber Contains a Lesson in Writing, a Les:on in Lettering, a Lesson in Floarisliiog, 

I L. MADARASZ, Box 2116, N. Y. City. 


: ta»te- and )^kiii. To students who wish Kood mod^ 
I of flourishing to practice from, tliese wlU be 
found to be" the thine. ' Price, $1.06 perpaek- 
of 13. ^- 


u«*uri,o„rd qircJiTioi o/ bold ti,n««. tr-idnp m Omjkgp 
eUer, and nnv qiie'lioiit avufeertil, on tlir /tnert gualDy^O- 

td payer, price 30 Cents. , 


The Subscription Price is Only 60 Cents a Tear, 

HcenfT-*V<> I>4>llai- :Boolt, anJ th 

- - pie copy will he ieni for ex-mlnatloo, np..n recel|. 

PAX^M-l^tt «fc OO., Boi 466, Chicago. Jftn8li-tl 

.0 puMiab 

rOiiu X>olla 


ecinieOB ofoff-hand flouriBbinc mich « 
I. etc.. on Jinruled Dapor, Which BTI 

spirited ' 
'rice, -' 

t h7 any pemnan. Price. 20 cents each. 

ceded by all to be the i 
sent out by any pemna 
2 for 46 cents. $2.10 per dozen. 


Sadler's Hand-Book of Arithmetic. 

aentials Religiously Excluded.— Addrt 
A. 3IoderJi Text-^Bot 

Understanding.— Relieves the Memory. 

' JVTod 

'e'ird'in"geuiouB seta of inductive i^tluna. bow probl 

LESSONS Is lo primary Ina 
Prite: Complete, $1; 
As a Teacher's desk ( 

mpleto, $1.60; PaTtI(loP 

' Sadler's Indnctive Arithmetic, it 

.rill, $1.00; Witt a gnnranlee to refund tbe 

world. Each 25 c«nta. 2 sets (diff-reDt), 16 oent^S! 
retent). 02 cent*. Meutlon if you d«lre pUlu or " 

lUl Biylei. 



It bU0k 

manufacture, 30 cents. 

CARD i;«'RIXlI>iO PEiKti. 

If you experience dlfltcully in sect 


^^^^^^H I 11 page«tTomtiio Inductive Arithmetic will lie I QljHHii^^^B 

rriuciDalsnfOimnicrciiil ColleReR and H..hi.-r=Ns Inniiiiil^B ^vtio coniomplftte a cbunge of arllbmetlcs, Bhould 

nuBlnese <Jo 


p. 0. Box 2116, - New York Cl^. 

le on, M 

ircular of 

ill mv specialtie 


^•W. M- SAT>I^EO,Pto.idDntB^r,|«^S^lrj^lton^^^.^ »t n^n™^^|.^^ ^^ | .^^^^^^ 

^' »*#»*; '""l^'y^ f 

CLARK &, JOHNSON, Proprietors. 

H. C. CLARK, Editor. 

S. A. DRAKE, Associate Editor. 

ERIE, PA., and BUFFALO, N. Y. APRIL, ii. 

Vol. -1— No. 4. 




Clark's Prsgressive Bask-keepina 

03>TE DOIjXj-A.12, 

to all those who subscribe before 

NIAY 1, 1886. 

The iibove bjK't'ial premium is of- 
fered for a limited time only, and is a 
rare opportunity to get the leading 
penmen's paper and a coi)y of Clark's 
Progressive Book-keepiiig for One 
Dollar. We do this for two reasons: 
First, to increase the circulation of 
Thi-: .\merican Penman; and second, 
U> introduce the Progressive Book- 
keeping to teachers and students. 
Volume First, which is offered as a 
premium, is the best self-instructor 
ever published, as a key follows every 
set, with full and explicit instructions. 
No teacher in the Public Schools 
should be without it. as the study of 
book-keeping, by our method, is very 
easy and comprehensive. Every pupil 
should have it, as he will thereby save 
considerable time in mastering the 
full coui-se. Business men should not 
be without a copy, as it is a valuable 
book of reference, containing many 
importtuit commercial terms, forms 
and definitions. Every Business Col- 
lege principal and teacher will find it 
to their interest to secure a cojn'. as it 
will give them an opportunity to be- 
enme acquainted with its labor and 
time-saving advantages, which will 
undoubtedly lead to its introduction 
into their schools. Academy and 
High School principals and teachers 
should have a copy of the Progressive 
Book-keeping, as they will derive 
much benefit from a careful examina- 
tion and study of the work. Mer- 
chants, clerks and fanners will find it 
to their advantage to accept this offer, 
as there is no work published that 

will give them such practical informa- 
tion upon the science of accounts. 

Many readei-s of The American 
Penman consider the paper worth 
one dollar, and even at that figure the 
cheapest and best paper of its class. 
Do not fail to subscribe now, as this 
offer will positively be recalled after 
May firet. 

Remittances can be made by Reg- 
istered Letter, Postal Note, or Money 

Address all orders to 


Erie, Pa. 

Rapidity and legibility should go 
hand in hand. It is certainly a fine 
accomplishment to be able to write in 
an easy and graceful style. You can 
not attach too much importance to 
this fact. 

How old should a child be to tak' 
his first lessons in penmanshij)? This 
question is frequently .asked, and calls 
out widely different answere. We 
believe in teaching a child how to 
write just as soon as he is able to 
read. But we do not believe in al- 
lowing him to be the subject of ex- 
periment by an unskilled teachi 
A good teacher of writing can benefit 
most any one, and a child of ten 
years is old enough to begin to receive 

Public school teachers should give 
more attention to the subject of writ- 
ing, and not depend upon copy books 
to teach that which lliey cannot. A 
good writing teacher should be em- 
ployed by every well regulated school, 
whether it be in the country or city. 
If this were done poor writers would 
in two years ft"om now be as scarce 
as good ones are at the jiresent time. 

The Business College is frequently 
sought by that class of persons who 
get no attention in writing while in 
the public schools, and yet our 
friends of the present public school 
system say they are good enough and 
cannot be improved. We would 
to inquire if the public schools 
are not getting above their business? 
If the jiupils are not taught even 
the three " R's," what are the public 
schools for, and what practical re- 
sults are they accomplishing? Will 
some one please inform us ? 


The Corresponderux University Jour- 
nal, Chicago, 111., is an excellent 

The Penman's Gazette for March is 
the best number we have seen. It is 
a creditable paper. 

The Liveotn Monthly, published by 
LilUbridge & Roose, Lincoln, Neb., is 
a creditable journal. 

The School Visitor comes to our sanc- 
tum regularly. It is a worthy expo- 
nent of the Northwestern Business 
College, Madison, Wis. 

The Westet^i Penman is a good paper 
and worthy of a large circulation. 
The paper is now published at Cedar 
Rapids, la. 

The Carry Institute Index is at hand, 
and we find it a beautiful college 
journal. The articles are well se- 
lected and the paper neatly printed. 

The Penman's Art Joumul is gaining 
instead of losing in appearance. It 
always has been a good paper, anil 
we know of no reason why it should 
not remain so. 

The CoUegc Quarterly, published by 
Prof. W. E.' Drake, Jersey City, N. j"., 
is the ablest college paper we have re- 
ceived. Brother Drake knows how to 
get up a good paper. 

!ZAe later-State Advocate is the name 
of a new journal that has come to 
our table. It is published by John 
M. Reid, Morrill, Kansas. It is a 
creditable j)aper. 

The Rochester Commercial Review has 
recently been added to our exchange 
list. It is a bright paper, and if the 
editor will keep watch of the The 
American Penman, he will find it a 
■egular visitor. 

Homes's Ledijer, Fall River, Mass., 
s a very readable paper. It con- 
tained the following notice of The 
American Penman in a recent issue: 
' The American Penman, by Prof H, 
C. Clark, of Erie, Pa., is at hand. It 
first-class paper and justly de- 
serves an extensive patronage, which 
no doubt it will receive. 

The International Business College 
Journal, Altoom, Pa., comes to us a 
welcome visitor. It is ably edited, 
finely illustrated, and well printed. 
We clip the following notice from a 
recent issue: "The February num- 

ber of The American Penman, pub- 
lished by H. C. Clark, Eric, came duly 
to hand, • This is a new aspirant for 
favors at the hands of commercial 
educators. The i>ublication deserves 
a large circulation, and judging from 
the way Prof Clark does everything 
he attempts, we conclude it already 
has a host of readers, and will con- 
tinue to grow and prosper. Our best 
wishes, friend C." 

What better legacy can a young 
man or woman have than a practical 
business education. Wealth may take 
wings and fly away; reputation is lia- 
ble to be injured, but acquired knowl- 
edge is a foundation of usefulness, 
perj)etually moistening the fields of 
wealth and fame. Fathers, do not the 
failures of your acquaintances and 
friends, and possibly of yourselves, 
appeal to you like the thunder from 
Mount Sinai, to so equip your own 
children that they may avert the dan- 
gers that are likely to befall them. 

Clark's Business CoLLEGE.s,Erie,Pa., 
and Bufliilo, N. Y., are now in the 
best possible condition,and the Buffalo 
school promises to become a great 
success. During the past month, 
which was its first, nearly fifty stu- 
dents were enrolled. The people of 
Buffalo are evidently not slow to 
appreciate a good thing, therefore, the 
liberal patronage extended to the new 
school. The College is centrally loca- 
ted, being in the t'oal and Iron Ex- 
change Building, having elevator ac- 
commodations and all the modern 
improvements. The rooms are ele- . 
gantly furnished, and a first-class 
corps of priictical instructors are em- 
ployed. Mr. C. U. Johnson is Secre- 
tary and equal partner in both Col- 
H. C. Clark is President, re- 
taining his residence at Erie, giving 
personal attention to tiie Erie College, 
The schools offer equal advantages 
and actual business practice is to be a 
reality for the student rather than 
mere school-room work, which gives 
the Colleges advantages not ap- 
proached by any other school. 

We have frequently noticed that 
those Business Colleges where a 
good practical style of ijenmanship is 
tiught, lead all others in prosperity 
and general usefulness. Why is it? 

Subscribe for The American Pen 




He growls about his boarding place. 

He growls about his bed ; 
He giowls about most ever>'ihing— 

Wants someihingelse instead. 
He growls about his laundryman, 

Me growls about the tailor ; 
He growls about the fit of things 

Like Jack Tar board a whaler. 
He growls about (he daily news, 

He growls because it's new ; 
He growls about an article 

That doesn't suit his view. 
He growls about his daily work, 

He growls because it's labor ; 
He growls because he was not born rich, 

A was his next door neighbor. 
He growls because he has no wife. 

He growls about the ladies ; 
He growls about the styles they wear — 

Consigns them all to Hades. 
He growls when he to thealie goes. 

He growls abnut the seals ; 
He growls about the play again 

To every one he meels. 
He growls about a legacy. 

He growls because 'lis small ; 
He growls as if it were his right 

That he should get it all. 
He growls about the Holy Writ, 

He growls because he can ; 
He growls because he's bound to growl, 

He's such a cranky man. 


My young friends: I am not an edu 
cated man or a learned profeflsor, com 
petent to instrufit you in any branch of 
science, or to give you useful informa- 
tion in regard to any subject relative to 
human knowledge;! have not the know- 
ledge, and if I had, I have not the tuue 
to prepare an extensive and elaborate 
lecture, but what I wish to bring before 
you thif* iiiorning will be whatever 
call out from the recessea of my mind, 
and which has been stored there in 
years gone by. 

Any one who has an opportunity to 
store knowledge throughout life, will 
find the trouble, that men will be able to 
retain only about so much, and we for- 

ive learned formerly, 
i we learn the new. 
as myself, forget 
e of what we learned 
ivish to keep up with 
ontinually learn new 

get that which 
about as rapidly 
So business me 
that, or at least s( 
in youth, and if w 
the times, we uius 

I hardly know what particular thought 
to present to you this morning. I sup- 
pose young people wont soiuething 
which will be held up to them as models. 
Many of you are here probably by quite 
a sacrifice, or personal inconvenience. 
Some motives, which are honorable, 
bring you here. All young people 
shotJd have an inspiration, and I have 
even heard business men say they would 
go to New York or Philadelphia for an 
inspiration to give them help to push 
their business more energetically and 
more successfully. These men lived 
smaller towns around these cities, and 
went to New York or Philadelphia, and 
compared business life there with that 
at home. They there found everything 
and everybody rushing. You will 
the same thing in Chicago; everybody 
has not the time to walk along at 8 
ular and easy step, but they go in a 
rush. So these men go to these cities 
that they may get inspiration to push 
things. So young men may get inspira- 
tion by observing the energy and bustle 
of those about them. In country towns 
the boys at school need a little oil of 

birch to give them an inspiration, and 
tell yon, boys, many of our suc- 
cessful men are not ashamed to admit 
that the oil of birch helped them to 
their success. 

ays we see and hear a great 
deal about ideals. Now, an ideal is a 
important thing. It is said that all 
have their ideals. When I see a 
young man, and I mean 
too, who has no ideal, 
they can hope for 

ideal, in its proper signification, means 
the highest or noblest thought, and is 
the highest and noblest part of the 
character, or that which is most grand 
and magnificent in nature or action. 
There are four classes— ideals of duty; 
ideals of character, ideals of beauty, and 
ideals of performance. From one of 
these classes you must choose. Now, an 
ideal of duty is very wide in its range. 
Let me give you an example: A young 
man came to me last fall and said he was 
an engineer, earning a small salary, and 
that his parents were old and not able 
to do much hard work. He wanted to 
buy a farm for them and pay for it him- 
self. He said he was without family and 
would pay for it as he could. That to 
hhu was an ideal of duty; he had pic- 
tured to himself that such an ideal was 
self-sacrificing and a willingness to suf- 
fer and endure, that he might buy a 
home tor his parents. This is an ideal 
of djity, and in it you see a motive for 
such a duty. This is better s 
this example. Another young 
woman may conceive his ideal in another 
way. He may have a great deal of money 
and find his ideal of duty is in being able 
to help the poor and needy. He may 
spend his whole Ufe and fortune in doing 
all he can for them, and thus finds the 
summit of his ideal. Abraham Lincoln 
was another young man who devoted 
his fortune to the wants of the suffering 
and for the abolition of slavery. A 
Princess. I do not remember her name, 
also devoted her life and fortune in the 
same way. Her ideal of duly was to do 
all the good she could in the world. 

is another way in which you 
may seize upon and accomplish the same 
thing. A person who has no ideal of 
duty, chararter^ beauty or performance, 
is sure to remain on the lowest round 
of the ladder of fame, and rise no higher. 
A person may not, necessarily, have the 
same ideal all the time. The ideal of 
the man is very different from the ideal 
of the boy. Several instances 1 remem- 
ber when I was a boy. In those days, 
we had large stage coaches, drawn by 
four horses. I would see the coach, as 
it came through the town in which I 
lived, with the driver seated on top, 
cracking his whip at the horses, and I 
thought I should he happy if I could only 
be a stage driver. That was my ideal 
of happiness and beauty, when a boy. 
I remember of a school teacher, who 
told me that his ideal, as a young man, 
was to own the span of fastest horses 
on the road, but when he grew older he 
did not care for such things. Take a 
farmer, for mstance; he must have, for 
his ideal, a successful farmer. No mat- 
ter whether you are satisfied in life or 
not, your ideal should be to rise higher. 
If a man wishes to learn to be a ma- 
chinist, a carpenter, or become master of 
any other trade or profession, he must 
have an ideal or he will 
There are many men at the foot and 
few at the top of the ladder of fami 
there is always room for good men at the 
top. You must have your ideal 
business man, otherwise you will 
poor driveling creature, never rising 
to the true dignity of manhood, 
must have these patterns before 
which, it is true, are the creations of the 
mind. A oaetle In the air is something 

which we have no business to flatter 
ourselves will ever materialize, but when 
call to our conception that which is 
grand in human achievement, there is 
nothing which we picture in our minds, 
that we can say we are unable to accom- 
plish, iintil we have tried it. We must 
have these ideate before us , otherwise 
we have nothing to serve as an inspira- 
tion. So I say this ideal, which every 
man and woman should have, and which 
is necessary for our well being, is espec- 
ally important to those in middle life. 
We live, as it were, three lives; tlie life of 
the Past, the life of the Present, and the 
life of the Future. The life of the present 
comprises the enjoyments of the present, 
moment, and those which we realize 
most vividly: the Ufe of the past the Ufe 
of the old man, who lives in the past as 
much as in the present. I saw a Parisian 
picture the other day, in which were 
three old soldiers: one of them was 
marking out on the ground a map of a 
certain battle he had fought. These old 
soldiers were Uving in the past; they 
were recalling to their minds those 
scenes of the past which were filled with 
sorrow or joy These men could not so 
much enjoy the present, as they could 
the past or the future. A young man or 
middle-aged man will live in the future 
quite as much as in the present, espec- 
ially the young men of our large cities. 
What you expect to become, interest* 
you more than what you are now; the 
inspiration of the future, and what you 
would like to be, is your ideal. Have 
you formed this ideal yet? What is it? 
What is your greatest conception of life? 
of you are too young to picture to 
yourselves what you would Uke to be; 
i of you, who are here; are old 
gh to have your ideals fully pic- 
tured in your minds. It is necessary 
that you should understand this, and 
have it in your mind, before you will be 
successful. Some young people will say, 
what is the use of having in your mind 
an ideal of what you would be, or what 
you want to accompUsh? We may have 
in our mind an ideal man or woman, and 
you will wish to do as well as this man 
or woman, and thus it wiU help you. 

We are limited, more or less, by our 
surroundings; we have grand concep- 
tions in the mind, but we do not always 
undertake to bring about that which 
will give us the results. If we have 
these ideals we must so conduct our- 
selves, so direct our efforts and so apply 
our energies that we can see the fulfill- 
ment of our ideals. It is said that Mich- 
ael Angelo, one of the greatest seulpters 
the world has ever known, became so 
enamored with a statue of one of the 
great masters, that he caressed it, until 
it showed the marks of his hands upon 
it. This formed in his mind a concep- 
tion of beauty; it enabled him to form 
an ideal of beauty in art, just as the 
study of Belvedere is said to represent 
the perfection of the human f 
is the same with the other statues, Dan- 
iel and David, which he made. These 
were all great works of art. This coi 
ception, the ideal of beauty, helped hii 
to bring out his ideal the more perfectly 
in his work. 

So it is if you go back to the age of 
Moses, when there was no such thing 
H8 architecture. He had a revelation 
Mount Sinai, where he was taught by 
God how to build a tabernacle. Whe 
he came down from the Mount to hi 
people, he did not tell them howto build 
a tabernacle, and say that he had had a 
revelation, but commenced it at once. 
It was an ideal of beauty to his mind. 
This ideal of beauty resulted in the same 
way in the building of Solomon's Tem- 

There is another way in which we may 
have ideals, in regard to certain things 
concerning the development of the 

human character. We have otir 
ideals of performance, or of beauty, 
without whiph we should not desire 
either beauty or good performance; 
consequently these serve to elevate us 
in respect to character. You may have 
your ideal of a perfect man, woman, 
horse, or any animate object, and Its 
contemplation wiU elevate you. It Is 
impossible to study such without feeling 
the improvement in ourselves. Whi 
do you think of a man or a woman 
cannot see any beauty in the lofty u 
tain and winding valley t I havi 
respect for such persons, they show a 
lack of education. We may not only 
see the beauty in such objects, but we 
may feel an improving influence from 
their contemplation. No man can go 
out in the night and see the stars, whioh 
are all worlds greater than ourown,ajid 
which were made by the same Creator, 
without being made better by such a 
sight. Who can view the Falls of Niag- 
ara without feeliug the grandeur of 
that magnificent scene, or go West and 
see those lofty mountains, the tops of 
which are always covered with snow, 
and not be improved and have better 
thoughts ? Whether we go down to the 
things of nature or not, no man can look 
upon the beautiful and not feel the 
power of that beauty. I would not give 
a cent for a picture which did not pos- 
sess at least one figure that is beautiful. 
There is something in such a picture, 
even though it be but a figure of a head, 
which flUs our ideals of that wiiich Ib 
perfection in art. It is a constant souroe 
of pleasure. Every time we gaze upon 
that picture, or any beautiful object, 
our eyes will rest upon its beautiful 
points, and we will feel the power of in- 
spiration, for it cultivates our higher 
nature. A piece of statuary wUl bring 
to your mind the perfect in art. 

In closing, I want to say this: It doeB. 
not do us any good to have these idealB, 
or to picture in our minds that which Is 
best or noblest in man or woman, if we 
do it for the simple satisfaction, whioh 
may pass so quickly. We must be able 
to appreciate these ideals, and they may 
be good, bad. or indifferent. The idei^ 
is that, as I have said before, whioh Is 
the noblest or the best conception at 
the mind. Therefore, it certainly be- 
hooves you to have in your minds that 
which is the most perfect. Then what 
you must do is to go to work and see all 
the good you can. and allow those ideals 
to serve as your inspirations. Perhaps 
many of you cannot see the importanoft 
of so much learning. You point to 
some man who has been successful In 
life and who is making money, and say 
he did not goto school after he was twelve 
years old, and why should you not do M 
well as he has done? Education, in 
itself, is hapiiiness. and it will make yoQ 
a better man or woman. When you gat 
older you are glad to get this chanos^ 
but the boy is apt to think lightly of 
these things. You cannot easily con- 
sider, in everyday duties, anything that 
is too difficult for you to do. It is just 
like the conception of many of youp 
earUest duties. You go into a gyiona- 
slum and see those who are performing 
wonderful things, and showing great 
strength; you attempt those same feats 
and find you are unable to do them. Tsj 
to lift a heavy weight, and you fail; but 
try to take a smaller weight at flrit; 
the first day you are able to lift b|^ 
little, the second day more, and so <X^ 
until you attain the maximum of yo^" 
strength, and you wiU be surprised to 
find that you are able to lift so muo!!^- 
It is possible to limit ourselves only by 
our capabilities. The way for you to do 
is to try and develop your ideals of life 
in the same way. 

Whatever your ideals of life are, you. 
must try to attain them, or they will be 


of no value to you. You miist have 
tbe«e ideulw and conceptions of charac- 
ter, and sliould try and live up to them. 
Think about them, and they will lift 
you higher and higher in the scale of 
beauty and moral culture; you will then 
be able the better to see the moral at- 
tributes of character. When it relates 
to the elements of character or the per- 
foniiance of duty, they will serve you as 
helps, and then you will be better able 
to fulfill the ambition of your ideals and 
attain the mark of successful manhood. 


Article TIT. 


The Introduction to a letter may 
consist of one, two, three, or four lines, 
as shown in the following 


No. 1. 
/)car Sir: 

drtmti of the party to whom the letter is 

The third, fourth, and fifth introduc- 
tions above are complete, inasmuch as 
they give the full name and address; 
the first and second are incomplete. 
If the first or second model is used, 
the name and address should be* written 
at tlie close of the letter in the lower 
left-hand corner. 

The .S'a^wtoi/o/i.— In social correspond- 
ence, the form of salutation should be 
governed chiefly by the relation of the 
writer to the person addressed. Among 
the expressions used are: Dear Friend, 
My Dear Friend, Kind Friend, Friend 
Minnie, Dear Friend Ocorffe, Dear 
Father, My Dear Mother, Dear Parents, 
Dearest Jane, Dear Mias Hammond, 

In busmess letters, the ordinary salu- 
tations in addressing a gentleman, are: 
Sir, Dear Sir, My Dear Sir. In address- 
ing a firm or a number of persons: Sirs, 
Dear Sirs, Oentlemen. To a married 
lady, Madam, Dear Madam. In ad- 

tion, as in Model 5, it is best to begin 
the salutation back at the marginal 

The punctuation mark after the salu- 
tation, in social or friendship letters, 
may be a comma, or a comma and a 
dash; in business correspondence, a 
colon, or a colon and a dash. 

The body is the communication itself, 
exclusive of the heading, introduction, 
and conclusion. As already stated 
above, when the introduction occupies 
one or two lines, the first line of the 
body should begin on the next line be- 
low; if the introduction occupies more 
than two lines, the body should begin 
on the same line with the salutation. 

2he Margin is the blank space at the 
left of the page. Its width is governed 
by the size of the sheet; in note paper 
from one-fourth to one half inch, letter 
paper from one-half to three fourths 
inch. Care should be taken to keep the 
marginal line straight, and parallel with 
the edge of the paper. 

should be signed with the fidl name of 
the writer. In writing to a stran>;er, a 
lady should sign her name in sucli a 
way as to indicate not only her sex, but 
whether she is married or single, other- 
wise her correspondent will not know 
whether to address the answer to 3/r., 



If the writer wishes the answer to his 
letter directed to any other place than 
that given at the heading of the letter, 
he should write his directions under the 

Position and Arrangement of the Con- 
clmion.—The Complimentary Close usu- 
ally occupies but one line; but when 
very long, as in official letters, it may 
occupy two or three lines. In either 
case, it begins on fixe first line below the 
body, either at the middle of the line, 
or a little to the right or to the left of 
the middle, depending on the size of the 
sheet, and the nuoiber and length of 
the words composing it. 

The signature is written on the nest 
line below the Complimentary Close, 
and should end near the right edge of 
the sheet. 

No. 2. 
A. H. Hlnman, 

Dear Sir. 

No. 4. 
A. H. Hinman, 

Worcester, Mass, 
Dear Sir: 

No. 5. 
A. H. Hinman, 

79 Madison St., 

Worcester, Mas)i. 
Dear Sir: 
It is desirable that a letter Bhould 
contain the full name and address of 
the person to whom it is written, as well 
ns the name and address of the writer, 
so that in ease the outside address on 
the envelope should be effaced and the 
letter go astray, it could be restored to 
♦either party. The heading and signa- 
ture furnish the name and address of 
the writer; and the introduction, when 
written in full, gives the name and ad- 

ried lady, the 
salutations may be used, or the saluta- 
tion may be omitted, her name only be- 
ing used. 

Position and arringcment of the Tntro- 
duc'/ion.— The Introduction should be- 
gin at the marginal line at the left, and 
on the first line below the heading. 
In using Models 1 and 3, the body of 
the letter should begin on the first line 
below the salutation, and just at the 
right When either number 3, 4, or 5 
is used, the body of the letter should 
begin 071 the same line with the saluta- 
tion, and about one-half inch to the 
right. When writing on note paper or 
note heads, as a rule it is preferable to 
bring the salutation back to the mar- 
ginal line as in Model 4. If letter paper 
or letter heads are used, the arrange- 
ment may be either as in Model 3, or 
Model 4. unless the address should be 
very long, when the arrangement of 
Model 4 is preferable, thus: 
Iviaon, Btakeman^ Taylor & Co. , 

755 Broadway, New York- 
Dear Sirs: 
If four lines are used for the introduc- 

/''«p/jj*.— Like other composition, 
a letter should be divided into para- 
graphs, according to the different dis- 
connected subjects of which it treats. 
Each paragraph, except the first,should 
begin about three-fourths of an inch to 
the right of the marginal line. A little 
attention given to margining and para- 
graphing adds much to the appearance 
of a letter. 


The Conclusion generally consists of 
the Complimentary Close, and the Sig- 

The Complimentary Close is the term 
of endearment or respect preceding the 
signature. Among the most common 
expre.ssions for social correspondence, 
are: Your friend. Your true friend. 
Yours sincerely. Yours affectionately. 
Your sincere friend, Ever Yours, Your 
Loving Wife, etc. In busines:* letters, 
or in letters to strangers or mere ac- 
quaintances, the following forms are 
appropriate: Yours, Yours Truly, Truly 
Yours, Yours Pespectfutty, Very Pe- 
apcetfully, Youra Pesp'y, Very truly 
yours, etc. 

The Signature.— As a rule, all letters 


Folding a letter is a simple operation, 
yet it is often very awswardly per- 
formed. The following directions will 
aid the inexperienced: 

Note Paper and Note Heads.— Fok\ 
the lower half up so as to have the bot- 
tom edge nearlv meet the top edge; 
then fold the right third over to ftie 
left, and the left third over to the right. 

The directions presuppose that the 
first page of the paper is turned up, and 
that the envelope is adapted to the 
paper. If the envelope is square, as is 
frequently the case in fancy stationery, 
the paper requires but a single fold. 

The crease last folded shouUl be in- 
serted into the envelope first 


No. 1. 
Yoi/rs Pfs/jccffully, 

Henry C. Smith. 
( With address.) 
Yours very truly, 

B. M. Woodinff. 

'n. Wis. 



r obedient Servant, 

Very RcsncetfuUy, 

\ "'"•'iitttt. .jwt/i*.»i., 

D. M. Hendet 
No. 4. 

(Miss) Jennie Lemuel. 




The AnieriGari PeFiniati, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

Slnf^Ie copies of TnK ; 


m wui give a 


11 jenr. 


Until further n 
per cent, from a 





\'e liave made arrangements with the pabllaher of 

e published In Chattanooga, Tenn., to furnlah onr 

tgress one year for$1.00,wlilcti Is the 
Bnbscrlption price of the "Pcoffress" alone. 
To all peraons Interesting 


all subscript JODfl 
PsNMAN. We prefer 
secuiins clubs, and 

forwarded to The 

to give cash premiums 

this rule wUl be Invariably followed. 

Remittances should be made by N. T. Draft, P. 
Money Or<ler, Postal Note, or Beglsiered Letter, t 


The value of business education is 
something that cannot be estimated. 
A great majority of the assignments 
and failures in business could be 
avoided by properiy educating the 
business men. The problem, "How 
to Succeed in Business," is one which 
has occujiied, or should occupy, the 
attention of every young man in 
America. This problem admits of 
but one solution, viz.: Make a thor- 
ough preparation. Obtain a solid 
foundation in the way of business 
education at some first-class Business 
College. A thorough business train- 
ing lies within the reach of every en- 
ergetic young man. If his means are 
limited* and it is impossible for him 
to obtain a thorough classical training, 
he should be stimulated the more to 
j^rasp that which lies within his reach. 
The average young man, by his own 
(wertion, within the space of twelve 
months, can earn money enough and 
complete a course in a first-class 
Business College. What excuse can 
be made ? The time when "ignorance 
was bliss" has long since passed, and 
to-day the world admires the success- 
ful man. Get a thorough business 
training and you have a foundation 
upon which to build a successful life. 

Subscribe for Thk Amekican Pkn- 

PEXMANSHn*, in some of the Busi- 
ness Colleges, has been so simplified 
and overhauled that the students are 
beginning to wonder what these 
schools are for but to teach a busi- 
ness education, and if penmanship is 
not used in business, how long has it 
been since some of these commercial 
schools found it out. "Why, young 
man," says the Principal, "we believe 
in allowing the student to select his 
own idea of writing, and work right 
along in that line. There is no need 
of teaching practical penmanship, 
when we have engraved copies for 
him to follow; as they are so much 
better than any copy that a teacher 
can write, we do not bother our 
heads about it." Poor misguided 
college man, you ought to be pr 
cuted for perpetrating a fraud. Do 
you not know that the public patron- 
ize your institution quite as much for 
the penmanship as anything else, and 
if you do not give proper instruction 
in that branch, your college should 
close its doors. "Teach your boys 
that which they will practice when 
they become men," means a good 
handwriting fully as much as a com- 
plete knowledge of accounts. 

It is a rtmarkable fact that often a 
good book-keeper who writes poorly 
is obliged to make room for a less 
competent accountant, who is a much 
better penman. Is this consistency? 
Well, we are of the opinion that good 
writing will come out ahead in a 
hand-to-hand contest. 


J. W. Merchant, Kansas City, Mo., 
writes a fine business hand, 

N. E. Young, New Straitsville, 0., 
writes a beautiful letter. 

A. B. Katkamier, Farmington, N. Y., 
favors us with a beautifully written 

McKee & Henderson, Oberlin, 0., 
favors us with a beautifully written 

W. H. Lothrop, of South Boston, 
Mass., favoi-s us with a beautiful speci- 
men of letter writing. 

The Wilton (la.) Review pays a very 
handsome compliment to Prof. A. E. 
Parsons, the popular penman. 

M. H. Barringer, of the Western 
Business College, Gatesburg, III., says: 
" The American Penman is a neat 
paper and worthy a large circulation. 

J. H. Cottle, Fort Tottcn, Dak., en- 
closes in a well-written letter several 
beautifully written cards. In his let- 
ter be says: "As long as your paper 
keeps up the standard it now has, you 
can rest easy that you will succeed." 

W. H. FranzeU, teacher of penman- 
ship, Aberdem, Ark., encloses speci- 
mens of card writing that are very 
beautiful. In his letter he takes occa- 
sion to say: " The March number of 
The American Penman at hand. It 
is fine, and continues to improve. I 

find it a neat and attractive journal, 
fully up with the times, and it de- 
serves to be a regular visitor to all who 
are interested in fine penmanship." 

C. E. Simpson, Saco, Me., in a skill- 
fully written letter, says: " Please 
send me three more copies of the 
March number of The American 
Penman. I am so well pleased with 
it that I want to send my fi-iends a 

F. L. Christopher, Danville, 111., 
says: "The American Penman is one 
of the spiciest penmen's papers it has 
been my lot to receive, and I have 
ceived a great many. Success to y( 

W. G. Christie, of Christie's School 
of Business, Lock Haven, Pa., sends 
us one of the best written letters for 
the month. He evidently is a supe- 
rior penman, and shows his apprecia' 
tion of The American Penman by 
enclosing his subscri])tion for the 

D. H. Farley, the popular penman 
of Trenton, N. J., in an elegantly 
written letter, says; "Your American 
Penman is a credit to yourself and 
the profession. Enclosed find fifty 
cents as a subscriber." 

A. N. Palmer, editor of the Western 
Penman, has removed from Chicago to 
Cedar Rapids, la. We wish him a 
full measure of success, and hope he 
will be as happy as a young sparrow 
in his upw location^ - , 

A. E. Scheithe, a student of the Pen- 
manship Department of Clark's Col- 
lege at Erie, is making rapid improve- 
ment, and his intentions are to stand 
at the head of the profession. We 
hope he may. 

J. H. Topper, of Waterford, Pa., is 
now pursuing a course in the Pen- 
manship Department of Clark's Col- 
lege, and he writes a beautiful hand. 
He intends to make penmanship a 

S. S. Packard, New Turk, favors us 
with a copy of his " Practical Evolu- 
tion," in the form of " a souvenir." 
It is the best thing of the kind we 
have ever seen. 

E. K. Isaacs, Valparaiso, Ind., 
promises to give a lesson in flourish- 
ing in the next number. He is a 
master of the pen, and our readers 
may expect something good from 

C. G. Prince, formerly Secretary of 
Clark's College at Erie, is now teacher 
of Penmanship in the Buffalo College. 
He is a very skillful penman and an 
excellent teacher. 

W. P. Richardson, Business College, 
Fayette, 0., favors us with me of the 
finest specimens of flourishing that 
has ever been presented to The 
American Penman. It will probably 
appear in a future number. He says: 
*' I find that The American Penman 
(March number) is full of grod' 

thoughts and sugj,'estions, which I 
have not found in any other paper of 
the kind. a great help to me in 
teaching the beautiful art. Am get- 
ting up another club." That is right. 

S. S. Spaulding, formerly Professor 
of Actual Business Practice, and asso- 
ciate author of Clark's Progressive 
Book-keeping, is now identified with 
Clark's College at Buff'alo. He has a . 
host of friends who will wish him.l 
abundant success in his new field of 1 

J. H. Topping, Newburgh, N. Y., 
encloses specimens of flourishing, in a 
well-written letter, and tiikes time to 
say: " I am well pleased with my in- 
vestment for The American Penman." 
Mr. T. is only seventeen, but his writ- 
ing would do credit to many of the 
older penmen. 

Prof. E. D. Wilcox, late of Roches- 
ter, N. Y., is meeting with marked 
success as instructor in the Depart- 
ment of Stenography, Clark's College^ 
at Erie. 


This new work was recently pub- 
lished, and is a complete treatise 
upon double-entry book-keeping, in 
one and two volumes. 

Part first treats of Mercantile Book- 
keeping, in a plain and common- 
sense manner. It contains one 
hundred and s^ij^een pages, printed 
upon eighty pound book paper in ■ 
two colors, presenting real written 
pages of the Day Book, Journal, Cash 
Book, Ledger, (the latter in two styles), 
and also Trial and Balance Sheets. 

The Book complete is specially 
arranged for use in Business Colleges,, 
while volume first is intended for" 
Normal Schools, High Schools, Acad- 
emies, and for self-instruction. The 
authors claim for this work the fol- 
lowing points of superiority : 

1st. — That the transactions are 

2d.— The student is not burdened 
with a superfluous amount of theoriz- 

3d. — Great care has been exerci8edt> 
in the gradation of the work, and if, 
is entirely free from complications. 

4th. — The principles of Book-keep- 
ing are ever the same, but the im- 
proved methods of presenting them 
characterize tliis treatise. 

,h. — Each set is followed by a 
plete analysis of every transac- 
tion, with the reasons therefor, there- 
by furnishing a key to the entire 

6th. — The old and new styles of 
Ledgers are fully and clearly illus- 
trated, with proper explanations. 

7th. — There are fourteen pages of 
real business writing, photo-engraved 
from copies prepared by H. C. Clar^ '. 
and is a superior method of presenW 
ing the Day Book, Journal, Caa^* 
Book, Ledger, Trial Balance, Etc., to 
the delight and profit of the student- • 

8th. — The forms of books hereiix 
illustrated are such as to present the* 
most economical and labor-saving 
plan for a book-keeper to follow; in 
short, complications are reduced to a 

-This work is not intended aa 
a mere book of reference, but is a 


desirable treatise upon a most im- 
portant subject, of which every pei-son, 
irrespective of his position, trade, or 
calling, should have a full and com- 
plete knowledge. 

10th. — This treatise is published in 
twn parts, with :i view to its better 
adaptation to tin- needs of all classes 

Vohmie second is now ready, which 
is a clear and comprehensive treatise 
on Corporation Hook-keeping. Tlie 
work, as a whole, is probably tlie best 
and cheapest treatise of double-entry 
hook-keeping jniblished. or at least it 
is the latest, and eoUoges or schools 
desiring to adopt a work that is 
specially adapted to their needs, 
should see a cojiy of this book. The 
foUowint; testiiimnial was chpped 
from a recent issue of The Bvffulo 
Commercial Advertiser, and is only one 
from among many others commend- 
ing the work ; 

"We cheerfully commend a new 
and comprehensive text book on 
})ook-keeping by I'rof H. C. Clark, 
of Clark's Colleges, Huflalo, K.Y., and 
Erie Pcnn., which is destined, in the 
opinion of the best accountants and 
business men, to supercede all other 
works of the kind, and to become the 


If there is oue branch of education 
more than another that is crying ont 
for better methods and improvements in 
teaching, it is the subject of prac- 
tical pentnaiii!iliip The lessons upon 
this subject in previous numbers of 
The American Penmas, were such as 
to bring out many hearty commenda- 
tions, not on account of tbeir great 
length, but because they were practical 
and plain. The student has been told 
that if he lacks proper discipline in 
movemeats— particularly the muscular— 
he can not make much, if any. progress, 
which is quite true; but there are other 
mattei-8 of great interest to the student 
of penmanship, and he would naturally 
say to himself, "I have practiced these 
plaguy movement exercises until I am 
fully convinced that I can not master 
them,'' and thus he toils day after day, 
night after night, without noticing any 
apparent change for the better. Well, 
what shall he doV He may stop practic- 
ing and then he will see a change, a hor- 
rible one too perhaps. He must go ahead. 
He must take new courage and push 
ahead. The obstacles are almost insur- 
mountable, but he must climb, and now 
you watch him as he enters anew the 
race to win. He begins to gather about 
him different books and papers treating 

80 every fine penman can testify, but 
there is a plainer straightforward course 
to pursue, and if followed success is as- 
sured. We shall now invite the readers 
attention to the first lesson in Practical 
Penmanship published in Thk Ameri- 
can Penman, and if you will take the 
clause where the position of the hand 
and pen is explained, you will read 

and see what is needed of you as a stud- 
ent of penmanship. 

The proper position is the easiest and 
most natural one that the writer can 

The position at the desk should always 
be a healthy and desirable one, we gen- 
erally recommend the front position, 
as the writer is lees liable to throw the 
weight of his body on the right arm, 
which should always be perfectly free. 
As regards movement, we are inclined to 
favor the whole-arm movement, for the 
use of the student on taking his first 
lesson in writing. The movement con- 
sists in carrying the arm above the 
table, independent of any rest, except 
the hand resting lightly on the nails of 
the third and fourth fingers, the action 

Lapaybttf., Tnd.. March 33, 1886. 
Prqf. H. a Clark. 

Dear Sir— In the last issue of The 
American Penman I gave a few hints 
regarding movement, and promised to 
continue the lesson, but with your per- 
mission I beg leave to call the attention 
of those interested in learning to write 
a good, free, legible hand, to a few im- 
portant facts. Many young penmen 
think that a good handwriting consists 
of a combination of flourishing, dashing 
and slashing, including all the back- 
action combinations that can be invent- 
ed. I have received several calls from 
young penmen during the year, and in 
every case when they took up the pen 
to show a specunen of their penmanship, 
they started otT with either a bird or 
some such character as I have men- 

Any good business man would be so 
thoroughly disgusted with such a dis- 
play that he would not have the young 
man in his employ. I have also no- 
ticed that these extreme flourishers were 
very deficient when it came to a plain 
practical handwriting. I think many 
teachers encourage too much of this 
spread eagle work, and in order for the 
teacher of penmanship to be recognized 
by the business men as a public bene- 
factor, he must get down nearer to a 
common-sense basis and produce prac- 
tical results. I should be pleased to 
hear from any of the fraternity on this 

Very Respectfully, 

C. M. Robinson. 

//..,„.,..,., I,.,. /:..., / 

V/,./r^^y_ ,^,^^..,.^ ,'.,,2/1^^^/^^-,,^ 


shindard of authority in practical 
instruction on that subject. The first 
volume of lUi i)ages is printed on 
the finest heavy-weight tinted paper, 
and is handsomely bound in richly 
embossed cloth cover. The work 
complete will be published in two 
volumes, neatly printed in two colors, 
upon HO jjound book paper, present- 
ing real written pages of the Day 
Book, Cash Book, and Ledger, the 
latter in two styles. Volume first 
contains one hundred and twelve 
printed pages, treats of Mercantile 
Book-keeping, elucidates the principle 
of double-entry in a practical and 
common sense manner, and presents 
a large number of commercial terms 
and words, carefully defined, which 
are indispensable to every student of 
accounts. This is a standard work 
and ought to be carefully studied by 
those who desire to be careful ac- 

Colleges and schools intending to 
introduce book-keeping, or to make a 
change in text books, are cordially 
invited to write for further particu- 
lai-s. Address, 

Clauk &. Jojixsox, 
Erie,Pa..orBuf1hlo. X. Y. 

upon the subject of writing. He tries 
his pen and tests his ink to see if it is 
black and flowing. He examines the 
paper, for possibly there is the fault, 
and so he continues to scrutinize every- 
thing about him, to see if everything is 
right. A new thought has come to him, 
one that he is disposed to ignore, but 
no, there is something whispering to 
him "Watch your position, watch your 
position " and so he begins to wonder 
what it all means, and at last he finds 
that he was pinching the pen holder. He 
was using the finger movement part of 

the time and something else, be does 
not know what, the rest of the time. 
His attitude at the table is anything 
but good, and he is about ready 
to give up, when he is prompted again 
with that mysterious whispering, "push 
ahead" "push ahead" and does push, 
even if the table and everything on it 
go with liiin, he is bound to push. 
But now, dear reader, while you are 

striving to master a good hand, do not 
get discouraged. It is always the dark- 
est just before day. and you are just as 
certain to win as you are to work on. 
There is no royal road to good writing. 

coming from the shoulder. I am well 
aware, that many professional teachers 
object to the whole-arm movement ir 
any form, for the student's use. Bui 
from several years' experience in teach 
ing, I am convinced that a student will 
master the fore-arm movement much 
(luicker, if he first become acquainted 
with the whole-arm movement, before 
attempting to use any other. The fol- 
lowing exercises I would commend to 
the use of the student for thorough and 
careful practice with the whole- 

movement, and to use thesai 
in connection with the fore- 
ment, which was explained in a former 
issue of The American Penman. I 
consider it advisable for the student to 
spend a greater part of his time in 
study, as there can be no lasting results 
without it, as practice alone is insuffi- 
cient to create good writing, which must 
combine legibility and rapidity as the 
most important elements. The small 
letters should receive careful attention 
at the hands of the student before 
spending very nmch time with capitals, 
as good writing is estimated from the 
coiTectness and fine appearance of the 
small letters, more than in the use of 
capital letters. Diligent practice and 
study must be combined, in order to 
insure good results. 

T RY IT . 

Could I write, with ink unfading. 

One brief code for youths and men; 
Could I show its all-pervading 

Power in progress, I would pen, — 
Try it. 
Magic words these, born in heaven; 

Down by thoughtful angels hurled; 
Slighted, man to doom is driven; 
Heeded, they give man the world; — 
Try it. 
Luck is Judgment wed to Labor; 

Pluck, the handmaid of Succe-s; 
Toil to Truth should be a neighbor; 
Honor brings her own redress; — 
Try it. 
Starry orbs yet call the student ; 

Earth's past age b still unread; 
Nations seek- the wise, the prudent; 
Throngs and armies must be led; — 
Try it. 
How did Watt to steam give morion? 

Locke, trace purposes of n-ind? 
How Columbus cross the ocean? 
How did Luther change mankind?— 
They tried it. 
How did Homer write his epic? 

How did Scott compose his lays? 
How did Mendelssohn, his music? 
How did Shakespeare write his play^?- 
They tried it. 

Thus it was, will be forever; 

If '■ To be " man has in view, 
Man must live with firm endeavor 
Well to think, then plan, then do;— 
Try it. 

— T. C. yudkint. 




[Speclaliy prepareO forTHB Aubkican Tbhuan i>j 
W. a. Loibrop, of SoQth Boston, .Miiss.) 

This is one of our British worthies, 
who took greflt pains to hiiprove that 
useful brunch of learning, true and natu- 
ral writing, lu the year 1708 he pub- 
lished his "Penman's Diversion," in the 
nseful hands of Great Britain, in a free 
and natural manner. He was then in 
his twenty-fifth year. It contains twenty 
plates, engraved by George Biokhaiu. 

Anno Domini 1712 he published a sec- 
ond entitled "Writing Improved, or Pen- 
manship Made Easy in its Useful and 
Ornamental Parts, with Various Exam- 
ples of all the Hands now Practiced in 
Great Britain." It is a very useful book, 
and has been well received by the pub- 
lic. It t'onsists of thirty-one oblong foUo 
plates, with his picture in the front, and 
is dedicated, in the edition of 1714, to Sir 
Samuel Stanier, then Lord Mayor of 
London. In the letter press work before 
it, there is a preface; an introduction to 
the art of writing; and an epistle of the 
engraver, George Bickham, to the read- 

Our author also has three jilates dated 
1713, in George Bickham's J^nmian's 
Companion. About the year 1714 there 
arose a dispute (occasioned by their dif- 
ference of opinion about standard rules) 
between huu and Mr. Charles Snell, both 
excellent masters of the pen; which was 
supported. I am sorry to say it, with 
too much heat and animosity. But 
as I shall have occasion to mention 
that disagreeable affair under Mr. Snell's 
account. I shall drop it here, and only 
observe how pleasant a thing it is 
to see great proficiency in any art or 
science, mutually assist each other, con- 
nected together by the bands of friend- 
ship, and an obliging behavior. 

According to his son: Mi^ Clark was 
born in the year 1683, at Rotherhith; 
liis father had command of a Guinea- 
man, which, in his last voyage, was lost 
upon tlje Goodwin sands. His grand- 
father was captain of a man of war in 
King Charles the II's reign, and for 
bravery was honored with knighthood 
and the hand and anchor given lum for 
his crest, which appears under Mr. 
Clark's picture prefixed to his "Writing 
Improved,^ or Penmanship Made Easy." 
Of this work 10,000 books were disposed 
of, and the plates were quite worn out. 

His last work was "Lectures on Ac- 
counts, or Book-keeping after the Ital- 
ian method, by Double Entry of Debtor 
and Creditor," published in the year 


r 1736, in his ,J3d year, 
Hillingdon church 


Work for the highest and best meas- 
ures, but when there is no moral ques- 
tion involved, do not, by insisting on the 
unattainable, lose everythhig. The polit- 
tical history of the English race is a his- 
tory of compromises. The greatest 
achievement in institutions and govern- 
ments of modern thues is the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, and it was a 
tissue of compromises. Compromises, 
when they are not compi-juiises with 
eternal wrong, as in the case of slavery, 
have been steppmg stones in the great 
advjuice of our civilization. Get the 
best you can, make the most of it you 
can, push on at once for something bet- 
ter.— V/ch/-^/ Cabot Lodge. 

Society is a compromise — a compact — 
in which indixiduals surrender portions 
of their interest for the sake of the ben- 
efits inuring to them and the whole 
body of members. So general rules are 

established. All general rules work 
harshly or inconveniently in particular 
cases. But they are defensible on the 
ground of the greatest good to the great- 
est number, and are deWsed and estab- 
lished on tliis theory. Hence it comes, 
and rightly comes, that a State is not 
bound to place and wear a blister on 
the face of its civilization and integrity 
because one person or six persons can 
be found who would make gain from 
the State's humiliation. The law exe- 
cutes criminals and puts them away in 
a prison, when not only their creditors 
but their families would prosper by hav- 
ing them at large plying their vocation 
and their franchises, if they had any. 
Such are the fatalities of grovernment 
and of civilization —Moacoe Conktinff. 

Human nature in Great Britain differs 
little from human nature in Ireland. 
The Irish peasant has struggled within 
the last seven years for a vindication 
of three great principles, which are now 
beginning to be fully appreciated by the 
English, Scotch and Welsh, namely, the 
natural right of the people to the soil, 
the inviolability of the homestead, and 
the assertion of true economic hberty in 
the domain of industry. In fighting the 
cause of the land for the people, in re- 
sisting eviction, and in rebelling against 
imposition by a class of a rent tax upon 
the fruits of labor, the mahgned, half- 
starved Irish peasant has not only shaken 
the shackles of landlordism from off his 
own limbs, but he has half broken the 
links of the agricultural slaves in Great 
Britain as v/e\\.— Michael Damtt. 

It has been said, almost too often, that 
during the past few years the colleges 
have been making great advances, that 
they have been raising new standards, 
that new methods of discipline have 
come in, and new methods of teaching. 
The college age has been rising, so that 
at least a year of study— and I sometimes 
think almost two years of study— has 
been thrown back upon the secondary 
schools, which formally the colleges cared 
for. A man must go to college better 
prepared than he was in the forties and 
the earUer sixties. He must go with a 
distinct moral purpose, with a better 
training as to his will, his fancies, his 
imagination, as well as in all those intel- 
lectual pursuits which have absorbed 
so far the forces of his Tama.—Principal 
Bancroft^ of Philtipa Academy. 


A verdant housewife, fresh from her 
rural home, came to the city to pur- 
chase various household necessities. 
She glanced timidly about her, and was 
evidently confused by the countless 
shops which took the place of the vil- 
lage accomodation store. There was a 
bucket-shop near by, with the usual 
sign over the door, " Stocks, Grain, and 
Oil," She read the words, and entered 
the place. "I want to buy some oil," 
she said. The proprietor gave her a 1- 
per-cent. margin smile, and winked at 
the telegraph operator to get some Oil 
City quotations. "I— I — want to buy a 
great deal." The bucket-shop man won- 
dered if his safe would hold all the mar- 
gin money. " I can buy 60,000 barrels 
for you madam," he said. "I don't want 
as much as that.'* " Or 10,000 barrels-" 
"1 don't want as much as that." "Or 
even 1,000 barrels. The charges for car- 
rying it will be—" " Oh," she exclaimed, 
"the traui stops just beyond our farm, 
and if you'll put me up a gallon I'll carry 
it myself," She was shown the corner 
grocery without unnecessary courtesy 
or deUberation.— 2Vd-627s 

Subscribe for The A 


He Tells Them to Watch Their Company, 
and Beware of Spiderlegged Dudes. 

Ch1c.\G0, March 20.— Sam .Tonesclosed 
his labors for the week with a sermon to 
girls only. There were over 4,500 pres- 
nt. Among other things, Mr. Jones 

Girls, watch your company. An 
angel from heaven could not keep 
some company that girls do in Chicago 
and not be corrupt. Pure, noble girls 
stand alone on this earth for beauty and 
glory. Boys go in bad company, but 
the hope of this land is in its pure girls. 
Oh, be vigilant ; guard your parlor. Be- 
ware with whom and how you go to en- 
tertainments. The best way to go is not 
to go at all." 

Mr, Jones then indulged in a long des- 
cription and denunciation of the per- 
fumed young man. He also described a 
chase of young ladies after a spider- 
legged dude, 

" Tell me what your associations are, 
young lady," he continued, "and I will 
give you a glimpse of your history. Is 
he an exquisite dancer ? Does he wear 
perfect pants ! Is his hair parted ele- 
gantly in the middle? Does he clerk in 
a big establishment at $00 a month and 
spend $40 dollars a month for board, $30 
a month for carriage hhe, and $20 a 
month for theatres ? Does he convince 
you that he has not a stingy bone in his 
body ? Do you think he is ' just nice ' ? 
Where does he get his money ? 

I am in love with these wool-hat and 
jean-pants boys. He starts at $30 a 
month, sticks to business and the wool- 
hat till he gets a thousand a year ; then 
he gets to be junior partner, then senior 
partner, and finally ownsthe whole block 
where he does business. You styhsh 
girls do not hke him. Well, he likes you 
just about as well, -for when he wanted 
a wife he went back to his country home 
and married plain Mary, and for a few 
years it was love in a cottage, and 
now he has a residence on Michigan 
Avenue. Girls, tie to these wool-hat 
boys, and they will take care of you. 

"A beautiful girl of this city," he said, 
"arranged to attend a wine supper last 
week. When night came she sent word, 
saying, ' I can't go ; my heart has been 
touched at the meetings.' Now she has 
brought three of her associates here with 
her. What do you want of wine sup- 
pers ? Oh, mothers, no matter what 
the devil may owe you, if he sends you 
about thi'ee drunken sons-in-law he will 
have paid the debt, and you will receipt 
in full. Then, girls, watch your tempers. 
If a girl is ugly to her mother she will 
make it warm in her own home, if she 
ever has one. 

All the girls who talked ugly or saucy 
to mothers were asked to stand up. 
There was no uprising, not one, 

"Mothers," he added, " overhaul your 
libraries. A young girl once said she 
was terribly bored by reading the Bible, 
The poor, silly, sap-headed thing ! "Some 
mothers fix their daughters to be damned. 
They insist on having Uttle parties for 
their children. A little party is a big 
party in short clothes. Then comes the 
big party, and then the hugging ger- 
man, I want to have the grass growing 
on my grave when my daughters are 
attending germans. After the Ger- 
man, then what V 1 will not go further. 
Take the words of a profound priest, 
who says that at his confessional nine- 
teen out of twenty young women who 
had strayed ascribed their fall from pur- 
ity and virtue to the influences of the 

A GOOD handwriting is used by 
many as the " stepping stone " to suc- 


Probably there isn't on record a clearer 

case of total juvenile depravity than this 

Little Phyllis J., a girl of five very er- 
ratic summers, was behaving in a par- 
ticularly obstreperous manner the other 
evening. Nothing oould induce her to 
calm down and be a good girl. 

"Now, Phyllis, I think tliere is notlt 
ing that will make you good except fe^ 
say your prayer. I want you to oon^B 
with me into the library and kneel don^T 
and say your prayer, and then I'm BUiwf 
you will be a better girl." 

She allowed herself to be led into the 
room and, sure enough, knelt down 
cahnly and said her prayer with sweet- 
ness and humility, closing it thus aa 

" Dear Lord, please bless my papft 
and my mamma : bless me and make m^ 
a good girl— Amen." 

And then jumping up and stamping 
her foot violently : 

"There, mamma, you got left that - 
time ! " — Boston Record. 

"Knowledge is power. • * Knowl- 
edge is worth having, and therefore 
worth seeking. • * We speak of the 
utility, of course, of real knowledge, 
which is knowledge that is yours and is 
available. Real knowledge is useful 
every way. Looked at in its coinmerolal 
value the worth of it passes figures, for 
the man who has a particular knowledg© 
wanted in a particular exigency, obtains 
almost any terms he has the faoe to 

The true teacher joins his soul to 
those of his pupils. He infuses into 
them his own enthusiasm. The growing 
pupil is the one who thinks, and not the 
one who simply remembers. This ac- 
counts for so many bright boys amoimt- 
ing to nothing as men. Brightness ^^^ 
dullness aa a standard in school la a 
false one.— iZcu. Dr. Crosbu. 

Sir William Hamilton said: "Tha 
highest end of education is not to dlo- 
tate truth, but to stimulate exertloOi 
since mind isnot invigorated, developed, 
in a word, educated by the mere p088e»- 
sion of truths, but by the energy deter- 
mined in their (juest and contempla- 

OZW7" TVA/VJ' ^amCS3 /W Q^e OOiiA/i^ 


if tlie Trt^atiae is now ready for the public. It OonttlM ' 
IG beautifully prl&l«d [Mgc«, iipoD elght;-pouad bodt 

luok. Journal, Ciuh Book Ledger, eto., ia reftl BullMi 
VrltlDg, pUoto-eDgniTod from cuplea [ireiinriMl by &:& 

it if JuHl audi B book M eveiT Butlnew OolluL 
Lcadomy, High School, or Solf-Loaroeribould bftTfTOfl 
ftvorablu tormii will be offered educational iDiUtotfOn 
dopttDg It. 

*ipt of ONE DOLLAR. 



50 LESSONS $1.50. 

Continued inguiry with regard to "In- 
struction by Mail" has induced me to 

A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies trosti from tbe pen), 
— AND— 

A Course of 50 Lessons in 


iBKrs, "• -■ " 

■ of F*i 

ALPBABKrS, Word CoplM, Sentonco Oopli 
r Fancy Ca[>iMlB. Mosculsr CombI 

O^copiM are 'all" DIRECT FROM kT OWN 
nlm to cover (be wLoIoraage of pl&ia and 

rPBrNTED'"liisTR'uCTl6N8, w 
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lent Id ooe package by mall, poilpald, I 

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licit printed InatructlDnR. Sent la o 

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Penman N, I. N. Schools, Valpara\ 

Twelt'tli Edition Now Ready. 

Class-Sooii of CoMrcial-Law 

A Plain, Practical Explanation of the Laws 



Especially for Class or Private In- 

President of the Albany Busineaa College 
Used in all the leading colleges and 

schools throughout the United States 

and Canadas. 

Singrle Oopieei, 9 1 .OO. 
For circulars or specimen copies, ad- 

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:e:I3IE:, JF.^^., and. '^,TJ-^-:E'j£iJI-.0, 1<T. "ST. 



W. H. Slocura's School of Stenography is now associated with these Colleges. 


EI«gontlv ^nrlrted bird, 20 cents, 
Flonriibed swad, 26 waU. 

Oopy liDue, pir dOB( d, 30 < 

138 N. Main St.. South Bend, 1 


Penmen who desire fii-st-class ink and 
wish to have it fresh and reliahle, can 
secure two splendid receipts to make Jet 
Black Ink and Carmine Fluid in such 
quantities as they desire, at one-tenth 
of the cost at stores, by inclosing 26 
cents and addressing 

Prop. H. Russell. 
Drawer 8,175, Joliet, 111. 

The Coal and Iron Exchange Building, Bujj\.i 

'Cs Bu 

J College IS located. 

The course of'study embraces the most thorough and complete theoretical and actual business training in the world. 
Scholarships good in either College. Students may enter at any time with equal advantttKes. 

LIFE SCHOLARSHIP, good in either College, entitling the holder to all the advanta*;es of the Commercial Course, and 
of reviewing at any future time, costs only $50. 

Good board can be had in either Erie or Buffalo at $3.60 per week. 

Students enter into actual business practice as conducted between the two cities, aflfording advantages not approached 
by any other Business College. It will pay young men and women to attend either of these Colleges, as equal advantages 
are to be had in each school. 

The Institutions are in direct communication with the leading business men in all parts of the country, and students 

helped to the best positions obtainable, as graduates from these Colleges have no difficulty in securing honorable and 

lucrative employment. 

The Faculty are gentleuien of well-known ability and experience, and the proprieto 
mation to those interested, upon application, either in person or by letter. 

'ill be pleased to furnish infor- 


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0/ Mtritorious Pupils in the Difftrtnt Gratlei. 

Bijjgraphit! of Distinguiihed Scholars. 

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Sketches of Real Life. Anecdotes. Poems. Games. 

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The ctimplag oftho Ssgen b; eontisaong writk^, isdwUeblS 
PES TO B2IN0 IT I30W1I TO THE PAPE2, Is wholl? OTOifiomi. 

ORA.NI> JE>»lZt:S 


Mutual Assessment! 



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Tides for Contingencies. I 



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§An uitAarpautd »pectm»n of bold biuiiutf writing uilhtlXlp 
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mealoanla Z atA 


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Bxecnted in the Llgheat style of the art, and wiaolDgIhe 

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; Ink, arrangenienti have been completed for aeodlDg, Mb 
I cnrely packed, quart battlcH to any p«rl of the cooatt^. 
I Pnceper quart, $1.30. By dltutlUK with some good Wilting 
j Ould (Arnold's i» the beat), more than tbree qnart* otmM 

thia ink tn all my work. See eamplee. Reclpe fOr 111 
manufacture, 30 cents. 


I Uy^a rx[.erl^ULe difficulty In eecnring a pei 
wittioui LeiagHcralcby, I can lendyoujantwbi 
The Favorite p*r box 40 ct*., per grow, 92.10 

I card Writing. No. 1, " 6i 

t eiudoltr 



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'^eTlCAL 4ND^^ ,^j,^,lENT4L ?ENM4mHlP^ 


H. C. CLARK, Editor. 

S. A. DRAKE. Associate Editor. 

CLARK & JOHNSON, Proprietors. 

ERIE, PA., and BUFFALO, N. Y., MAY, 1886. Vol. l— No. 5. 

Remember the offer made in the 
A]tril number remains good until 
further notice. Subscribe now. 

W. W. Bennett, of Cleveland. 0., 
challenges any penman in America to 
a contest in sldll with the pen. Who 
will accept? 

The lesson in penmanship in this 
issue is an exceptionally good one by 
Prof. C. G. Prince, penman in Clark's 
But^iness College, Buffalo. N. Y. Mr. 
Prince is a live teacher, and his writ- 
ing compares favorably with the best 
in the pr 

The Xew Standard Practical Pen- 
manship recently issued by the Spencer 
Bros., Washington, D. C, is an excel- 
lent work in every respect. The style 
is simple, practical and artistic. The 
gradation U most judicious and care- 
ful, and the plates reach the climax 
of the engraver's skill. 

The value and importance of a good 
hiuul writing can not be over estimat- 
ed, and if any of our readers are so 
unft.irtunate as to not possess the 
ability to write easily and gracefully, 
we desire to console them by saying 
tliat it is possible under the tuition of 
a skillful teacher to learn practical 
penmanship in a very short time. 

We desire to boom the American 
Pe.vma.v, and accordingly invite our 
liiendri to help extend its circu- 
lation. We think the paper has suf 
ficient merit to place it largely and 
favorably before the public, and 
esjieoially to all those interested in 
the chiragraphic art. The future 
numbei'S are to be unusually good in 
every respect. 

Clark's Progressive Bookkeeping 
is meeting with general favor, and a 
large number of business colleges 
academies, high schools, etc.. are 
adopting tlie work. It is published 
complete in one and two volumeS; 
and patrons can be accommodated in 
either style ofbindhig. Either volume 
sent to address post paid for one 

cators. and whose reputation for doing I 
everything well and at the proper 
time, has placed him so conspicuously 
iind favorably before the public. Of 
course every business educator will 
attend the convention, 

The special offer published in the 
April number will be extended until 
farther notice. Therefore if any one 
should get a copy of the American 
Penman who is not a subscriber, he 
will know that we are anxious to re- 
ceive his subscription, and if one 
dollar is enclosed wc will mail post 
paid volume first of Clark's Pro- 
gressive Bookkeeping and the Ameri- 
Penman for one year. Now is 
the time to subscribe. 

The Spencerian Business College, 
Washington, D. C. which is ably pre- 
sided over by Mr. and Mrs. H. C. 
Spencer, recently celebrated itsjinnual 
commencement exercises in Albaugh's 
Opera House in a most fitting man- 
ner. U. S. Senator Voorhees, of 
Indiana, delivered the principal ad- 
dress, which was a masterly effort. 
The American Penman extends con- 
gratulations to Mr. and Mrs. Spencer 
upon the deserved iJ0i)ular)ty of thuir 

awakening on the subject of writing, 
and a desire of the public in general 
to discover the causes of the ill-suc- 
cess in teaching this important branch. 

It is certainly to be hoped that the 
growing interest in this subject will 
esult in the removal of many of the 
vils that now encumber the art of 

If teachers of penmanship would 
put forth as much energy and ability, 
bring to this field of labor qualifi- 
cations, culture and refinement etiual 
to those employed in other arts and 
professions, there would be a revo- 
lution in public sentiment regarding 
penmanship; it would be at once 
placed in the foreground of the arts, 
for in point of general utility and 
possibilities of artistic effect it sur- 
passes all others. 

The general estimate of the import- 
tance of writing is influenced in a 
great degree by the cliaracter of the 
teacher and advocates of the art, and 
if these be persons of culture, educa- 
tion and ability, they can easily enlist 
and maintain the interest of all for 
themselves and their profession. 

The next number will contain some 
beautiful specimens of business writ- 
ing, a lesson in penmanship, points of 
interest concerning the coming con- 
vention of Business Educators, bio- 
grajihical sketch of one of our leading 
penman, editorial comments, etc. 

Do not miss seeing the June num- 
ber, and if you are a subscriber invite 
your friends tosubscribe. Remember 
the paper will be maileil for one year 
to all those who subscribe before July 
1st for fifty cents, or with a copy of 
vol. 1st of Clark's Progressive Book- 
keeping for one dollar. 

From the various explanations of 
"Why teachera of penmanship fail?" 
that have appeared in the penmen's 
papers from time to time, we may in- 
fer that'there is quite a general recog- 
nition of the fact that teachers of pen 

dollar, or the complete work for two manship, as a class, do not meet with 
dollars. the success in the advancement of 

good writing that wc might reasonably 
expect from the numbers who follow 
the profession and the zeal and de- 
votion to their calling that they 
usually display. 
We may also infer that there is an 

The attention of our readere is in- 
vited to the able and interesting 
article whicli appears in this number 
from the pen of Prof. S. S. Packard, 
cue of the leading commercial edu- 

Among the letters received at the 
office of the American Penman those 
from tlie following persons deserve 
special mention on account of the 
elegance of the writing: 

C. H. Klausman, Minneapolis, 

H. Oliver Boyd, Manheim, Pa. 

S. A. Wyatt, Jackson, Mist^. 

S, L. Caldwell, Jackson, Mo. 

John T. Perry, Rockwood, 111. 

J. W. EUis, St. Joseph. Mo. 

O. A. Freemyer, Hossick FallSj 
N. Y. 

J. H. Cottle, Fort Totten, Dak. 

James Connolly, Cleveland, 0. 

The following creditable papers 
have been received at the office of 
The American Penman: 

Pen)nan^s Art Journal, New York. 

Penman^s Gazette, New York. 

Western Penman, Cedar Rapids, la. 

Lone Star Penman, Dallas, Tex. 

St. Ckarles College Gazette, St. Charles, 

The Btisinecd Worlds Detroit, Mich. 

The School Balletin, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Easiness University Journal, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

The Business School Register, Wyan- 
dotte, Kansas. 

InterruUional Business Colkge Journal, 
Altoona, Pa. 

The School Visitor, Madison, Wis. 

Eastman College Journal, Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. 

Scholars Portfolio, Wiliiamsport, Pa. 

Youth's Pilot, San Antonio, Texas. 

The Rochester Cominercial Review, 
Rochester, N. Y. 


During my few years of work la the 
field of pennianBliip I have met many 
penmen (in the itinerant rank) and suc- 
cess perched upon the banner of but 
few. What are the causes of their ill- 
success? I deem them to be in the main 
carelessness, negligence, lack of iuterest 
and lack of energy, because they do not 
intend to follow teaching and are only 
using it as a stepping stone. They fol- 
low tlie old beaten paths and fail to 
keep abreast with the age. Now these 
failing penmen cry out against the 
public and say their labors are not 
appreciated. But as a general thing 
their work is placed far above its 
genuine value. 

There are some who love the work and 
yet do not meet with the success they 
had hoped for. To those I would say', 
discard the old false notions and fill up 
the- vacancies with those of more modern 
times. Discard the use of copy books 
and the black board. Give your class 
individual instruction, and a little more 
movement; point out the faults in every 
part of the work, and show how they 
may be corrected. 

Encourage your students, stimulate 
them and urge them forward. 

And above all don't let the prefer- 
en :es of the class influence you; but 
select the work for them and see that 

they execute it to the best of their 

If the work goes wrong keep up a 
chet-i'ful countenance and persevere. 

The success I have enjoyed during 
several years teaching has been in a 
great measure due to individual in- 
struction and the attention given to 

Brother Itinerant, wake up; soon we 
must fill the places, now occupied by 
the professionals; therefore, "let us be 
up and doing," that we may take up 
the work where they leave off and push 
it forward nearer completion. 

E. A. McPhkrson, 

April 39, 1886. Albion, Pa. 

The American Penman is a com- 
parative new venture with Prof. H. C. 
Clark, president of Clark's Business 
College. Erie Pa., at the helm. Prof. 
Clark possesses the ability and enter- 
prise to make a great success of his 
journal, and judging from the liberal 
patronage already bestowed, he will 
undoubtedly come out a winner,— T/c 
Lone iS'tar Penman. 



To write, or not lo write, that is the quesdon. 

Whether it is nobler in the mind to suffer 

The reputation of being asked by 

A young lady to writ; in her autograph album, 

And having kept the bonk twoyears,moreoriess, 

And then not wrilten in it— 

Or to take the pen against a host of doubts and 

And by once writing, end them? — To start; — to 

To write! — perchance, to make a blot — Ay, 

there's the rub; 
For in that darksome blot what feelings are 
Shown forth— nervousness, distrust of self, 
And many others!— Not as 
When one is writing to his girl, for then 
If he should make a blot, he draws a line 
'Round it, and says 
It was intentional, and meant lo mark 
A place where he did kiss. And she 
Believes the yarn, and kisses it, and thinks 
That she is happy. 

Boston Globe. 


The subject of this sketch was born in 
Bombay, Franklin County, on Septem- 
ber 9, 1839, ana if* now in his forty- 
seventh year. Like most of our promi 
nent men, he was born upon a farm, 
and by hard and patient toil when a 
child received that nmscular develop- 
ment which was the foundation of 
excellent health and physique so neces- 
sary to every person who would succeed. 

Prof. Russell came from New England 
stock. and is descended from theRussells 
of England wlio have done so much to 
make a liistorical name in English his- 
tory. On his mother's side he is related 
to the "Wrights, his mother being a first 
cousin of Silos Wright, once Governor of 
New Yprk,and for many years a United 
States Senator from the Empire State, 
but now long since deceased. (The 
brother of the Professor. Hon. Horace 
Russell, of New York City, is regarded 
by all well-posted lawyers in New York 
City to be one of the ablest and best 
posted attorneys of New York; he served 
for nearly ten years in the trying posi- 
tion of Assistant District Attorney in the 
city, was Judge Advocate General on 
tlie staff of Governor Cornell, and served 
as Judge of the Supreme Court in New 
Yolk two terms. In 1878 he was married 
to tlie daughter of Judge Hilton, and 
lias now charge of all the law business 
of Mrs. A. T. Stewart, for whom his 
father-in-law is the administrator.) 

Prof. Russell at an early age evinced a 
marked pleasure in reading and study, 
and became proficient in many branches. 
He was a great lover of history, and re- 
membered what he read with remarka- 
ble exactness. Before he was fifteen 
years old he had read all the books to 
be had in tlie neighborhood, and Mr. 
W. A. Wheeler, who whs then a practic- 
ing lawyer, and an intimate friend of 
his father, and afterwards Vice Pi-esi- 
dent of the United States, made hinj a 

present of some fine books, and what 
wa« still better, gave him some kind 
words of advice and encouragement. 

There has been no greater public 
benefactorof America than Ex-President 
Wheeler. Born in the lowest poverty, 
he knows what every young man must 
encounter before he can suet 
Among the books which he presented 
to the subject^ of our sketch is Willard'i 
Universal History, which he still has ir 
his library, though it is yellow with age, 
On the fly leaf is written in a neat hand, 
"Homer Russell, from his friend W. A, 
Wheeler, February 23, 1852. 

The father of Prof. Russell was a 
prosperous farmer, and upon the advicf 
of Mr. Wheeler determined to give his 
son a good education. His mother, who 
for years had been a school teachf 
Vermont, heartily seconded her 
band's scheme, and to them he < 
everything. He always took delight in 
good penmanship. Among his first 
teachers was F. C. Ellis, a veteran teach 
er, who has been at the business fully 
forty years; to him the Prof, owes much 
for getting the right start and for many 
encouraging words of advice. 

In 1860 he placed himself under thi 
instructions of Prof. D. T. Ames, then 
Principal of the Oswego, N. Y'., Business 
College, and after completing the course 
he struck out as a teacher of writing. 
He took a thorough academic course 
and always drew around him a large 
number of private students, afterwards 
he made it a regular business of teach- 
ing penmanship. For nearly five years 
his labor was mostly in the western 
states, and few, if any traveling teach- 
ers ever made better successat teaching. 
When he started to get up a class he set 
about it with a will and energy that 
knew no such word as fail. In 1866 he 
heard that Joliet, 111., would be a good 
place to start a Business CoUege.and his 
conjecture proved to be a good one, 
and his school has met with magnificent 
success from the very outset. In 1868 
he was married to Miss Christina 
Shreffler, a daughter of a wealthy in- 
ventor of Joliet. Thev have three 
bright and beautiful children. 

Prof. Russell has a fine home furnished 
in luxurious style, a handsome library, 
besides a bank account that shows that 
he is a No. 1 financier. Upon the death 
of his father on last September, he was 
left a very fine property which, together 
with his already comfortable property 
that he had already acquired by his 
own business sagacity and shrewdness, 
it leaves him decidedly well fixed. Very 
few persons possess such a variety of 
talent as Prof. Russell 

The readers of the PcnmarCa An Jour- 
nal and a large number of other publi- 
cations to which the Professor is a regu- 
lar contributor, can testify that his 
sound sense; his brilliancy, yet purity of 
style; his sharpness of statement; his 
precision of arrangement; his sharpness 
of thought; scathing sarcasm; his mag- 
nificient mastery of English, and his 
apparent fairness and freedom from 
passion, all combine to make him a 
charming and interesting wi-lter. As an 
orator he has few equals, and he is, to 
use the language of the Joliet Bepubli- 
can "the very soul of the Philosophical 
Debating Society of this city, and his 
speeches command the closest atten- 
tion." One of the leading daily papers 
of that city hos this to say of the insti- 
tution over which he has presided for 
the past twenty years with marked abil- 
ity and success: 

We liave frequently alluded to this 
prosperous institution, and take this ac- 
casion to speak another deserving word. 
No private educational institution has 
lived and prospered with this institu- 
tion; for the post eighteen years it has 
had uninterrupted prosperity. This is. 

we believe, owing to the wisdom and 
foresight of its enterprising proprietor. 
Professor Russell, who has adopted a 
practical course of instruction suited to 
the wants of the people, and thorough- 
ly understands his business and attend- 
ing to it; this, together with his energy 
and fine ability.are the chief elements of 
his enviable success. Judge MoRoberts. 
Ex. Vice President W. A. Wheeler, Ei- 
State Superintendent S. M. Etter, and 
every Mayor that Joliet has had since 
the Joliet Business College has been in 
existence, all combine in hearty coiii- 
luendations of Prof. Russell." 

Many teachers after spending a few 
years in the business usually retire to 
more congenial business, or less irksome 
labor. Not so with Prof. Russell; he 
has always been in love with the work 
he has been teaching upwards of twen- 
ty-five years, yet he seems as young and 
fresh as if he had just opened his first 
school. His handsome, manly face 
seems to inspire every student with 
whom he comes in contact with a love 
for the work before him. He is receiv- 
ing thousands of leters from ex-students 
whom he put in a way to earn a living, 
and of whom he has made good business 
men by the excellent course of instruc- 
tion, and the example of a pure, blame- 
less life. From these letters he seems to 
draw inspiration, courage and energy 
for the good work before him. 

In closing this sketch, perhaps a few 
mottoes that Prof. Russell has adopted 
for his school, would be fitting, among 
which are, "Work and think," 

it battle they only prevail, 
:h onward and never say fail." 

"In life's e 
Who daily 

"A wretched, weary life is his who h 
Qo work to do." 

My Dear Mr. Clark:— Yon ask me to 
prepare for your paper an article relat- 
ing to the coming convention. I shall 
be glad indeed to comply with youi 
(luest in the best way, and perhaps the 
best way will be to leave as nmch 
possible for the imagination of your 
readers. It is known to you, and to all 
intelligent teachers of our specialty.that 
the Business Educators' Association has, 
during the past eight years, done excel- 
lent work, not only in directing public 
attention to our field of labor, but more 
especially in inciting the teachers and 
proprietors of business colleges through- 
out the country to more fidelity in their 
work. It is simply impossible for a 
band of intelligent teachers to come to- 
gether and exchange views without 
exciting renewed interest, and leading 
to better and more permanent results. 
The tendency of the teacher is to run 
into ruts and stay there. This does not 
grow out of indi.sposition to labor and 
investigate so much as out of the dis- 
position which most of us have to ride 

e are quite apt to think that the 
work we do in our particular schools 
is the best work that c»n be done, and 
there is a natural tendency to repel 
that kind of information which may, in 
any sense, prove to us that we have not 
hitherto done all that could have been 
done. The skeletons that are in our 
closets we do not like to have paraded 
public, and neither do we like to open 
the door for a private view any oftener 
than necessitated to do so. The sharp 
and friendly controversies which grow 
out of the discussion Tof matter and 
methods of teaching not only serve to 

V to us individually that other peo- 
ple know something as well as our- 
selves, but beyond this, they open the 
way for improvement, and send us back 

ir work with enlarged views of the 

possibilities that lie before us. There 
can be no question that the business 
schools of to-day are as progressive in 
essential matters of education as any 
schools in the land. The fact has come 
to us as the result of the last thirty 
years of constant effort to meet the 
growing public demand that there is aa 
abiding want for the best work that 
can be done in training yoimg men and 
women for business pursuits. 

At first the prejudices and active hos- 
tilities which were ext^ited in schools ot 
general culture against the innoviitioa 
of business colleges were placed undnr 
a kind of social ban, and their work wa» 
not fairly recognized and their position 
in the educational field not accorded; 
but as they grew in strength and united 
purpose, and as the work they did 
proved so efficient in placing thelt 
pupils in paying positions, they soon 
came to assume the position in public 
esteem which tended to break down the 
barriers of opposition and left to them 
the field which they so justly earned, 
and which they will hold so long as they 
are faithful to their ideals. It is the 
business of the Association, through Its 
convention, to perpetuate the hold of 
commercial schools upon the public, not 
only by directing attention to the work, 
but by so improving the work that 
there can be no doubt of its efflcienoy. 
The convention to be held in New York 
next summer ought to be by far the best 
ever held by the Association, not wholly 
from the fact that it is to be held In a 
metropohtan city,— for that in itseU 
would be no great advantage, —but that 
it has the experience of former convea- 
tions. and because, also, more efBoient 
help should be accessible than has 
hitherto been secured. The ExeoutiTe 
Committee are doing all in their powar 
to promote the efflcieucy of the conven- 
tion and the comfort of the attending 
members; and all they need to make 
their work effective is the kindly co-op- 
eration of the teachers of the country. 
The Busin«^ss Kdi.rators- A.ssociation 
should be thf lar^'est and most practi- 
cal educators' af-.sooiation in this ooim- 
try. It has a definite purpose in its 
work, its members are all men of praottr 
cal ideas, and the hold which we already 
have upon public sympathy should be 
strengthened by our co-operation. As 
you will see by the suggested pcOr 
gramme published in the last number of 
the Penman's Art Journal, the coaren- 
tion is to meet at the Packard Roonw, 
805 Broadway, on Wednesday. July 7th, 
at one o'clock, and to conclude on the 
following Wednesday. Morniags and 
afternoons of each day, except the one 
day set apart for recreation, are alreadj^ 
fully laid out by the committee. subJeA 
to such changes as may seem best, and 
the whole programme so arranged as to 
give all parts of our work u fair chanoa, 
There can be no doubt that the conveiir 
tion of 1886 will be worthy the attentlott 
and co-operation of all progressiva 
teachers. Yours, 

S. S. Packard. 
"My dear," said a husband to bis wife, 
"I am unable to get any sleep; I have 
tossed ever since 1 came to bed; I wish 
you would get up and prepare me a lit- 
tle laudanum." "It's hardly worthwhile 
now,"' she replied, consulting Iier watob; 
"it's almost time to build the kitobea 
fire." Then he sank into a iiuiet, peace- 
ful slumber. 

A German named Wolff, 
don, has discovered a cur 
cramp. The new treati 
l>artly of rubbing, kneadir 
and beating of the fingers 
eral muscles of the hai 
re are gymnastic exen 
and passive; and most 
all. there are graduated 
writing, with a clew of catling into pla^ 
new set of muscles in lieu of those tiX' 
jured by the crump. 

1 Loi^ 





To learn flourishing is not as difficult 
a^i many suppose. It is easier than 
writing, froui the fact that the strokes 
used in flourishing are nearly all ex- 
tended curves or good sized ovals, and 
do not r»*quire so much skill and nim- 
bleness in their mauipulatiun as does 
the multitude of small curves and 
straight lines in writing. 

Use a straight holder and your favor- 
ite pen, good paper and good black ink. 

In flourishing, as in writing, there are 
certain forms or lines that occur very 
frecjviently— are common to nearly all 
designs. These forms or lines may be 
called Principles. Again, these forms 
or principles repeated with a continuous 
movement, and without lifting the pen, 
constitute Exercises, the same as princi- 
ples or letters repeated with a continu- 
ous movement and without lifting the 
pen, constitute exercises in writing. 

These principles and exercises must 

sign, you are developing skill which will 
help you in all otlier designs. Besides, 
if the model is a good one, you are un- 
consciously cultivating your eye for 
harmony and beauty, which will lead 
you eventually into artistic regions yet 
unexplored, and lo, you have made a 
new design! That's right, go ahead. 
Every earnest effort you make will bear 
its fruit, although it may not seem very 
fruitful at the time. 

I have already repeated several times 
to study your model carefully. I have 
done so, because you must learn to see, 
before you can learn to do. It is 
strange how the learner will bang away, 
line after line, repeating the same blun- 
der over and over again, and then say 
that he can't get it; there is something 
the matter with it, but he don't know 
what it is. Before you exclaim that 
you "can't get it," ascertain whether it 
is a fault of the head or of the hand. 
Analyze, criticise, compare. Then prac- 
tice energetically. 

This lesson is not intended to exhaust 

In this way you will soon get familiar 
with the different units composing the 

Don't fail to send in your subscription 
to the American Pknman, if you have 
not already done so. 


This curious penman deserves our 
highest commendations I am sorry 
that I can actjuaint my readers with so 
few circumstances concerning him On 
account of his early productions from 
the rolling press, he may stand in com- 
petition with Bales, Davies and Billings- 
ley, those heads and fathers of, as I 
may call them, of our English calli- 
grapic tribe. Anthony Wood, in his 
"Athenae Oxonienses," says: "That this 
Richard Gething was John Davies, of 
Hereford's countryman, and scholar, 
who excelled his master in various writ- 
ing, as secretary, Roman, (Italian) court, 
and text hands." 

Mr. Getbing, leaving Herefordshire, 
came up to London, (but in what year I 

"What vent'iou* pen may here presume to wrile, 
Or active fancy, to express his praise. 
A quill from Pcgasu?, will be loo slighi. 
His flourishcT arc fresher than our bays 
Then, what the Muses cannot give his faire 
The Graces shall supply to Gelhing's name. 

In 1652 his Calligraphotechnia was 
made public from the rolling press. The 
engravers' names are not mentioned. It 
contains 36 folio plates, besides his 
picture at the begitining. 

He is drawn with a peeked beard, and 
in a ruff. Around his effigies is this 
inscription: "Richardus Gethinge, Here- 
fordiensis aet. 33. This seems to be a 
later edition of that work, which pro- 
bably was enlarged from his first book, 
published in 1616, for there are some 
plates in it dated 1616-1616. 

There is in the second leaf a dedicor 
tion to his very good master (as be there 
styles him). Sir Francis Bacon, Knt. 
Now this great man, Sir Francis Bacon, 

be studied and practiced, until the hand 
acquires skill and nimbleness. But in 
practicing exercises, you can enter into 
it with a better spirit if you can see the 
relation between the exercise and the 
work that is to follow. Hence, it is 
(ki^irable to have a collection of designs 
to study and catch inspiration from as 
you go along. 

After giving a reasonable amount of 
practice to the principles and exercises 
of flourishing, try some situpie design. 
Suppose it be a quill design. Notice 
carefully the curve of the main stem, 
and the location of the shade. Notice 
carefully every line and stroke in the 
design you may be imitating. 

Suppose it be a bird design. Begin 
witli the wing strokes Notice carefully 
then- relative positions. Fill page after 
page with the wing stiokes until you 
1,'et some satisfaction out of them. Then 
the head, bill, and breast strokes, re- 
spectively. Drill on each, studying 
your model carefully as you go along. 
Then the tail; then the scroll work 
around. In this way you get thorough- 
ly familiar with that one design; but 
remember that in learning this one de- 

the subject of flourishing. To do that 
I should want every inch of space in 
the AuBRiCAN Pknman during a year 
or more. A single brief lesson can do 
nothing more than offer a few sugges- 
tions—give a few points— but, after all, 
H suggestion at the right time is capable 
of d'ling luuch good. I would suggest 
further that you secure good models to 
imitate, either fresh from the pen of 
some good penman, or some work on 

The design which I present herewith 
is not exactly suited for a very beginner, 
yet if you understand how to work, you 
will And in this design ample material 
for several weeks" practice. 

Search out the different main strokes 
first, such as the three wing strokes, the 
tail strokes, the scroll strokes below, 
and the quill strokes at the right. 
Practice each of these strokes singly, 
fill page after page, until you gain a 
remarkable degree of skill in making 
each individual stroke by Itself. Then 
take certain groups of strokes together, 
such as the three wing strokes. Note 
carefully their relative position, their 
shade and curve. 

cannot say), and undertakin'.? the busi- 
ness of a writing master, si^ttled himself 
at the "Hand and Pen" in Fetter Lane; 
and in 161G he published a copy-book of 
various hands, in 36 plates, in a long 
quoto, which are 'very well executed 
considering the time, but I am ignorant 
who the engraver was. 

Anno Dom. 1645 he published his 
"Chirographia," in which he styles him- 
self Master of the Pen; it contains 37 
plates, where in he seems principally to 
aim at an improvement of the Italian 
hand. (Tiuldard Script. He tells us he 
has exactly traced and followed certain 
pieces, both in character and language, 
of the ablest CalUgraphotecknists, and 
Italian masters that ever wrote; with 
certain pieces of cursory hands, not 
heretofore extant, newly come into use. 

There is another edition of this Chi- 
rographiain in 1664, published,(I suppose, 
after his death,) with this title; Geth- 
ings Redivious; The Ben's Master-piece 
Restored, being the last work of that 
eminent and accomplished master in 
this art. 

There is his picture in the front; he is 
drawn with a peeked beard, and a laced 

I died the 10th of April, 1626. So this 
j dedication must have been written long 
I before the publication of this bo^k in 
1 1652. but I can give no certain intelli- 
gence of the time of Mr. Gething's 


In 1683, Gahleo, then a youth of eigh- 
teen, was seated in a church, when the 
lamps suspended from the roof were re- 
plenished by the sacrislui], \s Im iu -loing 
so. caused them to osiiLit. ti .m -nir to 
side, as they had di.m 1 1 iii,.l i . .1^ of 
times before, when .siiinl.u l\ ili>i m Ij.d. 
He watched the laiiii), aiui tliuu;;li he 
perceived that, while the ut^eilliUions 
were diminishing, they still occupied the 
same time. The idea thus suggested 
never departed from his mind; and fifty 
years afterwards he constructed the first 
pendulum, and thus gave the world one 
of the most importa,nt instruments for 
the measurement of time. Afterwards, 
when living in Venice, it was reported 
to him one day, that the children of a 
poor spectacle maker, while playing 
with two glasses, had observed as they 
"" "^ It, that things were brought 

The School Visitor. ■ 



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Remittances should be made by N. Y. Draft, P. 0. 
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Publishers, Erie, Pa. 




Only a few years a^o and the Bi 
College was looked upon with contempt 
and suspicion. To-day it stands side by 
side with the best educational institu- 
tions of our land. 

A few years ago and the business 
educators of our land were looked upon 
as a set of men unworthy of public con- 
fidence and public patronage. To-day 
some of the best educators stand in the 
ranks as business teachers, and the best 
educated and most influential men we 
have indorse the business college. It is 
no longer a myth nor a mysterious affair. 
It is a reality. It stands high in the 
way of training young men and young 
women in the real duties of life's great 

Its mission is surely the good of man- 
kind and the elevation of our educa- 
tional system. The past is prophetic of 
the future. The greatest men our nation 
has produced were men who came from 
1\ie humblest walks of life and rose to 
distinction by real worth— by true merit 
So it has been with the business col- 
leges. Tliey are gaining favor every 
day. Why? Simply because they sup- 
ply a long felt want of the practical in 
education. They merit their success. 
They have worked hard to reach the 
place they now occupy in the public 
mind. They have fought against super- 
stition and prejudice. They have had 
to cope with the literary schools till 

they gained a footing and found a place 
in their confidence. 

The time was when business men 
would not employ a graduate of a busi- 
nefs college. I have heard that some 
business colleges of the past even cau- 
tioned their graduates nottoshow their 
diplomas on applying for a situation. 
But that is one of the things of the past. 
The Business College graduate of to- 
<lay feels a sense of security in that 
sheet of paper or parchment which is 
the source of as much pleasure to him, 
I dare say, as if he held a sheepskin 
from Harvard or Yale. It is the start- 
point in his life. The scroll on which 
su ccess is written. And if he has been 
properly inspired by his teachers with 
the one great element of success, invin- 
cible determination, as he grasps that 
diploma and marches forth to battle 
with life's great problem, you might hear 
him utter these words: "I will find a 
way or make one." 

It is the luission of the business col- 
lege to go forwaid. They are not yet 
perfect, but they are fast nearing per- 
fection. They are fast calling to their 
ranks men of real merit. Men who are 
able to inspire the young with courage 
and nobility of purpose. 

The outlook of the business college 
a grand one. It is fast becoming known 
that no education, however perfect 
science or art or literature, is complete 
without a knowledge of the more prac- 
tical things of life, which may be ob- 
tained in a good business education. 

The graduate of Harvard or Yale or 
Princeton, the young man who intends 
to study law or medicine or even to 
preach, needs a business education to 
thoroughly fit him for his life's work. 
The fanner, the mechanic, the specu- 
lator all need a business training to 
make them truly successful. 

To thosQ who have no paj-ticular pro- 
fession .in view let me say; in this day of 
electricity and steam there is ever an 
increasing demand for young men and 
women as bookkeepers, as clerks, as 
amanuenses and secretaries, and no 
young man, who is truly worthy, need 
stand idle a single day if he has the 
proper business training. To such the 
college opens a grand avenue 
Ve cannot help seeing, 
then, a bright and prosperous future for 
good business colleges. Emigration is 
fast filling up the golden west. Our 
population is increasing at a marvel- 
ously rapid rate. Ere long this vast 
territory will resound with life on every 
acre of soil from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific. It is the work of the business 
colleges to properly train the young 
country, for on them rests 
tlie future commercial interests of the 
commonwealth. Then let them spare 
tins to lay before the youth of 
land the bright prosjiects of 
the future ond thf avenues of em- 
ployment open to the competent— the 
swift and willing, for "tis an age on 
ages telling, to be living is sublime" 

Preparation, thorough preparation, 
for the duties of the coming years should 
be the aim of every young man, and 
thoroughness and conscientious work 
should be the motto of the business 


" Yes, you are above me, I grant," 
said a gold pen to its holder the other 
night as the two lay idly in the pen-rack, 
"but you need not exalt yourself on 
that account, because your are merely 
an adjunct to my existence. 

"As you have (Vequently made aspei^ 
sive remarks touching my character and 
value, listen and I will repeat what was 
said to a representative of the daily 
jVc7/'« yesterday by a gentleman who 

looks after the interests in Chicago of a 
large New York gold pen manufacturing 
establishment. His remarks will con- 
vince you that aside from my inestima- 
ble value as a connecting link between 
past, iiresent, and future generations, 
there are facts connected with my his- 
tory and manufacture which will tend to 
increase your respect for me. In his 
own words the gentleman had this to 
say about me": — 

" ' A bar of gold, fourteen carat gener- 
ally, is rolled and pressed out into a 
long ribbon about two inches wide and 
about the thickness of an ordinary sheet 
of blotting paper. This is then cut up 
into what is called blanks, each blank 
being about half an inch in width, and 
with one end tapering to a point. In 
the processor manufacture each of these 
blanks develops into a beautifully fin- 
ished pen. The points are first notched 
in order to receive the iridium, without 
which a gold pen would be useless, and 
here I will digress a luoment and give 
you some facts concerning this essential 
to our business. Iridium is one of the 
so-called noble metals; it is very hard, 
white in color, and exceedingly heavy. 
We get our'supply from Siberia, and as 
it is a very rare metal it is very expen- 
sive, the price ranging from $20 to $200 
an ounce, but we do not use an ounci 
that costs less than $100. I believe th. 
metal was found in California sonii 
years ago, but proved too soft for on 
purpose, and we could not use it. 

" 'We will now proceed with the raanu 
facture of our pen : When the iridium 
point has been placed in positii 
then subjected to what is called the 
' sweating process'; by means of a blow- 
pipe the point is brought under the in- 
fluence of a ray of fire, and the iridium 
and gold are indissolubly welded to- 
gether ; the black surface and discolora- 
tions are th«i removed by immersing 
the blank in a vitriol bath. It is "then 
passed through a succession of opei 
tions by which it is rolled out into the 
required length, cut into the proper 
shape, and the name of the ir 
turer, number, etc., stamped on it. It 
is now tempered by a system of ham- 
mering and burnishing, which also gives 
it elasticity. 

" 'The pen has nowreached oneof the 
two most important points in its de- 
velopment—that is. the grinding, which 
is done on a copper lathe, with the aid 
of fine emery flour. Next follows the. 
by far, most important operation of the 
whole process of manufacture, the slit- 
ting, which has to be done with the most 
delicate accuracy, the entire value of 
the pen depending upon the nicety of 
the operation. This is done on a very 
fine copper lathe, which saws through 
the interior point and into the pen the 
desired distance. The pen is then pol- 
ished and the point scratched to facili- 
tate the flow of the ink ; it is then 
tested, and if found perfect is ready for 
sale. Our pens improve with use and 
cannot be worn out in legitimate work. 
I know one man who has used one of 
our pens for thirty years and it is still 

"'As you see, the entire manufacture 
of the pen is done by machinery, al- 
though it will pass through the hands of 
ten or twelve persons before it is fin 
ished. With the exception of one in 
Detroit and one in Cincinnati there are 
no factories outside of New York where 
gold pens are made.'' " — Chicago Herald. 

It is not because some men can for- 
tell future events that they are more 
successful than others, for up to the 
present tune no man has discovered a 
rip in the curtain of futurity. They suc- 
ceed simply because they know how 
to estimate the value of a thing when 
it occurs. 


Don't be satisfied with your boys' edl 
cation or allow him to handle a Latin Ot; 
Greek book until you are sui 

1. Write a rapid business hand. 

2. Spell uH the words he knows how 
to use. 

3. Speak and write good English. 

4. Write a good social letter. 

5. Write a good business letter. 

fl. Add a column of figures rapidly. M 

7. Make out an ordinary account. ■ 

8. Deduct IG5 per cent, from the faoefl 
of it. " 

9. Receipt it when it is paid. 

10. Write an ordinary receipt. 

n. Write an advertisement for the 
local paper. 

12. Write a notice or report of a public 

13. Write an ordinary promissory 

14. Reckon the interest or discount on 
it for days, months, or years. 

15. Draw an ordinary bank check. 

10. Take it to the proper place in a 
bank to get it cashed. 

17. Make neat and coiTect entries ii^ 
your day book and ledger. 

18. Tell the number of yards of carpet 
required for your parlor. 

19. Measure the pile of lumber in your 

20. Tell the number of bushels of 
wheat in your largest bin, and the value 
of it at the current rates. 

21. Tell you something about the 
great authors and statesmen of the pre- 
ent day. 

22. Tell you what railroads he would 
take in making a trip from Boston to 
San Francisco. 

If he can do all this and more, it Is 
likely that he has sufficient education% 
enable him to make his own way in ttl* 

If yoti have more tltue and money to 
spend upon him, all well ond good, give 
him higher English, give him literature, 
give him mathmatics, give him scienoe, 
and if he is very, very anxious about it, 
give him a little Latin and Greek, op 
whatever else the course he intends 
pursuing in life dem&nds.— School Sup- 
piemen f. 


Many parents in these days of money- 
making do not properly appreciate the 
benefits of education. Fathers say that 
what they want their boys to learn how 
to make money; and thinking that they 
are doing what is best for them, take 
theiu from school just at the time when 
they most require the discipline whloh 
they are under there, and when ttalbt' 
minds are just beginning to verge into 
new channels. This is the very time 
when they most need guidance and 
instruction to prepare them for the work 
before them. People may cry down 
education, and point out a few succeaS' 
ful business men who are uneducated. 
These, however, are not the rule but 
the exception, and hi nearly every other 
branch of work education is deemed 
almost essential. 

Show me the great men of the day— 
the rulers, statesmen, legislators, gover- 
nors, judges, journalists, lawyers, dQi 
tors, and even the m< 

ness men— and I will show 
•ated men. If they have not enjoj^ 
the advantages of a cDJIegitite ■ 
they have felt the neL-e!*sity of tbM 
which lesser mind}< regard ^n ligbtlyft 
and have educated thcmsflves. otttlt^ 
after surmounting many obstacles, btfjl' 
they have done it— School Principal la' 
Ohf)c-/Jt:mocmt. C 

THKHttisabook worth all other booi(||, 
which were ever printed. — Patri» 



Article IV. 


The American Penman printer 
gkipped a paragraph, or riither got two 
paragraphs concerning "Folding" mixed 
up in my last article, so I will have to 
repeat, and the directioiiB for foldlnff as 
the printer had them in the last issue 
are hereby declared null and void. 

Xofe Paper and Note. Heads.— FoXA 
the lower third of the sheet up, and the 
upper third down. 

Letter Paper and Letter Heads.— Fold 
the lower half up. so as to nearly meet 
the top edge; then fold the right third 
toward the left and the left third toward 
the right. 


The superscription, or outside address, 
is the address written on the envelope, 
and consists of the same items as the 

side slope, while all can be arranged 
neatly and systematically, although the 
style or the arrangement may differ 
according to the number and length of 
the words comprising the different lines. 


No. 1. 
B. M. Worthington, 

Dane Co., 

No. 2. 
B. M. Worth inff (on, 

Dane Co. Iowa. 

No. 3. 
Henry C. Smith, 

81 Madison St., 

Model 4. 
Henry C. Smith. 

81 Madimn St. Illinois. 


There are several kinds of boards, 
sign-boards, base-boards, dash-boards, 
clap-boards, side-boards, paste-boarde 
and school-boards, 

I think I win write about school- 
boards, because my sister is a teacher, 
and I can remember a good many things 
she has said about them, and that will 
help me some. 

I don't know whethi 
are always made of grei 
I heard my sister say 
wasn't half baked. Gi 
wasn't kiln-dried, 
and turned on the 


ce the board 
Guess she meant it 
Maybe it warped, 
TODg side, or maybe 
it shrunk badly, when exposed to the 
dry fjueHtion of wages. 

School-boards are of different shapes, 
some are square and polished on both 

one, or stick the old pieces together 
with taffy. 

My sister says there is too much slang 
in this, but father says slang is mighty 
and shall prevail. He knows because 
he is a man. Men know everything, 
because they can vote. 

Sometime I will write about other 
kinds of boards, if you have not been too 
badly bored with this. — Am. Jour, of Ed. 

It is held by the Courts that checks 
should be presented at the banks upon 
which they are drawn the day they are 
dated, otherwise, if the bank fails in the 
meantime, it relieves the drawer from 
payment. A case of this kind was re- 
cently decided in the Pittsburgh Courts. 
A check was drawn on the Pena Bank 
in favor of the Penn'a Railroad Com- 
pany, who deposited it on t he fol- 
lowing day. but it was too late, and the 
case was decided against the railroad, 
who had brought suit to recover. 

oto-engraved 1 

cuted by H. C. CIe 

full inside address given in the intro- 
duction, namely, the name and resi- 
dence of the person to whom the letter 
is written. If the person addressed re- 
sides in the country, or small town, the 
full address consists of the name, post 
office, county, and State. If the person 
lives in a large city, the number and 
street must be given, together with the 
city and state. 

Position and Arrangenicut of the 
Suprracription.—The first line, consist- 
ing of the name of the person, should be 
written at or a little below the middle of 
the envelope, and in such a way tliat 
the margin at each end will be the same, 
If directed to the country or smalltown, 
the second line consists of the postoflice, 
the third line the county, and fourth 
line the state; or the county may be 
written in the lower left hand corner, 
instead of in thethird line. (See models 
2 and 3.) If directed to a large city 
where the mail is delivered by carrier, 
the second line consists of the number 
iind street, the third line the city and 
the fourth line the state; or the number 
an<i street may be written i« the lower 
left-hand corner, instead of in the second 
line. (See models 3 and 4.) 

The different lines of the superscrip- 
tion should be written straight, equi- 
distant, and parallel. They should be 
arranged so as to present a grotlual 
f^lope downward and toward the right, 
due attention being paid to both sides. 
Some addresses can be arrangtd so as 
t<» slope eijually and gradually on both 
sides, some look best with a regular 
Ifft-wde slope, and some with a right- 

Punctuation of the Superaeription. 
period follows each abbreviation, and 
the last word; commas separate the 
different items. 

Legibility.— ^XtecieX care should be 
taken to make the superscription accu- 
rate and perfectly legible. Thousands 
of letters go astray every day on ac- 
count of illegible and otherwise defec- 
tive superscriptions. 

The stamp should be placed in the 
upper right hand corner, its edges 
parallel with the edges of the envelope. 
Uncle Sam would no doubt carry a 
letter just as wilUngly with the stamp 
in any other place on the envelope, but 
due respect to custom, and especially 
for the convenience of the postal clerks, 
requires the stamp to be placed as 
directed above. 

a suggestion. 

Much practice may be 
order to address envelopes well, and I 
would suggest that those who feel 
themselves deficient in this particular 
Ijurcliase two or three liuiidred cheap 
envelopes, and practice writing all sorts 
of addresses. Don't allow yourself to 
become accustomed to pencil lines or 
under lines in addressing an envelope, 
but practice until you can write straight 
without lines. 

In ray next I shall speak about the 
penmanship for correspondence, and 
will give several illustrations. 
{To be continued.) 

sides, some are longer than they are 
broad,and so thin they bend under sUght 

I asked my sister what kind a board 
ours was, and she said it was a good- 
looking board, but when put to any 
use it was full of slivers. There was a 
young lady staying with my sister the 
evening I was writing this, and she said 
she tiiought some of the board would 
make good hitching-posts. I asked lier 
if it was because they were such big 
sticks- She said that wasn't it. Then 
they both laughed; they thought I 
didn't know what they uieant, but I did, 
because I saw Mr. Jones take her to 
church, andheis a member of the board, 
and she acted us if she thought he 
would be good to tie to. 

The school-board is used for the pur- 
pose of getting the cheapest teachers 
they can find, whether they know any- 
thing or not. and to vote down women's 
wages, and to leave men's as they are. 
This kind of board is elected by the 
people, mostly men. 

They most always get the closest 
grained they can find; when the teacliers 
say they don' get pay enough, the people 
say it is the board. The teachers say 
the people had no right to get sut-h 
hard wood for their board, and the 
board say, "What are you going to do 
about it?" 

Sometimes there is a weak place in 
the board, and when thrown against 
some hard question, it splits and goes 
all to pieces; then they either get a new 


Owing to the fact that there is such a 
widespread difference of opinion as to 
the best methods of teaching writing, a 
lesson in this beautiful art cannot safely 
assume to be more than a clear and 
candid statement of the author's views 
on the subject. Such, in part, is the 
object of this article, and should I be 
able to offer any suggestions that will 
be of value to the readers of the 
"American Penman." I shall feel well 


Poor writing is of two kinds. First: 
That which is written with a free and 
rapid movement, but which laclts the 
necessary elements of legibility and 
uniformity. Second: Writing that indi- 
cates a fair or good idea of fonu, but 
which have been drawn out with the fin- 
ger movement, and consequently jjre- 
seuts a heavy and labored appearance. 
It should be apparent then to all that it 
is only by mastering both of these un- 
derlying principles, i. v.. Form and Move- 
ment, that the student can achieve well- 
merited fame as a penman, or even be- 
come known as a good business writer. 
Form and movement are the great 
objects to be kept constantly in view, 
for if either one is lost sight of the re- 
sult is disastrous. Movement should 
first be considered for by its Ube we exe- 


cute form. Those who desire to become 
expert penmen, should, in our opinion, 
devote about one-half of their time to 
whole arm practice and the other half 
to muscular, as complete control of both 
of these movements is necessary to the 
development of great skill, but for those 
who simply wish to acquire a plain 
business hand, we advocate muscular 
movement, "first, losi, and all the time." 
For the acquisition of this movement 
tlie following familiar exercise should 
be persistently practiced, taking care to 
keep the penholder pointing toward the 
right shoulder, and the wriafc elevated 
at least one inch from the paper, in 
order that the ovals may be executed 
with a free, rolling motion of the arm, 
without the aid of the fingers. 

If the learner has formerly written a 
cramped hand, he will involuntarily 
raise the elbow in practicing this exer- 
cise, as he finds it very difficult to roll 
the arm at all, while resting it upon the 
desk. A little patient labor will, how- 
ever, usually serve to gain movement 
sufficient to loll the exercise across the 
page without lifting the pen or arm. 
Too much stress cannot be laid upon 
the importance of moveiuent exercises; 
they should receive much more atten- 
tion and practice at first than sentence 
writing, as the successful execution of 
the latter is wholly dependent upon a 
well trained muscular movement. 


Many a begumer becomes discour 
aged, and wonders why it is that he 
cannot secure this coveted movement, 
until some day a level-headed critic 
informs him that the clothing worn 
upon his right arm fits so tight as 
to render the free action of the muscles 
a physical impossibility. 

It should always be borne in mind 
that in order to move easily and grace- 
fully, the arm must be entirely relieved 
of any weight of the body or of tight 
fitting sleeves. 

paring your writing with that of our 
best penmen. Secure good writing, not 
printed copies, as yon will then have 
something to work from that was actu- 
ally executed, not drawn out with a 
lead-pencil, retraced with ink, and then 

Although advice is cheap and the 
market is flooded with it. I will venture 
to offer a little in conclusion. Work In- 
dustriously, criticise carefully, and re- 
member that intelligent study, together 
with constant practice will always 
accomplish wonders. Be encouraged, 
but never satisfied, with the results of 
your best efforts, and never try to make 
conceit and vain-boasting cover up i 
host of defects. Be content to let you: 
work show for itself, as merit will win ii 
the end, 


the rolling press; at least I have seen 
none older that is dated. It contains 30 
plates in a small quarto. His picture is 
in the front, with this inscription over 
it: JEtatis suae 26. So it seems he had 
a design, in this his first book, to write 
just as many leaves as he was years old; 
but I advance this as a conjecture, for 
in a copy of verses prefixed to this book 
by S. H , he mentions The Penman's 

Experience as Cocker's first work;" i here transcribed: 

"Arts Glory" the second: "The Pen's 
Transcendency" the third, and "The 
Pen's Triumph" the fourth. In the 
second page there is a dedication 

To the ingenious and able penmen 
and arithmetician, hi» honored friend, 
Mr. Richard Noble, of Guilford in Murry, 
and in the last page there is a quadru- 
ple acrostic on the author, signed H. P., 
which, for the singular rarity of it. I have 

Form is no less an important element 
of good writing than movement, and 
should receive more study and thought 
than is usually given it by learners and 
penmen in general. 

The pernicious habit of forming n's, 
u's, m's and w's alike, (thus giving the 
writing a "hand-saw'' appearance), is 
the cause of much illegibility and should 
be carefully avoided. Practice daily 
upon the m's and n's until it becomes as 
easy and natural to join the parts at the 
top with turns as it formerly was to 
connect them with angles. 

Loop letters are very important; they 
should be of full heighth and width, in 
order that they may not be uustaken 
for t's. 

Both extended and inverted loops 
may be practiced to advantage in con- 
nection with the small letter o, as shown 
in the illustration. 

The proper idea of correct spacing 
aud slant can only be gained by com- 

{Speclftliy prepared for tbe Ambhicah PBNUii 
W, H. Lothrop, South BoBtou, Musb.] 

This ingenious and very industrious 
penman and engraver was born in the 
year 1631, which I compute thus: in his 
copy-book entitled. Plumae Triumphus. 
published 1G57, there is his picture, and 
under it this inscription: Etatis suae 26, 
which being subtracted from 1657, pro- 
duces the year of his birth as aforesaid. 

I have met with no memoirs relating 
to his extraction, or account of the 
place where he was born, and under 
whom he received his education. His 
first appearance on the field of action 
is in London, so that it is probable he 
breathed his first air in that city. He 
haa been blamed for writing and en- 
graving too much, and thereby debas- 
ing' that art which he attempted to 
promote and illustrate. Mr. Robert 
More, in his short essay on "The first 
Invention of Wi-iting," says that after 
Cocker commenced "Author," the rolling 
press groaned under a supersoetation 
of such books as had almost rendered 
the art contemptible; and Mr. Cham- 
pion, in his historical account of pen- 
manship, prefixed to his parallel, echoes 
the same complaint; adding that, led on 
by lucre, he let in an inundation of 
copy-books. Now, whatever foundation 
there may be for this charge in general, 
he was certainly a great encourager of 
various kinds of learning; an indefati- 
gable performer with the pen and 
burin; an ingenious artist in figures; 
and no contemptible proficient in the 
poetry he attempted to write, as will 
manifestly appear, I think, to one who 
thoroughly examines liis numerous 
works that are still extant. His writ- 
ing, I allow, is far inferior to what we 
have from the hands of some of our late 
masters; and there is not that freedom 
and liveliness in his pencilled knots and 
flourishes that there is in pieces done by 
a bold command of hand. But let us 
consider the time in which he Uved and 
what little improvement there had then 
been made in the modern way of pen- 
manship, and we may justly make 
allowance for the many defects that 
now appear in his books, and say, with 
the poet, 

1^[ tlic imparlial judge, in everv ca<!P, 
Weigh well the circumstances, time and place; 
All these consider'd, the accused may, 
With justice be discharged, on such a plea. 

In 1657 our author pubhshed his 
Plumae Triumphus; in some title pages 
it is The Pen's Triumph, invented, 
written, and engraved by himself; he 
Uved then on the south side of St. Paul's 
Church, over against Paul's chain, 
where he taught the art of writing, 
which, perhaps, was his first work from 



Excelling artist, thy immortal famExceeds the reach of pens, from whence it camE 
Directed from on high, thy curious hanDisplays such secrels, all amazed stanl) 
What makes ihy pen like Nile, thy ovetfloWith excellence! how glorious wilt thou groW 
Art thou still multiplying, like the feAnd canst ihou yet find out another pleA 
Rare Phoenix! thy bright quill transcends afaltefined'st pens, as Sol a painted staR 
Desist not from these arts their bottom founDiscovering all, for all by all be crowneD 
Consider what rare precepts pens dispenConverse from far comes by intelligenC 
O who can but admire thy skill, that sO'ertops those artists, who for famous gO 
Commerce, abroad, at home, pens cannot laCamp, courl, and cily of you boast and craC 
Know, readers, who for pens perfection looKnols and unparelelled lines shine in lliis booK 
Erected are the columns to thy praisEach touch of thy smooth quill thy fame doth rais£ 
Repute attends thy arts, thy virtues favoRenowned is thy name, wit, pen, and graveR 
In the saKpe year, {I. c, 1657,) he pub 


he published his 

' exhibiting all the 

England, en- 

Hshed his "Pen's Transcendency," 
"Pair Writing's Labyrinth." 

It contains 33 small oblong folio 
plates, besides his picture at the begin- 
ning, and a large plate at the end, in- 
forming the reader that he then lived 
in St. Paul's Church-yard, where he 
kept school, and taught writing and 
arithmetic. The writing is mostly "Sec- 
retary" and "Italian," according to the 
custom of those times, with a great 
many labored knots and languid pen- 
cilled ornaments. There is another 
edition of this book in 1660, which was 
then augmented, containing 43 leaves, 
including letter press work. 

Anno Dom. 1C59, he set forth "The 
Artists Glory, "-or the "Penman's Treas- 
ury;" with directions, theorems, and 
principles of art, in the letter press 
work. It contains 25 plates. At the end 
of the book is a Latin anagram, by one 
Jer. Colier. 

In the year 1661 he published his 
"Penna Volens," or "Young Man's Ac- 
complishment," to which he prefixes 
this distich: 

"Whereby ingenious youth may soon be made, 
For clerkship fit, or management of trade," 

invented, written and engraved by him- 

It contains 24 plates, besides his pic- 
ture at the beginning. In each leaf 
there are directions for the principle 
rules of arithmetic. 

The best performances in this book 
re the German Text Capitals, and the 
samples of Court and Chancery hands. 

Anno Dom 16(i4 he published his 
"Guide to Penmanship," of which there 

another edition in 1673. It contains 
22 oblong folio plates, besides his pic- 
at the beginning, where he is 
1 in hi* own hair, with a laced 
band, and a pen in his hand, and these 
lines underneath. 

■"Behold rare Cocker's life, resembling shaee, 
Whom envy's clouds have more illustrious made; 
Whose pen and graver have display'd his name, 
With virtuoso's, in the book of fame." 

Plus book abounds more with orna- 
mental, or rather fanciful flourishes and 
pencilled figures, than examples of free 
and sound writing. At the latter end j metic," which 
of it there are 5 leaves of letter-press i 40th edition 
work, setting forth some extraordinary! "Cocker's Decimal Arithmetic, 
rules and directions, (as he himself ex- the fourth edition being published 
pressed it), for everything belonging to I 1713. 
the art of fair writing. It was printed The following line.s are from his V 

graved by himself. It contains 26 plates 
in large octavo, with rules for writing, 
and some verses, in 4 leaves of letter- 
press work. As this book was engraved 
upon silver plates, (a thing I have never 
met with in any of our most celebrated 
penmans' works), it has raised the 
curiosity of many to know what supe- 
rior excellency there is in it. For 
my part I can see none; tlie engravers 
are the best judges whether or no that 
metal is fitter for their working, and will 
show to a greater advantage than cop- 
per. I fancy it was a piece of foolioh 
ambition that prompted our author to 
do what perhaps had never been done 
before. The book was sold by John 
Grarret, in Cornhill. 

In the year 
"England's Pen 
curious hands i 

graved on 28 brass plates in folio. It 
was printed for Obadiali Blagrave, at 
the Black-Bear in St. Paul's Church- 
yard; and afterwards for H. Overton. 

Some time in the year 1676 he pub- 
lished his "Complete Writing Master/* 
containing 23 pages in octavo; I oon 
give no account of it. 

Some time before his death he pub' 
lished "The London Writing Master, 
or "Scholar's Guide," in 15 small platef, 
without a date. The performance l8 
small and of no great value. 

Besides these books, our author pub- 
lished from the rolling-press, the follow- 
ing, which were also the productions of 
his fertile pen: 

1. Multum in Parvo, or The Pea'i 
Gallantry. Octavo. 

2. Youth's Directions to Wiite With 
out it Teacher. 

3. Young Lawyer's Writing Master. 

4. The Pen's Facility. 

5. The Country School Master. 

6. Introduction to Writitif.'. 
I cannot ascertain the precise time of 

Mr. Cocker's death, nor where he died; 
but I have been informed it was in the 
year 1677, which, if true, was the 4flth 
year of his age. 

The works that we have of this labor- 
ious author, that came from the letter- 
press are these: 

A book entitled 




Cocker's Vulgar Arith- 
publishedinl677. Tl^J 

for John Ruddiard, at the Unicoru 

Anno Dom. 1672, he published his 
'Magnum in Parvo," or "The Pen's 
Perfection;" invented, written, and en- 

gar Arithmetic. 
"Ingenious Cocker, now to rest thou 
No art can show the fully but thine c 
Thy rare arithmetic alone can show, 
What sums of thanks we for thy l.ibo 


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^EvotED TO,,, vbM^-' 

Vj - 



H. C. CLARK, Edftor. 

S. A. DRAKE, Associate I 


ERIE, PA., and BUFFALO, N. Y.. JUNE, 1886. 

Vol. -1— No. 6. 

SrHstHiHK tor Tin-: American Pen- 

TiiE convention of Business Educa- 
i-s convenes in New York, Wednes- 
y,'july 7tli. 

Every Business College proprietor 
nd teacher should attend the con- 
t-ntion, as no member of tlie i)rofes- 
ion can afford to mi?s it. 

Teachers of penmanship will hiive 
ample opi)ortunity to discuss tiie best 
methods of teaching writing at the 
Business Educators' Convention, ii 
at the same time they can show their 
•■ liand " to the very best advantage 

The portrait and autobiography 
(ironiised our readers in the last num 
her. is necessarily deferred to a subse- 
quent issue, as we were unable to get 
the cuts in time for this number. 

The lesson in penmanship, which 
appeal's in this issue, by Prof. C. M. 
Robinson, of Lafayette, Ind., is full of 
sensible points in presenting the sub- 
ject, and is worthy of careful attention 
on the part of our readers. 

Clark's Business Colleges, and aside tracts, or who make notes in such a 
from the usual graduating exercises, [ manner as to allow the possibility of 

whicii are to be lield August 24th and 
25th, Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, of 
Brooklyn, is expected to deliver 
address. An excursion to Niagji 
Falls is also contemplated. 

Colleges and schools intending to 
advertise tlieir fall and winter terms, 
will do well to jiatronize The Ameri- 
can Penman, as during July and 
August a larger number of sample 
copies than usual will W sent out. 
Send for estimates. 

With the next number S. A. Drake 
will begin a series of lessons in prac- 
tical penmanship, which will be illus- 
trated by copies jirepared by himself, 
and constituting a complete course on 
the subject. 

Many of the most successful men 
in this country owe their stnrt in life 
to a good handwriting, and our young 
people cannot do anything that will 
benefit them any more than to learn 
to write an easy and graceful hand. 

Business Colleges in all parts of 
the country are anticipating an in- 
erejiseil attendimce for the coming 
season, and the signs of the times arc 
such as to warrant the prediction that 
more young men and women will be 
• nrollcd as students in these schools 
tiian every before. 

Preparations are now being mad^ 
for the Annual Grand Opening of 

We were somewhat astonished in 
reading L. Madarasz's acceptance of 
Air. Bennett's challenge, which was 
published in the May number, to find 
that he (Mr. Madarasz) practically 
concedes that he is not equal to the 
task, as he mentions Mr. Dennis as his 
assistant, in certain lines of the art. 

The business outlook in all sec- 
tions of the country seems to re- 
main unchanged, and while every- 
body has been hoping for an im- 
provement, they have been disap- 
pointed. Just liow long this condi- 
tion of affairs sliall last, remains to be 
seen, although we are of the opinion 
that business will revive very soon. It 
is devoutly to be wished that such 
may be the case. 

There are now several penmen's 
papers before the public, and each 
claims 4o be better than the other. 
Now in order to determine the mat- 
ter one should subscribe for tiiem all, 
and then he can easily make up his 
mind as to which ijaperhe will always 
read. The American Penman's mis- 
sion is to do its share in helping to 
advance the interest of good writing 
and practical education. If it does 
this, it is wortliy of an extensive pub- 
lic patronage. 

Lightning rod sharks, operating in 
Illinois, the Drover's JbumaLsays, got 
the gullible fanner to sign a paper, 
as he supposes, a contract ; but, in- 
stead, it proves to be a note for ten 
times the sum intended. 
Such swindles have become so com- 
on that it would seem that the 
farmers have come to feel it a duty, in 
tins way, to contribute a few hun- 
dred dollai-s to the support of a large 
and increasing class of dead beats and 
ra.scals. Almost (*tery community 
can furnish scores of similar schemes 
that have been "worked" on the 
honest,but too confiding and ignorant, 
farmer. If stsitistics could be obtained 
to show tlie aggregete amount of 
money robbed from unsuspecting men 
who are induced to sign notes under 
the impression that they are con- 

the amount intended being changed 
to a much larger amount, the resvilt 
would no doubt be astonishing. The 
most remarkable feature of the case is 
that such swindles are possible in our 
land of fi-ee schools and genei-al in- 
telligence : but since such swindles are 
possible, aiid more than that, so very 
common, those who are engaged in 
acquiring education should endeavor 
to gain some jjractical knowledge of 
business that shall serve them as a 
protection against the deceptive prac- 
tices of dishonest men. 

The importance of special training 
for business, in which all must, to 
some extent, engage, has placed the 
commercial school among the indis- 
pensable educational institutions of 
the country, and the rapidly increas- 
uig patronage of these schools shows 
that their usefulness is gaining a aen- 
eral recognition. 

preconceived opinions and his choice of 
exercises, and rigidly adhere to the di 
reetion of the teacher, dilligently per- 
forming, in all its details, the work as- 
signed to him. 

The student may have gained some 
degree of skill in the use of the muscular 
movement, and. delighted at the ease 
with wiiich the pen glides over the 
paper, devotes most of his time to 
movement exercises, flourished letters, 
and combinations, believing that in this 
way he is to become a penman, but fail- 
ure will be thp result most surely. While 
a certain amount of practice on muscu- 
lar movement exercises is essential, it 
is not alone sufficient; much time must 
be given to the study of the forms of 
letters.their heighth, width, alant.curves. 
and spaces, to insure desirable progress 



life . 

WniTiN& from the influence it may 
exert in moral culture and the develop- 
ment of artistic taste and its practical 
usefulness, should engage the attention 
of aspiring youth everywhere, and such 
earnest attention as must be given to a 
worthy aim in order to excel. The never 
varying truth of the maxiiu, "No excel- 
lence without great labor," too fre- 
quently ignored, is as applicable to 
writing as to anything else. One cannot 
learn to write well in a week, nor in a 
month, but he who recognizes the many 
advantages realized by those who can 
write easily a plain, graceful hand, and 
who is thus constrained to put forth a 
reasonable degree of perseverance in 
the study of penmanship, will be most 
surely rewarded with a very useful and 
gratifying acquisition. Although there 

are many who have long pursued the j and fling forth fresher fragi , „^ 

study of writing with commendable zeal | the tempest that uproots the tree« of 
and energy, achieving but indifferent re- 1 the forests. Life's character then must 
suits, and have consequently concluded j be determined by the passage of critical 
that the ability to write well is a natural periods. 

gift denied to themselves, the experience One of the first choices a young man 
of those who have taught and studied is called unon to make, is a choice of his 
the subject most proves that all. by ufe work, and how can he better fit him- 
well-directed effort and careful atteu- , self to make that choice than by first ob- 
tion to details, can learn writing as well taining a good business education. A 

occur, and it is an easy thing to mistake 
or even miss them, when they come. On 
your choice, at such times, may depend 
your future success or failure. Just as 
we choose, when the choice is put to us, 
and live lives of obedience or disobedi- 
ence to law, we can make our own path- 
way bloom with flowers or bristle with 
thorns. We may walk on through life 
beneath a sky of cloudless blue, or 
we can till our lives with clouds and 
convulse them with tempests. The diff- 
erence will be determined by the choice 
made at some period of our life. No life 
can be free from annoyances, errors ami 
sorrows; disappointment and adversity 
will be the lot of even the truest soui, 
but if the choice made in early life be a 
wise one, then these trials will be sim 
ply a few clouds floating across the sky, 
obscuring for a time the brightness of 
its sunlight, but never mantling it in 
darkness. They will be but as the rain 
storm that washes away the dust from 
the petals of the flowei-s and causes the 
blossoms to bloom with greater beauty 
not like 

as anything else. No doubt many hi 

placed themselves under the instruction ' principles wUrbe" found "useful 
of teachers of writing in the expecta- | tradi 
tion of improving their style of writing 
without receiving any benefit; but nine- 
ty-nine cases of failure in every hundred ; cktion. 

are due rather to tiie students own wil- 1 offer a reUef. Here, by spending from 
fulness or heedlessness than to any fault j three to six montl; 
of the teacher. 

I sound knowledge of business rules and 
profession. There are many 
who cannot afford the time or money to 
spend years in obtaining a classical ed- 
To such the Business Colleges 


prepare yourself for the active 

To be benefited by instruction the duties of life, and be able to carry the 

learner must feel that the instructor life work you may then choose to take 

knows more about the subject than he up, through to a successful termination. 

does himself, and he must lay aside his c. v. M. 


Woman's place in the world is in any 
capacity or Bphere which she has the re- 
(juieite capabilities to fill witli intelligent 
and practically successful results. 1 am 
not the champion of any so-called re- 
formatory measures, nor the upholder 
of woman suffrage, or its opposers. It 
in not my present province to argue 
upon any of the so-called questions of 
the day involving woman's so-Called 
rights. I do not stand forth as a de- 
nouncer of man's so-called justice. In 
our land at the present day, woman has 
every right which she has thus far 
shown herself competent to maintain; 
and every avenue is open to her ambi- 
tion which her mental powers and 
skilled training shall demonstrate her 
fitness to enter. That woman has not 
already taken her place by the side of 
man in the political, scientific, or nieta- 
jihysical arena, does not argue her unfit- 
ness and incapacity, jier ac, but rather 
the necessity of laying the question on 
the table, to be decided only after the 
experiment has been fully tried of bring- 
ing her brain powers up to their utmost 
development, through an equal course 

it is not her entire sphere, when she has 
tlie talent or genius to enlarge it); when 
men make such short-sighted observa- 
tions, they simply declare to the world 
that their wives, mothers, sisters and 
feminine acquaintances have all been 
among pitiably v eak-brained and super- 
ficially educated women, and when a 
woman is petty in her nature, and pos- 
sesses an uncultured, frivolous mind, 
even though she may have some smat^ 
tering of accomplishments, we agree 
with men that she is most lamentably 

As to woman's suffrage, the strongest 
argument which we can find in its 
favor is the plea in behalf of widows 
and single women, who own property in 
their own right; that, in the regulating 
of the laws which govern said property, 
they should have an equal chance of 
securing ther best interests. But, on 
the other hand, this may be one of the 
instances in which the best interests of 
the few could not, at woman's present 
stage of advancement, stand for the 
best interests of the majority. As to 
woman increasing her individual 
freedom of thought and action by re- 
ceiving the gift of suffrage, surely all 
who have read that thrillingly true 

the enslaving of their free wills. Better 
be a woman forbidden to vote than a 
man selling his vote and manliness, on 
account of his ignorance and vice, to 
the politician who would bestialize the 
nature of his willing slave. 

I'ntil women can understand and rea^ 
son logically upon all questions of politi- 
cal moment, let them not yearn for the 
privilege of being counted as so many 
victims whose free wills must be sarificed 
I upon the altar of ignorance. 
! That many women in our land are as 
I capable to cope with these questions 
successfully as any man, is already a 
demonstrated fact; but in this, as in 
many instances, the few must suffer a 
while that the mass be not enslaved. 
Until both parties are equally compe- 
tent to judge, and choose for themselves 
independently of either's coercion, let 
us not desire that political wrangle be- 
tween husbands and wives, fathers and 
daughters, shall help to add the fuel of 
political discord to the fire of ignorance 
and self-will- And until the majority of 
women shall be raised above the ignor- 
ance of some of their number, who 
think themselves capable of instructing 
others, I doubt if woman's suffrage 
would very materially clear the politi- 

That educated women have success- 
fully guided vast political interests, and 
shown themselves capable of diploiuatio 
powers equal to those of men, history 
most plainly reveals. Take the accounts, 
gathered from various sources, of the 
life of Jeanne d'Albret, afterwards 
Queen of Navarre, the mother of Henry 
the Fourth of France, and one of the 
most staunch and fearless supporters of 
Protestantism at a time when to espouse 
the cause meant persecution; who waa 
selected by the Romish powers as one of 
the victims of the Inquisition, from 
which fate she was providentially saved, 
not by the recantation of her faith, but 
by the interposition of the wife of Philip 
of Spain. This Jeanne d'Albret. Queen 
of Navarre, married to a husband piti- 
ably weak and vacillating, utterly in- 
capable of comprehending her nobility 
of soul, was forced to take into her own 
hands the reins of government. Sur- 
rounded by enemies on either hand, she 
made no mistakes in political measures, 
sustained her ancestral rights, battled 
for the cause of Protestantism, even 
joining the army, and herself personally 
encouraging the panic-stricken soldiers 
after the defeat of the Huguenots at the 
great battle of Jarnac, and the death of 

of mental training ond persistent study 
with that which is exacted from her col- 
legiate brother. Not until it shall have 
been demonstrated that woman's brain 
is incapable of equal development under 
the same training.will the fact be proven 
that woman is mentally inferior to man. 
That man's mind is different from 
woman's in its methods of arriving at 
the same result,?, does not necessitate 
an inferiority on her side; that an elec- 
tric current is different in its methods 
of operation from a steam engine, does 
not detract on either side from their in- 
herent strength and vital force. 

Woman, at the present time, needs 
education more than suffrage, skilled 
training rather than a ccntinued clam- 
oring for an enlargement of rights which 
she already possesses, and which wait 
only her demonstrated fitness. The 
words of the Apostle Paul, that "women 
should keep silence," have been used 
with supposed overwhelming conviction 
(that is, to their own minds) by many 
men. whose estimates of woman's capa- 
bilities have been based upon theu- own 
lamentable experience of being sur- 
rounded by weak and petty-minded 
women. As most of our convictions are 
founded upon our own experience, when 
men sweepingly declare that woman's 
mind is either incapable or unworthy of 
high development, and that her only 
sphere is in the petty routine of daily 
duties (that hersphere is there, we don't 
pretend to deny; only contending that 

story of "The Fate of Madame La 
Tour," revealing the tortures and slav- 
ery of the women of Mormon Utah, 
where the women are condescendingly 
given the right of suffrage, and practi- 
cally handcuffed by their husbands. will 
be led to doubt the fulfillment of that 
part of the promise held out by sup- 
porters of this measure. The results nu- 
merically considered, at the present 
stage of woman's political education, 
would probably not be vastly different 
in its effects upon any particular party; 
for, until the mass of women learn to 
think for themselves, intelligently, logi- 
cally, and clearly, upon political and re- 
formatory questions, the mass will vote 
as their husbands, fathers and brothers 
advise, except in the case of ignorant 
and inherently willful woijien, who will 
seek to gratify a petty spite by voting 
contrary to the men of their home circle. 
When woman's education shall have 
broadened and enlarged her mental 
horizon, until her umotal vision upon 
the ijolitical and reformatory outlook 
is as far-reaching as that of the most in- 
telfSgent of men. then will she be fitted 
to make wise use of such a power, and 
then will .she surely gain it. if she need 
it. To argue that ignorant, coarse, 
wicked, debased men are allowed a 
privilege of which she isdenied would not 
be a powerful plea to her refined nature 
did she stop to realize that the so-called 
privilege of these ignorant voters is that 
of bartering their votes for whisky and 

cal horizon from the clouds which hang 
over it. 

As an instance of ignorance upon 
these questisons displayed by women 
who even profess to teach others, I will 
mention the following: A woman who 
spends her time in going about the coun- 
try and making exhortations, made in 
my hearing the following illogical and 
ignorant remarks, of which any bright- 
im"nded school-boy would have been 
ashamed, "that she thought the only 
solving of the negro question would be, 
to found a colored republic within the 
boundaries of our own nation and give 
to them their own government and Leg- 
islature and President, and treat with 
them as with a foreign power." As to 
the Germans, as they were such beer 
drinkers, her opinion was. that "our 
government should never have given 
them the privilege of becoming citizens 
through naturalization." And, as to 
the Chinese, she considered that they 
were allowed to come to this country in 
order that they luay be converted to 
Christianity, in which laudable opinion 
poor California does not entirely differ 
with her, but plaintively begs to be al- 
lowed to send their 100,000 heathen, free 
of freight, to the benevolent evongeli- 
zers of New England, that they may 
have the privilege of converting the 
heathen at their own door. Thus, in 
five minutes' time, did this woman dis- 
pose, probably to her own ignorant aat.- 
isfaction. of these momentous questions. 

theii- leader, the Prince Conde. Thlfl 
masterly address of a woman to the 
soldiers of the Reformation hag some- 
thing truly Napoleonic in its clear, ring^ 
ing cadences, and somethuig vaatl^ 
grander than Napoleon's aim; for it WM 
inspired by a desire to uphold and ad- 
vance God's kingdom, rather than an 
ambitious thirst for increased powM^ 
Whatever we may think of upholding 
any cause by the use of the sword, we 
must admire these .soul-stirring words of 
this great and dauntless woman:— 

"Sodiers, you weep! But does the 
memory of Conde demand nothing more 
than tears? Will you be satisfied with 
profitless regrets ? No ! Let us unite 
and summon back our courage, to de- 
fend a cause which can never perish. 
Does despair overpower you? Despair, 
that shameful failing of weak naturesi 
Can it be Itiiown to you, noble warrioai 
and Christian men? When I, the QualULu 
hope still, is it for you to fear? BeoafflBy 
Conde is dead is .all, therefore, l^HT 

No! God. who placed aruis in his hands 
for our defense, and who has resooad 
you from perils innumerable, has ralMd 
us up brothers in arms, worthy to 800^ 
eeed him and to fight for the cause Of 
the King, our countrv, and the truth I 
* * * To these brave warriors I ad^ 
ray son; make proof of his valor. Sod[j 
iers! I offer you everything in 
power to bestow ; my dominions, i 
treasures, my life, and that whioh*^ 


dearer to me than all—my children! I 
make here nolenm oath before you all, 
and you know me too well to doubt my 
word, 1 swear to defend to my last sigh 
the holy cause which now unites us, 
which is that of honor and of truth !" 

Think you. if the wives and mothers 
of the men of our republic were educa- 
ted and trained to become such women, 
the bills passed by Congress would be 
influenced, as now, by the unscrupulous 
but keen-witted women-lobyists V Men 
will be influenced by women: l.t i\.]y 
wife and mother and sister in ili- l;iii'l 
see to it that their own pett\ hhh.IhiI 
ness and weak (because unt^xci-risiMlj 
brains do not leave it for other bad, 
though it must be confessed, much 
smarter, women to wield the power for 
evil, which they could hold in their own 
hands for good did they but use and 
increase the talents which God has 
given them, and for which he will surely ■ 
hold tliem to an account. I 

be the last to seek to appropriate her 
brother's crown of glory, when her own 
memory is immortalized by her match- 
less songs which her brother publicly 
acltnowledged to the world as composed 
by the sister whom he admired above all 
women, and whose genius he candidly 
and lovingly recognized. In these days 
woman's place in the world is bounded 
only by her own capabilities and high- 
est possible development. In benevolent 
and uiissionary enterprises she has long 
taken the lead. Now, literature, music, 
:ii t, s.-ieuce, medicine, metaphysics,theo- 
|i iu> (hhI trade are open to her ambition; 
ami to every woman comes the stirring 
question, What can I make of my own 
lif el— Lydia Hoyt Fatimer in Cleveland 

The proprietor of a wholesale import- 
ing and exporting house down town 



The exercises in the following cut may 
be practiced with the whole arm or fore- 
arm movement. In practicing the 
whole arm movement you should keep 
the arm free from the desk, resting the 
hand on the back of the last two finger 
nails. This movement will enable be- 
ginners to obtain control of the hand 
more readily than any other, but it 
should be introduced as a stepping- 
stone to the fore-arm movement in the 
place of being made a standard move- 
ment for making capital letters. 

Next we come to the fore-arm move- 
ment, which has universally been called 
the umscular movement. (We see no 
reason for calling this the muscular 
iiioveinent. for the simple reason that 
every movement we make is a muscular 
movement). The position for practicing 

. RUS: 

, JOI-U 

One of the grandest and best laws ever 
entered upon the statute books of the 
nation is undoubtedly the civil service 
reform law. I am in receipt of the 
Second Annual Report from John M. 
Gregory, one of the commissioners, who 
says "the enforcement of the civil service 
act of January 16, 1884, has been found 
both practicable and effective for the 
accomplishment of its purpose.'' It has 
relieved a large number of officers, from 
the President down, from the pitiless ap- 
peals of the office beggars. So, not- 
withstanding the howl of a few sore- 
headed demagogues and office-seekers, 
the law has proven a grand success. 
The days of ignorant dunderheads in 
office are evidently numbered, and the 
long, (lark nightmare of ignorance has 



place in politic 

n- to be 
1 politician see 
to it that she becomes a Jeanne d'Albret 
in discipline of mind, unimpeachable 
integrity, fearless promulgation of reUg- 
ious principles, and unflinching courage. 
In pleading the cause of woman's 
high mental development and great 
future possibilities, we have no sym- 
pathy with those foolishly weak advo- 
cates of her mental powers, who grasp 
at all vague rumors of her past achieve- 
ments, and who believe the faint, un- 
founded traditions that Mendelssohn's ; 
crown of glory belonged by right to his 
sister, who. they claim, was the real ' 
author of his masterpieces; and that the ' 
laurel wreath of political renown as the i 
framer of the Declaration of Independ- j 
f nee must be torn from the brow of I 
Thomas Jefferson and placed upon the > 
head of some unknown woman, who, I 
petty rumor saith, favored Thomas Jef- 
ferson with her sage advice. 

When woman's cause demands such 
unreliable, legendary lore to prove her 
mental equahty her cause will be weak 
Muieed. And Fanny Mendelssohn would 

complained the other day of the lack of 
efficient clerks in his kind of business. 
He said that those who expected to rise, 
endeavored to master the details of the 
intricate business, but he found few 
with energy enough to attempt it. 
"Now out of forty clerks I annually 
drop thirty two and retain eight. Why 
is that ? Well, foreign exchange and 
the details of the system have to be 
learned thoroughly. It requires energy 
and some brains, and a constant exer- 
cise of the memory. A majority of the 
young men employed refuse absolutely 
to try to understand the details. They 
hold on in an unsatisfactory manner, 
perform their work perfunctorily, and 
wonder why they are discharged. Per- 
haps eight or nine clerks have helped 
theui for months, and tided over, as it 
were, their ignorance. Any young man 
who is half way bright, honest and in- 
dustrious can succeed. Positions are 
always open to this kind of clerks. 
Once they get in. they remoui, and after 
several years turn up as jiartners in the 
business."— *V. Y Evangelist. I 

this movement is the same as the whole 
arm movement, with the exception of 
resting the muscles of the fore-arm on 
the desk. In order to develop and disci- 
pline the muscles of the fore-arm, a 
large amount of tune should be spent 
practicing the oval Then practice the 
Q and U, as you see the first two follow- 
ing the oval. 

The design of these exercises following 
the oval is to gradually reduce exercises 
into letters. Any one learning to write 
will be greatly benefitted by faitlifidly j 
practicing these exercises. Small letters 
should be made with the combined 
movement. All forward strokes should 
be made by moving the whole liand, 
letting the last two 'finger nails slide 
on the paper. The downward srt-okes 
are made by contracting the thumb 
and first two fingers. 

Now, we will say in conclusion that 
every hoy and girl can learn to write, if 
they only have the necessary will power 
and are wilUng to give the sufficient 
amount of time and energy to the 

at last been dispelled. The edict has 
gone out that henceforth merit and 
learning, not ignorance and stupidity, is 
to be the test of those who are hereafter 
to be clothed with official power. What 
a grand thing it would be if the law 
could be indefinitely extended to state, 
city and township officers. What a vast 
amount of trouble would be saved, and 
what a blessing it would be to all of the 
people. No other law has ever been 
made that is of so much importance 
t<) Business CoUeges, as the prepa- 
ration for government offices is mainly 
ae(|uired at these institutions. It is an 
acknowledged fact that our business 
colleges are giving just exactly that 
kind of education that is needed by 
every government officer. 

The lack of tliis pdTu-atinn is what has 
been the (.-jui^p i>l -., htruM. [irojiortion of 
the (iefalratiuM- ,ni.l failun-s, both in 
and out -.f t)i.-' ..llir.-, A large pro- 

Eortiun of tlu- nffim- ol 1 1 1-- government 
ereafter, it is fair to presume, will be 
graduates of the Business College. 

Brethen, it is our duty to make the 
course of instruction in these institu- 
tions both thorough and practical, for 
the book-keeping of the richest nation 
on earth depends upon skill and knowl- 
edge here acquired. 


JFhe AfneriGaii Penffiafl, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

By Clark & Johnaon, Proprietors, Erie, 
Pa,, and Buffalo, N Y. 


One Colamn ii'i « 


nil parts of the country, anti all 
I fiubscrlblng before January 1st, 1S86, will re- 
copy one year for 60 cents. When a c lib of 


half c 

1 subscriptions 
fonvariieti to Thr asiehican Penman. We prefer 
to give cuBli premiums to those securing cUibs, and 
this rule will lie invariiihly folIowetL 

Rcmitiiinccs shciilil ite niude by >'. Y. Drnft, P. 
Money Onler, Postal Xoie, or Registered Letter, to 


are deserving of special mention on 
accouni of tlieir fine address and 
studious habits. 

\A'ell- written lettei-s have been re- \ 
ceived fi'om the following named per- 1 

J. N. Curry, Harrisblirg, Pa. 

C. G. Prince, Clark's Business Col- 
lege, Buffalo, N, Y. 

J. A. Best, with W. C. ct A. R. R. Co., 
Vineland, N. Y. 

C. Bayliss, Business College, Du- 
buque, Iowa. 

A. D. Wilt, Miami Cumiuercial Col- 
lege. Akron, O. ' 



S. C. Malone, artist penman. Balti- 
more, Md., favoi-s us with specimens 
ot his pen drawing and lettering, 
which justly place him nt the front as 
a pen artist. 

C. R. Bales, Bloominpton. 111., sends 
a beautitully written letter. He is 
open to an engagement, and judging 
fiom his writing, he ought to have a 
good place. 

Chas. I. Rice, penman in the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 
encloses several fine specimens of let- 
ter writing. 

W. P. Richardson, Fayette, 0., en- 
closes in a well-written letter, a club I 
of fourteen subscribers, and a beauti- 
ful pen flourish, which appears in this 
number. Prof. Richardson is evidently 
a live teacher. 

Clark's Business Colleges are attract- 
ing students from remote cities and 
towns in the United States, as well as 
receiving a large home patronage. 
During the early part of the month 
Messrs. Jas. M. Baker and J. F.AVeaver, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, were registered 
among the new arrivals to the Erie 
College. Mr. J. C. Maxwell, of Rich- 
land Centre, Wis., was also admitted 
to m(mbership. These young men 

It is astonishing to see the rapid pro 
gress made in this branch of education 
within the last twenty years. The day 
was, and not very long ago, when the 
gtenographic art was a rare accoui- 
plishuieut. and therefore vahiable to 
its possessor. But now many young 
men and women in pi-ofessional life can 
write short-hand, and its uses are many 
and varied. That of court reporting is 
one of the most lucrative, and one re- 
quiring experience, but nearly every 
prominent lawyer, merchant, banker, 
and broker has his short-hand secretary 
or clerk. 

The question may be very properly 
asked. How long does it take to learn 
the art, and what previous education is 
needed in order to make a success? The 
average time as given by one of experi 
ence, is six months. A thorouRh knowl- 
edge of the English branches is abso- 
lutely necessary, and knowledge in any 
direction never comes amiss. All other 
things being equal, the student possei 
ing the more extended knowledge wll 
make the more rapid progress and gi' 
the best satisfaction, but any young'i 
man or woman with a knowledge of the 
English branches, and the requisite 
amount of force and perseverance to 


The above lette 

W. M'. Bennett, Cleveland, O. 

J. W. Shott, American Nomial Col- 
lege, Logansport, Ind. 

C. H. Ivlausman, letter business 
writing and cards, Minneapolis, Minn, 

W. C. Harvey, Business College. 
Davenport, Iowa. 

C. M. Robinson, Business College, 
Laf»yette, Ind. 

ToBAico is a cui-se, socially, physi- 
cally and financially, and the raising, 
manufactru'ing. selling and consum- 
ing of it should be everlastingly sat 
down u|)on by all good citizens. — Gal- 
liopnlia Jovmal. 

Stenographers in railroad offices are 
thousands in number, and in the metro- 
politan offices of the great express and 
transporation companies nearly every 
department has its short-hand clerk at 
his elbow. The salaries commanded 
range from $10 to $25 per week, accord- 
ing to ability and experience. 

As a work for women there is no field 
where men have felt more keenly the 
effect of their competition, the average 
young woman making as efficient and 
satisfactory a stenographer as her 
brother, and in many places they are 
preferable to a man. 

There is to-day no profession offering 
so sure and immediate promotion as 
stenography. The principal of one of 
the first schools in the country said to 
me a short time since, that scarcely a 

push forward at the point that seems 
the darkest, is sure of such proficiency 
in the art as will prove eminently satis- 

"With ordinary talent and extraordi- 
nary perseverance, all things are attaiu- 

— There is nothing in after life that 
can take the place of father and mother 
to the child; there is no other institution 
tike the family; there is no other love 
like paaental love, anil no friendship 
like the friendship of father and mother. 
—X. Y. EqangelisL 

The next number will contain a r©-, 
port of the Business Educators k9Sfii?< 
ciation and much other valuable voSffi^ 


Eighth Annual Convention of the Business 
Educators Association of America, to be 
held in New York, Wednesday. July 7, to 
Wednesday July 14. 

The Executive Coiiunittee o( the"Busi- 
nes.'* Rduuators Association" takes pleas- 
ure in submitting the following sugges- 
tions as to the coming Convention: 


The Convention will be called to or- 
der at the rooms of the Packard College, 
on Wednesday, July 7, at 1 P. M.. for or- 
ganization and listening to the Presi- 
dent's address For subseciuent meet- 
ings, both the Packard Tollege and the 
^pencerian College will be at the option 
of the convention. 


On AVednesday evening a meeting will 
be held at Chifkering Hall to which the 
public will be invited, and which will be 
addressed by representative New York- 
ers in a welcome to the delegates, and 
responses made by members of the As- 

It is also suggested that at least one 
other meeting be held for the discussion 
of some broad educational topic; and 
that the public be invited to attend — 
the regular sessions of the Conven- 


It is proposed that Thursday, Sat- 
urday. Monday.Tuesday and the fore- 
noon of Wednesday be given up 
wholly to the real work of the Con- 
vention, and that Friday be devoted 
to an excursion and banquet, which 
has been tendered to tlie members 
by the Packard Allunmi Association. 

Suggestions as to hours and means 
of recreation and leisure are given 
under the proper head. 

The daily proceedings are suggest- 
ed in the following schedule: 


Meeting at 1 P- M. for organiza- 
tion, etc —1. Report of Secretary and 
Treasurer: 2. Report of Executive 
Conunittee; 2. President's address; 4. 
Miscellaneous Business. 


Chickering Hall, 8 p. m.— 1. Ad- 
dresses of welcome from eminent citi. 
zens; 2. Responses by the President 
and members of the Association; 3. 
Statements from the Executive Com- 
mittee and announcements of the 
meetings of the Convention. 


Morning session. 9 to 10.— Meeting 
of committees or sections for the con- 
sideration of special subjects; 10 to 
11:30, Bookkeeping; How to introduce 
the study of accounts: 11:30 to 1, Pen- 
manship; The best method of teaching 
in connuercial schools. 

Management, as applied to the B 

course shall it begin, and of what shall i pie opportunity for the penmen, the 

it consist ? I shortrhond writers and teachers, and all 

Afternoon session, 3 to 4.— Women in [ other specialists, to confer with each 

business; 4 to 5, The ethics of business. I other without restraint, and thus to 

I promote a better ac(iuaintanoe and 


Morning session, 9 to 10.— Meeting of 
committees: 10 to 11:30. Penmanship in 
class instruction; 11:30 to 1. Shorthand: 
Methods of teaching, and practical re- 
sults to be accompHshed. 

Afternoon session, 2 to 4. — Social 
economy: Its place in a business course, 
and how it may best be tauglit; 4 to 5. 
Commercial law: Method and extent of 


Morning session, 9 to 10. — Meeting of 
committees; 10 to 11:30, Language: How 
it can best be taught in business 
schools, and to what extent; 11:30 to 1, 
Election and general good of the asso- 


The Committee desire to make room 
for all members who iiave anything to 
say, and wish to say it: and. in order 
that proper arrangements may be made 
to this end. it is suggested that those 

more effective co-operation. A room 
will be setapartfortheexhibitof books, 
machines, and appliances of any sort 
appropriate to the work in hajid. 


The matter of reduced fare on the 
railroads has been seriously and care- 
fully considered by the committee, the 
result being, that on account of the un- 
certainty as to the number of persons 
to be provided for on any particular 
route, and the fact that very few will 
care to come and return over the same 
route, the eflfort to secure special re- 
ductions would prove of Uittle avail. 
They would also call attention to the 
fact that these are times of abnormally 
low rates <.ii all road;; leading to New 
York, and that, though outside ticket 
agents, even these low rates maybe dis- 
counted. It will be the business of the 
committee tD secure all possible favors 
in these directions. 

wiio are willing te take part, either in 

the prejiaratinn of papers or in the dis- 

shall communicate with the 

of the coumiittee, before the 

School I day of meeting. 


red that 

College; 4 ton. Relation of business col- j shall be opened in a deliberate way, 
through a carefully prepared paper or 
I address, occupying not to exceed thirty 

leges to pubUc schools. 

utes, to be followed by extemporan- 
I eousdiscussion; and, while everv mem- 
KOURTH DAY-SATURDAY. ^^^ ^^.^ ^e accorded the constitutional 

Morning session. 9 to 10^— Meeting of j privilege of speaking upon any open 

y much aid the com- 

New York is a city of hotels and 
boarding houses, and good board can 
be secured at from ten dollars a week to 
ten dollars a day. according to the in- 
clination and the purse of the guest. 
The ordinary price for good single 
rooms at the best hotels, is from |1 to 
$1.50 a day; double rooms, ?2 to $3.50. 
There is no good reason for placing the 
entire cost of lodging and board, in 
good hotels, above ?3 a day; and any 
one who desires to economize, can live 
comfortably and respectably on $2.50. 

Good boarding houses can be found 
close [jroximity to the convention, at a 
rate not to exceed SIO a week. Places 
at hotels or boarding houses will be se- 

)mmittees; 10 to 11:30. Bookkeeping: i question. It 
How far and in what direction shall we I mittee to know in advance, the names 
go in applying the science to business of those who may be called upon to 
specialties? 11:30 to 1, Arithmetic: How | ^peak upon the several topics named 
to teach it to secure the best practical | The experience of former conventions 
results. ' lias taught us that a full hour for dis- 

Afternoon session, 3 to 4.— Industrial cussion of the points in any jirepared 
education: Its relation to business ool- , paper or address is as brief a limit as 
lege work and to the educational inter- , should be set. * . ■■ , i * i u , 4.1 

?,.. ij.e/-, .,1 tabhshed. to hold during the conv 

estB of the country; 4 to 0. Commercial rry,^ nnmniittpe nro i^rPiinrt.f1 tr, oHv * 1-1 I I * ■ . 11 

^ , ^ ^ ^ .^ ine connmrtee aie piepareci to say. from which can be obtauied all 

Correspondence; To what extent jt may f,.n,„ nsani-nn,.*. nivonHv ttt hanA fVmt ' ■ * *■ * . < 

«- - , , . „ iiom assuiante aiieaa> at nana, tnai g^ry mformation as to plHf»'«rtfi 

be taught as a special duty? | no^e of the topics are likely to go beg- 

A Bun 


. of Information will be « 

FIFTH DAY — MONDAY. | gillg. 

Morning session, 9 to 10 —Meeting of special intekfsts. 

'onmiittees; 10 to 11:30. Bookkeeping as 1 The object of devoting the morning 
adapted to retail business; 11:30 to 1. hour, from 9 to 10. to "meetings of the 
Husiness practice: At what stage of the committees and sections," is to give am- 

1 and amusement: and it must not be 
forgotten that New York, in summer 
time, holds out unusual attractions in 
this line. Especially is rich in cheap 
excursions to the country and seaside, 
while the numerous theatres and con- 

cert lialls, arranged especially for sum- 
mer entertainments, are all that could 
be desired. 


In conclusion, the committee would 
respectfully call the attention of mem- 
bers and their friends to the fact that 
this is an important time in the history 
of our association, and that there are 
weighty reasons why a special effort 
should be made to properly place our 
work before the public. Many of us 
have been in the field uninterruptedly 
for twenty-flve years and more, and 
others who have come into it more 
recently have the same or even greater 
interests at stake in the matter. There 
seems to be almost as much necessity for 
educating the public mind now as there 
has been at any time in the past.not with- 
standing the growth of our specialty 
and the missionary efforts of earnest and 
progressive teachers. Those wlio have 
followed the line of progression as ad- 
vanced by our recent conventions, can- 
not fail to see tliat in this method lies 
our best avenue to the public sense and 
our best means of promoting efficiency 
__ in our individual schools. The Busi- 
ness Educator's Association had its 
birth in New York eight years ago, 
and there are important reasons why 
its return to the old ground should 
be signalized by such evidences of 
solid growth as shall impress the 
public. To this end. it is essential 
that we bring into our discussions 
the best thoughts that are in us. and 
that we leave no doubt in oiu* own 
niinds or in the minds of our friends 
that we are in the line of advance- 
ment in educational ideas and pro- 
cesses. It is believed by the com- 
mittee that the convention of '86 
will be in many respects the most 
important that has yet been held. 
Evidences are at hand of a very 
large rttendance, and the prompt 
responses which have been made to 
requests for papers and co-opera- 
tion in other matters give evidence 
of unusual zest. It is to be hoped 
that members of the association will 
not only make an effort to be pres- 
ent themselves, but will use their in- 
fluence to induce a large attendance 
of teachers within the line of their 
correspondence. Especially do the 
committee request suggestions and 
inquiries touching any point of inter- 
est. They are determined to leave 
no effort untried which shall tenil to 
the comfort of members or to the 
advancement of the cause. Communi- 
cations should baddressed to the Chair- 
man, who engages to render prompt re- 
S. S. Packard. 805 Broadway. N. Y 
D. T. Ames. 205 Broadway. N. Y. 
L F. Gardner. Poughkeepsie. N. Y. 

ExeviiHue Committee. 
New York. May 10, 1886. 

The American Penman is late in 
coming out this month, but owing to 
pressing business matters, we hope our 
readers will excuse the delay. The July 
No. will appear alittlelater.owingtoour 
desii'e to get a full report as possible of 
the Business Educator's Association. 
Thereafter the "A. P." will appear on 

Avoid the first teiuptation to wrong. 
He who yields, and indulges ui some 
form of sin practiced by others, because 
others practiced it, is in the quicksands 
and cannot expect but to suffer loss. 
Safety consists in ability to say no. 
firmly and from tlie beginning. — A<-ad- 
cmy News. 

'Tis the mind that makes the botly 
fiKh,— Shakesjiearr. 



In comparing the relative merits of our 
Business Colleges with those of our 
Classical Colleges, we will say nothing 
derogatory to the latter, but will, we 
trust, by fair argument and couipari- 
sons, show up truthfully the relative 
merits of each At the outset we claim 
that our Business Colleges are doing 
vastly more good in proportion to their 
means than Classical Colleges, although 
we suppose that this may be denied, 
nevertheless, we believe that statistics 
will verify our statement. In the first 
place is it not a fact that the vast ma- 
jority of our Classical schools are sus- 
tained by private contributions, or by 
benevolent individuals, or perhaps some 
church? How may of them are self-sus- 
taining? Comparatively few. Is not 
the annual commencement used as a 
day of asking, yea, begging alms, to 
lielp along the different Classical insti- 
tutions? In the history of any of our 
Business Colleges, do we see anything 
of this kind; nay, verily a Business 
College that cannot stand upon its merit 
has to sink, and how 'veil they have 
stood the test. Let the hundreds of 
prosperous Business Colleges through- 
out the country answer this. To any ob- 
serving business man, this would, if ap- 
plied to actual business transactions, be 
most conclusive proof. How long would 
any mercantile house, be its name what 
it might, stand, that was compelled to 
issue an annual appeal to the charity of 
the customer, to keep it from bank- 
ruptcy? Yet, my classical friends, dis- 
guise it as you may, this is precisely 
what you are doing: begging to keep 
yourselves from having your doors closed 
which the lack of patronage would force 
upon you. 

It may be that many of our Business 
Colleges are poor. I know that many, 
if not all, are most heartily despised by 
Classical Colleges. Thatthey do not edu- 
cate and are consequently humbugs, has 
been charged time and again against 
them. How true this is, let the nuiuer- 
ous graduates of these institutions 
answer. Everywhere, scattered from 
Maine to California, are the graduates 
of our various Business Colleges in po- 
sitions of the utmost responsibility and 
trust, where brains and talent are re- 
quired. Can as much be said of the 
graduates of our various Classical Col- 
leges? The late Horace Greeley, whom 
all will admit to be a fair judge, in- 
asmuch as he was a graduate of neither 
a Business nora Classical College, said,in 
1869, that in the city of New York there 
was an army of upwards of ninety thou- 
sand graduates from the various Classi- 
cal institutions of learning of the United 
States, and that not a tithe of them 
could earn a living, while at the same 
time the graduates of our Business Col- 
leges were nearly all in some useful em- 
ployment. The devotion of four years 
to the study of dead languages Mr. 
Greeley regards as a most positive injury 
to many, and as far as the discipline is 
concerned, all sensible persons will admit 
that there is enough to learn in the 
English language, that is of benefit 
to mankind. A knowledge of Latin 
may be of benefit to the medical profes- 
.'iion, and how very few of these ever re- 
tain the knowledge that they have spent 
years to secure. Is it not almost invari- 
ably forgotten? In regard to the state- 
ment that our Business Colleges do not 
educate, we think that we have shown 
most positively that they do educate, 
and do it in a much more practical man- 
ner than most of our Classical Colleges. 
That they impart the most essential 
branches of education which are daily 
used and ar6 required for the transaction 

of the vast amount of business of the 
country, is a fact that we suppose no 
man in his right mind will attempt 
to deny. That there are humbug insti- 
tutions that do not teach what they ad- 
vertise, in fact, are grand frauds, we 
suppose to be equally true of both Busi- 
ness and Classical schools. Of these we 
have nothing to say, but of the many 
worthy institutions scattered over the 
country that have been models of suc- 
cess, which are presided over by men of 
learning and unblemished character and 
reputation, who are devoting their lives 
for the advancement of education, of 
these we now speak, and are proud to 
claim in no arrogant or bombastic man- 
ner,that they are doing, have done,and in 
all human possibility will do as much 
for young men, yes, more that will be of 
solid worth to their students and the 
world at large, than the very best of our 
classical schools. That they ask no en- 
dowments from the millionaire or the 
philanthropist, but expect to stand upon 
their own individual worth, supported 
by a just and appreciating public, we 
believe redounds most emphatically to 
their credit. 

When we compare the expenses that 
are required at either of these institu- 
tions, which is no small matter, espe- 
cially in such stringent times as we have 
had for the past four years, as it is a 
well-known fact that the vast majority 
of students that attend these schools are 
from the middle and poorer classes, that 
compartively few are rich, we shall find 
that the investment of $100 in a business 
education is surely of much more im- 
portance than is the $1,000 invested in 
the dead languages. For what the age 
demands isatraining of a practical nature 
afforded by many of our best Business 
Colleges. Let the antiquated mossbacks, 
if they have time and money to do so, 
search out and translate Nepos, Virgilj 
or even grow enthusiastic over Cicero's 
orations, but the age demands practical 
education, and the young man that has 
brains and ability, and the right kind of 
energy, is the man that will succeed. 

Good business men are apt to ask in 
relation to almost anything, Does it 
pay? If we put this question as to the 
relative benefits of a Business or Classi- 
cal education, we are led to the con- 
elusion, when we compare them, 
that a Business education is better than 
a Classical education, for the reason 
which we have minutely observed, it 
pays infinitely better. It is what the 
people need and must have, in order to 
do their business properly, and the 
unanimity with which they sustain and 
patronize the three hundred Business 
Colleges is sufficient evidence as to their 
relative merits in comparison with Clas- 
sical Colleges. 


They had just been introduced. She 
was a pretty country gu-l and he a 
wheelman who was very vain of his per- 
sonal appearance when clad in 'cycling 

He — I assure you there is scarcely a 
man who does not find the wheel suit 
most becoming. 

She— (Doubtingly)— Indeed ! 

He — As for myself, everybody insists 
that I look 100 per cent, better in bicycle 
costume than in an ordinary business 

She — (innocently) — Dear me ! How 
awfully you must look in an ordinary 
business suit I 

This is also from the country, and 
he. too, a wheelman. He had called at 
a farmhouse for a glass of water, but the 
pretty farmer's daughter had olTered 
him a glass of milk instead. 

"Won't you have another glass?" she 
asked, as he drained the tumbler, with 

a sigh, and appeared to be taking in 
emptiness with both eyes. 

" You are very good," he replied, 
" but I am afraid I shall rob you." 

"'" with emphasis. "We have 
so much more than the family can use 
that we're feeding it to the calves all the 

An episode of the North Shore; 

Bicycler to rural individual: "How 
far is it to Blankville ?" 

"Wall, for a hoss 'n kerridge it's a 
good three mile, but for one of them 
blame things I guess it ain't much 
more'n than a couple o' hundred rods. 
Fust road to th' left, mister, then keep 
straight ahead t'l ye get thare." 

The quick-wittedness of the Irishman 
was capitally illustrated the other day 
on the road between Lynn and Salem, 
where a gang of laborers were construct- 
ing a sidewalk. 

"How soon will that be ready to ride 
on?" asked a passing wheelman from 
Boston, pleasantly. 

" Before you're i-eady to pay the Lynn 
authorities for the privilege, begorra !" 
—Boston liecord. 


"We should ever have it fixed in our 
memories," said Blair, "that by the 
character of those whom we choose for 
our friends, our own is likely to be 
formed, and will certainly be judged of 
by the world " 

The good Sir Matthew Hale said: 
"There is certainly magic or charm in 
company, for it will assimilate and make 
you like to them by much conversation 
with them. If they be good company, 
it is a great means to make you good or 
confirm you in goodness; but if they are 
bad, it is twenty to one but they will 
infect and corrupt you. The myriads 
who have devoted their lives to drinking 
and gaming habits, have ascribed their 
wreck and downfall not so much to the 
love of drink and mere play, as to the 
love of company and the attractive 
temptation presented by bad eompan- 

" Keep good company, and you will be 
one of the number," said good George 

There ought to be a restraining influ- 
ence in the avoiding of evil and idle 
companionships by the thought that al- 
though temptation may have been 
yielded to in company, the consequences 
must be borne alone. Evil companions 
are strong to seduce, but heartless to 
sustain their victims. They will exhaust 
your means, teach you to despise the 
God of your fathers, lead you into every 
sin, go with you while you afford them 
any pleasure or profit, and then when 
the inevitable disaster of wickedness 
begins to overwhelm you, they will 
abandon you.— A'ucccs*.- in Life. 


Forty years ago. in 1846, at the ultra- 
refined literary receptions of Lady Bles- 
sington, a young French girl, introduced 
by a friend of the hostess, laid the foun- 
dation of her future reputaition in for- 
tune-telling. It was Mile. Le Normand, 
the modern pythoness. Lady Blessing- 
ton, who had been informed by her 
Parisian correspondent of the miraculous 
gifts of her protege, determined to try 
her before she could have become ac- 
quainted with any of the persons pres- 
ent, or even ascertain their names. 
Three men were successively brought to 
her. To the first, after examining his 
hand, she said: "Your life will be a 
happy and successful one, but on one 
occasion you and one of your children 
will miraculously escape destruction." 
To the second: "It seems almost in- 

credible, but I would say to you, in thf 
words of Shakespeare, "Thou wilt be 
king hereafter !' Yes, sir, you will reign.'" 
After gazing into the palm of (he third 
the young girl shivered, grew pale, and 
dropped his hand. Quickly rallying, 
she informed him that she saw nothmg \ 
worth repeating, and left his side. But 
the same night, before leaving, she im- 
plored Lady Blessington to distrust her \ 
guest, saying: " He will commit murder 
and be sentenced to death." 

These three men were Charles Dick- 
ens, who, in 1864, returning from abroad, 
was in the horrible railroad accident of 
Staplehurst, and escaped unhurt; the 
manuscript of "Our Mutual Friend," 
his offspring, inclosed in a small hand- 
bag, was found upon the track amid the 
debris and returned to the author. The 
second man was Prince Louis Napoleon. 
No commentary is needed. The third 
was Charles Wainwright, then a most 
proraisiner.painter, who afterwards mur- 
dered his wife, with the iimst revolting 
cruelty. He was condenmed to death, 
but the Queen comiimted his sentence 
to transportation for life. 

Desbarolles, the great French wizard, 
has chosen this opportune moment to 
leave the world; sooner he might have 
passed away without even the slighest 
notice. He was not rich, having lost all 
his fortune in the failure of a bank, and 
because, as he said, "he had not dared 
to ask permission to examine the hand 
of the manager." He used to receive- 
his clients in a room of dazzling bright- 
ness, with curtainless windows, the light 
coming in from the sky, the gardens^ 
and above the roofs. DesbarroUes 
laughingly explained: " My attic is the 
ante-room of tlie constellations.'' 

In 1865 a very young Creole, Mile. Au- 
tard de Bragard, came to consult him. 
"Whom shall I marry ?" " A man whoaO^ 
position will be universally envied." '* A^ 
millionaire? A prince?" "Better still.'* 
Four year later the young girl became- 
Mme. Ferdinand de Lesseps.— iowtoa 
Letter to the New York Sun. 

A writer's chance of being widely- 
read depends greatly on his style, and it 
seems to us a piece of literary affecta- 
tion for any author to write in florid or- 
obscure language. No man who writes 
for posterity, as the London Times says, 
can afford to neglect the art of compo- 
sition. Dr. Johnson's verbosity was a. 
standing joke among many of his con- 
temporaries, Of him Macaulay said 
that he wrote in a style in which no one 
ever made love, nor quarrelled, nor drove 
bargains, or ever thought. When he 
wrote to his friends he wrote good Eng^ 
lish, but when he wrote for publication 
he "did his sentences into Johnsonese." 
" He has had his reward," says a writer. 
"His 'Rambler' lies unread on our 
bookshelves: his talk, as recorded by 
Boswell, will be perused by thousands 
of delighted students." Carlyle's ex- 
traordinary style undoubtedly militates 
against his being more extensively read. 
—All the Year Mound. 


—Whenever you are in doubt about 
which of two things to do, let your de- 
cision be for that which is right. Do 
not waver, do not parley, but go square- 
ly up to the nmrk and do the right 

—He who has left the world the record 
of a noble life, though he may have left 
no outward memorial, has left an endur- 
ing source of greatness. 

—"Joseph," said a merchant to his 
clerk, "your character and all your 
future usefulness and prosperity depend 
upon the way you pass your eveninga. 
Take my word for it, it is a young man'ft-- 
evenings that tell upon his life." 

—New York EvangclisL 


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H. C. CLARK, Editor. 

S. A. DRAKE. Associate Edlto 

CLARK &. JOHNSON. Proprle 

ERIE, PA., and BUFFALO, N. Y., JULY, ii 

Vol. 1— No. 7. 


Fairly Successful, but Devoid of 


General Convention Notes, &c. 

On AVednesday, July Tth, the Busi- 
net^s Educatoi-s' Association of Amer- 
ica convened at Packard's College, 
Xo. S05 Broadway, New York, and 
was called to order by the President, 
^ Hon. A. J, Rider. The Secretary was 
called upon to read the minutes of the 
last meeting, which he did in a grace- 
fiU manner. The President tlien de- 
livered his address which was read 
from manuscript, and as a whole was 
ijuite an able i)aper. The convention 
then took a recess to meet at Chicker- 
ing Hall in the evening. Here a 
small audience greeted the speakers, 
among whom were Mayor Rooney, 
ex-Gov. Chamberlain, S. S. Packard, 
Hon. A. J. Rider, Rev. Dr. Buckley, 
and Prof. J. L. Hirst. Music was fur- 
nished by a quartet club, which was 
received by far more favor by the au- 
dience than the rest of the pro- 
gramme. Ex-Gov. Chamberlain de- 
livered an excellent address, claiming 
that a business education was much 
better for our young men and women 
than a classical training. He has a 
jileasant style of delivery, and his 
address throughout was listened to 
with close attention. The last speaker, 
Rev. Dr. Buckley, said, among other 
things, that a relative of his (a lady) 
lost sixty-three thousand dollai-s by 
not having a business education. 

Following his address, the Glee 
CUib rendered a good-night song in a 
highly satisfactory manner. 


The convention was called to order 
in Packard's College, at a little past 
ten o'clock by the Pre.'^idcnt, and Dr. 
Bryant read a paper on book-keeping 
wliich was made up from observa- 
tions the Doctor had made on the ' 
science of accounts. 

We were unable to learn anything i 
new from the presentation of the sub-] 
jeot, and suppose that if there were ; 
any new points, they were carefully 
concealed, lest some member of the 
convention might find them out. , 
Prof G. W. Brown, of Jacksonville, 
III., followed with an address that! 

seemed far more eloquent than earn 
i-st. in wliirli he deplored the process 
nf mystitViiig the records of accounts, 
anil Ik* inado a special effort to arouse 
and hold the attention of R. C. Spen 
cer. of Milwaukee, instead of address- 
ing the convention in a body. How- 
ever, everybody took it good naturedly 
and allowed Mr. Brown to say what- 
ever he pleased without molestation 
He was followed by Euos Spencer, of 
TiOuisville, Ky., and Richard Nelson, 
of Cincinnati. 

Next, the subject of penmanshi}: 
was presented by C. T. Smith, of Jack- 
ville, who is credited with the ability 
to instruct young people in this 
branch very successfully. His me- 
thod, however, is not new, as there 
are hundreds of teachers who teach 
with just ns good results as Mr. Smith, 
and in fact we failed to find out 
whether he taught by illustration on 
the blackboard altogether or fi-om 
written copies. 

The balance of the day was em- 
ployed in listening to an address by 
S. S. Packard which, by the way, was 
a very able eflbrt, and at four o'clock 
the convention in a body went to 
Manhattan Beach to attend a dinner 
tendered them as guests of the Twi- 
light Club, N. Y. About six o'clock 
tliere were more than five hundred 
people who sat down to dinner, and a 
cry delightful time was had by all. 
The tlinner was served in excellent 
tyle, the bill of fare elaborate, and 
the after-dinner speeches pertaining 
to the " Problem of the Hour," were 
very good. 



convention accepted the invi- 
tation extended to it by the Packard 
Alumni Association to a sail upon 
the Hudson, and a most enjoyable 
time was had. One of the features of 
ihe occasion was a match game of 
base ball between the Packards anjjl 
Trenton College clubs, in which the 
Packards were badly worsted. 


The Penmens' Section met at the 
Spencerian Business College at nine 
o'clock in the morning, and in the 
absence of D. T. Ames, Prof H. A. 
Spencer was chosen chairman. 

H. C. Clark being called upon to 
jiresent some of his ideas of teaching, 
responded in an address of ten min- 
utes, in which he claimed that a stud- 

ent would acquire a better command 
of the muscular movement by first 
practicing with the whole arm. He 
advocated simple forms of letters for 
business, and was of the opinion that 
good writing was one of the most es- 
sential things in education. 

H. C. Sjjencer and Prof Vincent 
followed, each presenting in a brief 
way his methods of teaching. At 9:45 
the Penman's Section adjourned to 
unite with the regular convention in 
Packard's rooms at 10 o'clock. 

Upon the convention being called 
to order the subject of book-keeping 
was taken up and discussed at some 
length. After which the. subject of 
arithmetic was presented in a very 
satisfactory manner by T. B. Sto- 
well, of Providence. His method 
was practical and to tlie point. Few, 
if any, of the membere of the conven- 
tion could surpass his clear and con- 
cise style of presenting the subject to a 

At the afternoon session a very in- 
teresting and meritorious paper was 
read by S. S. Packard, after which the 
convention adjourned to attend a din- 
ner given them by the Spencer Bros., 
at Manhattan Beach, and it was one 
of the most "delightful features of the 
convention. Seated at either end of 
the table were the two famous Spen 
cers, Henry C. and Harvey A., who 
look so much alike that one can 
scarcely tell " which is which," and, 
they kejit the guests in a happy state 
of mind during the two hours occu- 
pied in serving the dinner. A very 
laughable affair was the joke that 
Lyman P, Spencer, America's greatest 
pen artist, perpetrated on Win. Alien 
Miller, the celebrated accountant of 
New York. Mr. Miller was engaged 
tossing up crumbs that he gathered 
from the table, and catching them in 
his mouth, (a trick that they say very 
few can do successfully) when Lyman 
spoke out and said, ** Miller, with so 
large a mouth as you Jiave, I hardly 
see how a man could foil to catcli 
thoae crumbs." The joke was greatly 
enjoyed by the guests. After the din- 
ner quite a large delegation attended 
the concert given by Gilmore's Band, 
after which they took a boat for New 


The Penmens' Section met at the 
Spencerian College and the following 
gentleuien explained their methods of 

teaching: Roeth, of San Francisco; 
CoUins, of Knoxville, Tenn.; Rath- 
burn, of Omaha; Hinman, H. A. Spen- 
cer, Huntsinger, and Burdett, of Bos- 

Upon the call of the regular con- 
vention, Thos. E. Hill, of Chicago, 
read a paper entitled," Ethic in Busi- 
ness," which was commented upon 
by R. C. Spencer, of Milwaukee. 
Prof Packard then r^d a paper writ- 
ten by Mrs. H. C. Spencer, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, entitled, " Women in Busi- 
ness," which was by far the best 
paper presented to the convention. 
In some future issue we shall be glad 
to publish this admirable paper, so 
that our readers may judge for them- 
selves as to its merits. 

Business practice was then taken 
up by Prof Richard Nelson, of Cin- 
cinnati, in which he advocated the 
plan of introducing actual business 
to the student before presenting to 
him anything in the theory of ac- 
counts. After Mr. Nelson's talk, Prof 
Frank Lincoln, the celebrated humor- 
ist, was introduced and succeeded iu 
convulsing the convention with his 
happy style of telling anecdotes. At 
the close of his entertainment the con- 
vention adjourned for lunch, and up- 
on reassembling. Prof Felix Adler 
delivered an address advocating a 
higher plan of education amongst 
business men, laying great stress up- 
on themoralsof business, ignoring the 
idea that the sole purpose of tlie busi- 
ness man was to simply make money, 
as it was the love he had for his call- 
ing that should put him to better ef- 
forts, and not mere money -getting. 
If he was a succsss, money was a 
secondary consideration, and that 
Id be added unto him. The 
speaker enlisted close attention from 
his audience and his address was re- 
plete with good thoughts, well spoken,, 
throughout. In the evening an ex- 
; meeting was held, as it 
was called, and (juite a large number 
responded to the call of the president, 
iu relating what each one had accom- 
plished while a member of the profes- 


The Penmens' Section was culled to 
order by the chairman at i). 15, and 
Mr. Shattuck, of New York, spoke 
upon the bad taste of ptiTOig too 
many styles of capitals before the stu- 
dent, and his talk brought Henry C. 


Spencer to liis i4kt, and he ]>roceeded 
to illustrate on the blackboard a va- 
ritty of capital letters that were used 
and itppioved by business men, as 
they were simple and i)ractical, which 
justified their perpetuation. At the 
close of the Penninn's Section, Hi!i- 
nian, of M'orcest»r> wasted a good deal 
of time in getting what he thought 
was the proi)er thing before the con- 
vention, and even said amorg otlier 
unreasonable things that " Dr. Tal- 
mage would dance in his pulpit to 
liold tlie attention of his audience." 

Comparatively few of the members 
remiiined in their seats to hear his 
talk through to tlie end. Political 
economy was next taken up and ably 
discussed by Prof. McAdam, of Cali- 
fornia, and L. F. Gardner, ofPough- 
keepsie. During the afternoon a large 
number of the delegates visited the 
tomb of Gen. Grant. 


Was given up to discussions of differ- 
ent topics, and election of officers, 
which resulted as follows: W. H. Sad- 
ler, Baltimore, President ; R. E. Gal- 
lagher, Hamilton, Ont., Vice Presi- 
dent ; L. F. Gardner, of Poughkeepsie, 
Vice President; Mrs. S. S. Packard, 
New York, Vice President; A. S. Os- 
borne, Rochester, Secretary and Treas- 
urer; R. C. Spencer, G. W. Brown, 
and L. L. Williams, Executive Com- 

The next meeting will be at Mil- 

The following are the names of 
those who attended the convention: 

J. E. GusTUS, Lindsburg, Kan. 

A. H. HiNMAN. Worcester. Mass. 

C. L. Free, Easton, Pa. 

S. S. Packard, New York. 

L. L. Williams, Rochester. 

A. S. OsBORN, Rochester. 

L. A. Gray, Portland, Me. 

H. C. Spencer, Washington. 

J. M. Frasher. Wheeling. W. Va. 

F. E. Wood, Scrantoo, Pa. 
W. H. Sadler, Baltimore. 

D. T. Ames, New York. 
H. C. Clark, Erie. 

J. C. Bryant, Buffalo. 

R. C. Si'KNCKR, Milwaukee. 

C W. RoBBiNS, Sedalia, Mo. 

G. A. WiNANS, Rockford, 111. 
H. A. Spencer. New York. 
C. E. Cady, New York. 

W. H. Covert, Fairfield, N. Y. 

Richard Nelson, Cincinnati. 

C. T. Miller, Newark. 

Knos. Si'ENlEr, Louisville, Ky. 

K L. Burnett, Providence. 

W. A. Warriner, Woodstock, Ont. 

R. S. Collins, Knoxville. Tenn. 

C. Claghorn, Brooklyn. 

Mrs. S. S. Packard. New York. 

Mrs. L. L. Williams. Rochester. 

H. C. RoETH. San Francisco. 

A. J. Rider, Trenton. 

T. B. Stowkll, Providence. 

G. R. Rathbln, Omaha, Neb. 

L. F. Gardner, Poughkeepsie. 

V. Schneider, Wilkesbarre. 

F. H. BrRUKTr, Boston 

P. C. Shattick, Bostoh 

R. E. (4ALLAGHKR. Hamilton. 

W. R. andE. W. Smith, Lexington. 

E. M. Hi ntsinger. New York. 

L. Doit E. Kimball, Lowell, Mass. 

L, Madarasz, New York. 

W. p. Gregory, Allento^vn. 

W.M. Bartholomkw. New York. 

(i. B. Jones, Bergen. N. Y. 

W. A. Barton, Kent's Hill. N. Y. 

E. J. Hub, Indianapolis. Ind. 

J. D. Odell. New York. 
A. W. RiNDELL, New York. 
W. E McCoRD, Jacksonville. IIL 
P. R. Spencer, Cleveland. O. 
Byron Hobton, New York. 
C. C. CuRTiss, Minneapolis. 
G. W. Brown, Jacksonville. III. 
J. H. LiNDSLEY. Elizabeth. N. J. 
C. C. Gains. Poughkeepsie. N. Y'. 
E. C. A. Becker, Worcester. Mass. 
C. T. Smith, Jacksonville, HI. 
J. M. Vincent. New Y'ork. 
Wm. Allen Miller, New York. 
W. E. Drake, Jersey City. 
Thos. E. Hill. Chicago, III. 

The weather, al the time the con- 
vention convened in New York, was 
exceedingly hot. 

A FEW of the older members of the 
convention try to do all the talk- 
ing, but never say much. 

The New York Graphic recently 
adorned one of its pages with fifteen 
portraits of prominent members of the 
late convention, and an imaginary 
illustration of the meeting in Chicker- 
ing Hall. 

Business Education was not ma- 
terially elevated or advanced through 
tlie influence exerted by the late con- 
vention. Many of the most import- 
ant branches received little or no at- 
attention. . 

Williams, of Rochester, stated at 
the convention that " book-keeping 
is of the least importance in a busi- 
ness college course." What does he 
consider a business education to be ? 
and does not his students spend more 
time in getting a knowledge of this 
branch than any otlier. 

We had always supposed that a 
thorough going business college con- 
sidered book-keeping one of the 
branches most essential in a commer- 
cial couree. but there is one man, per- 
haps more, who think ditferently. If 
he will just jiublish that fact and cir- 
culate it extensively, he will not be 
harnessed to a business college pro- 
prietoi-ship very long. Young men 
seeking a thorough business educa- 
tion want a complete course in book- 
keeping, and tliey have a right to 
ask if the college making this the 
])rincii)al branch in its curriculum, is 
not the best one to attend. Wc be- 
lieve it is. 

Mr. Packahi) jirobably did his best 
to make a success of the lat« conven- 
tion, but lie did not have the hearty 
co-operation of the business college 
men. It is safe to say that a majority 
of the most earnest and successful 
workera remained at home, and we do 
not tiiink that they lost very much 
by so doing. The lack of interest that 
was ever manifest, indicates that be- 
yond a social ])oint of view, the con- 
vention was not a success. 

The subject of penmanship re- 
ceived some attention at the last con- 
vention ; more, we are informed, than 
has been the usual custom to grant 
it. However, the business educator^ 

seem to handle the subject very 
cautiously, lest they be branded as 
penmen. Quite a large number of 
them could improve upon their style 
of writing to very good advantage. 
Would it not be well for those who 
are deficient to attend a good pen- 
manship school for a term or so? 

Clark's Business Colleges, Erie, 
and Buflalo, have issued a beautiful 
eight page circular, announcing the 
Fall Oiiening, wliich takes place Au- 
gust 24. Graduating exercises will 
be held in the Park Opera House, 
Erie, Pa., on the afternoon of August 
24, and a very fine programme of 
speeches and music has been ar- 
ranged. Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y,. will address the 
graduating class and deliver a lecture 
in the evening, entitled, "Bright and 
Happy Homes." The circular will 
be mailed to any address gratuitously. 

S. A. Drake begins, with this num- 
ber, a series of lessons on prac- 
tical penmanship, and now is the 
time to subscribe in order to receive 
the full course of lessons. 

We believe that The American 
Penman will present to its readers an 
unusually good course in practical 
writing, one such as everybody will 
appreciate, and those who follow the 
instructious mil receive many valu- 
able points that cannot be otherwise 
than of great interest to them. 


No. I. 

Those who would profit by inKtrue- 
tion in writing must have a just appre- 
ciation of the value of skill in the art, 
and they must also realize the truth of 
the fact, all who give a reasonable 
degree of attention and perseverance to 
the study o! practical writiuff, cannot be 
disappointed of their aim. The opinion 
held by many, that the ability to write 
well is a "natural gift" is true only of 
the higher departments of the art, or 
wbat may be styled ornamental penman^ 
shij}, and is not true in regard to plain 
rapid writing, which can be as easily 
acquired as any other simple mechani- 
cal skill. 

One who has decided to enter upon 
the study of writinif should adopt some 
one course of instruction, and follow it 
implicitly and systematically, at least, 
until he lias gained sufficient knowledge 
of the subject to employ judiciously and 
understandingly the useful suggestions 
of various methods. While any one of 
the different methods might produce the 
desired results, a confusion of them 
would not be likely to lead to any de- 
gree of success, as any one of differing 
courses of medical treatment may be 
the means of restoring and preserving 
health, a conjunction of courses of 
treatment would no doubt result dis- 
astrously. An instructor in any branch 
of education is supposed to have made 
the branch a subject of study and inves- 
tigation with a view to the discovery of 
the most direct and efficient means of 
guiding others to a knowledge of the 
same, and that pupil who follows care- 
fully the guidance of the teacher is 
most likely to do well. 

The lessons which have appeared from 
time to time in the Penman have dealt 
with the subject of writing in a manner 
more likely to interest advanced learn- 

ers than any other class, in that the les- 
sons present outlines of methods of 
teaching, and suggestions, rather than 
detailed instruction suitable for those 
who have not had the opportunity of 
studying penmanship, but who deMre 
to improve their handwriting. The fol- 
lowing lesson and those to appear in 
subsequent numbers of the Penman, 
will be designed to present a complete 
course, introducing the principles, and 
letters, with a careful analysis of each, 
and words and exercises adapted to the 
development of a plain rapid, hand 

In the first place, it is quite essential 
that the learner be provided with good 
writing materials, smooth, heavy fools 
cap paper, free-flowing ink, and fine 
pointed elastic pens. The table or desk 
used, should be targe enough to allow 
the paper, and arms forward of the 
elbows to rest full upon it. 

The writer should place liis i-iiair so 
that its front edge will be even with the 
edge of the table; and sitting erect, be- 
ing careful to keep the back straight, 
with his arms resting on the table, he 
has the best possible position for writ- 
ing. The pen should be held by the 
thumb, and first two fingers. The 
thumb bending outward slightly, should 
press lightly against the side of the 
holder opposite the first joint of the fore 
finger the end of which rests on top of 
the holderabout an inch and a half from 
the point of the pen which crosses the' 
second finger at the roots of the finger- 
nail. The third and fourth fingers 
should be bent under slightly— not 
clasped tightly— so that they may serve 
OS a rest for the hand, while the ends of 
the finger nails enable the hand to sUdf 
easily over the paper. - 



The movement to be employed in 
writing is a matter of nmch itnportance 
to the student, and he should endeavor 
to gain a perfect understanding of the 
different writing movements, and to 
bring into use that which is best adap^ 
ted to the style of penmanship he ltf[^ 
aiming to execute. The finger mov0^^ 
jiicnt, which consists in contracting and 
extending the fingers holding the pen, 
when forming the letters, is most com- 
mou and seems to be the most natural 
movement, which is due. perhaps, to the 
fact that all persons first learn to use > 
the pencil, which requires a firmer graap'' 
and greater pressure than is necessary 
in the use of the pen, and having a&- 
quired faciUty with the fingers, and 
having no hnowledge of a better move-^ 
ment, it is consequently employed in a1|^ 
writing. Many serious objections may^ 
be raised against this movement, and it 
should be entirely discarded by those 
who would acquire an easy, graceful 
style. That best adapted to practioa^V 
writing is the forearm ■movcmcnty m^ 
which the hand, impelled by a rolling 
motion of the muscular part of the fore- 
arm, slides on the ends of the third and 
fourth fingers, its only support. Thlfl 
movement is admirably suited to the 
execution of plain, rapid writing, and la 
used exclusively by many of the best 
professional penmen, which proves Iti 
excellence in other departments of t^ 
art. The student should give niuche 
tention at first to the cidtivatio 
movement, as it makes tlie practUj 
much easier in consequence of the urm^i 
resting in an easy position on the tabl^ 
and no grasp or action of the flngeii| 
being required. 

The combined viovement is a 
the finger and the forearm movemeatt 
The wholearm mavcmenf consists 
carrying the arm clear from the tablq 
the third and fourth fingers sliding a 
furnishing a support for the hand. Th 


19 used chiefly in executing large floui^ } space in lueafiuring the height of letters, 
iahed capitals. It may be employed to 

advantage by some in first learning 
tiie position of the pen and hand, and 
in getting a start in the foreanu move- 
ment, and especially by those who have 
contracted the habit of resting the hand 
on its side in contact with the paper, 
preventing, thereby, a free gliding move- 
ment, which is so essential to smooth, 
graceful writing. The wholearm move- 
ment compells the writer to turn the 
hand to the left, resting it on the third 
and fourth fingers and bringing the 
liolder in direct line with the shoulder. 
After practicing for a time with the arm 
in this position, he will find it quite tir- 
ing and will be very likely to bring the 
arm to a rest on the table, and by con- 
tinuing the motion of the hand and arm 
in thig position, he has the forearm move- 

Assuming the correct position for the 
forrnrin inovcmtnt, the student shoidd 
begin by making parallel lines from left 
to right nearly across the paper, which 
may be followed by practice on the oval 
, presented below. T 

may be reversed. After considerable 
practice on these exercises, he is pre- 
pared to take up the study of the small 
letters which are most simple in form. 

I w*hile the smalt 
width The learner should give consid- 
erable time to the study of each separate 
letter before he undertakes to make it. 
He must have a clear conception of the 
form of the letter, before he can hope to 
place a copy of that form on the paper. 
He must know the form he wishes to 
make before he can expect to make it, 
and he can gain such knowledge only 
by study, caitiesf study of the letters. 
He must observe the slant, the height, 
the width of each letter; and which lines 
are curved, and which are straigth; which 
turns are angular and which are oval; 
which strokes are heavy, and which are 
light. Many students of writing find 
their efforts fruitless in consequence of 
their not recognizing the fact that care- 
ful study must be combined with prac- 
tice to secure improvement. In the 
above manner, the learner should en- 
deavor to master each letter, taking 
them up in the order in which they are 
presented in the copies. Not less than 
an hour should be devoted to each let- 
ter before the next is attempted. After 
the i has been well learned let it be fol- 
lowed by the u in like manner, after 
which, these letters may be combined 
and practiced together. The next in 
order is the u, in which the first three 
I)rinciples are used. The ascending 
convex curves, the descending 
ight. and the finishing line a 
curve. The turns at the top 
oval, at the base, angular, except 

that the lines be not allowed to coincide, 
but that they be kept separate and dis- 
tinct. The hue joining two oval turns 
is usually a compound curve, or a con- 
vex and a concave curve combined. 

Many of the letters may be used in 
exercises similar to the following, which 
are admirably adapted to the develop- 
ment of the forearm movement which 

mere assertions of its value and utility 
We, like the writer, believe in reasoning 
from cause to effect, but in the present 
instance, we do not think it at all neces- 
sary to enter into a philo>4ophi<-al discus- 
sion of the relations of mind and matter, 
the influence of mind force, or why the 
mind can act to better advantage 
through the agency of the nmscles, 
when the arm is resting, than raised 
from the table. This sort of Teasoning 

lines str. 

The above cut presents 
the principles which, with 
slight modifications, may 
be so combined as to make 
all the letters of the alpha- 
bet. The first is an obli- 
que straight line, forming 
with the base line an an- 
gle of fifty-two degrees, 
giving a slant that is gen- 
erally recognized as the 
standard best adapted to 
practical writing, hence it 
ib called the main slant. 
The second principle is a 
concave curve, and the 

the general slant of both 
being thirty-five degrees 
roni the base line. The 
fourth principle it* the loop 
used in fonnin^r the I, 

h, and similar letters, and 

being inverted constitutes 

a part of the .*/, g, and others. This prin- 1 tbe last which is oval. The m 
ciple is simply a union of the second I As the list increases, short 
and first principles, extending a third of 
an inch above the base line. The fifth 
is the oval, one third of an inch high, 
its width equaling two thirds of its 
height. The sixth principle is the oval 
inverted. The seventh is the capital 
stem. In forming this begin at a point 
one-third of an inch above the base 
line and descend in a convex curve half 
way where the line is changed to a con- 
cave and completed in the oval. 

shoidd be employed exoluoively in the 
work of this lesson. If the student is 
diligent, and masters thoroughly each 
step, the copies herein presented will 
furnish sufficient work to engage his 
attention for a long time. 

Those who, by a desire to improve 
their hand-writing, are constrained to 
enter upon a course of study for that 
purpose, would do well to consider the 
fact that their efforts will be fruitless 
unless they labor diligently and syste- 
matically, giving due attention to de- 
tails, though seeming trifles, for "trifles 
make perfection, and perfection is no 

DuBUijUK, lA., July 10. 1880. 
Dear Editor Clark : 

I am always delighted to see and read 
philosophic articles, and scientific rea- 
soning on the subject of penmanship. 
It does me good to know that we have 

is of little interest to the general reader, 
and the business world cares nothing 
for it. In ascertaining the amount of 
good that results from acting upon an 
established theory, we first look for re- 
sults, and if they are satisfactory, we 
are apt to believe that their causes are 
without fault. When such rich fruits 
can be gathered from mustmlar move- 
ment practice, we know that the causes 
that are operating in producing them, 
are certainly reliable ones, and that if 
the theory were without foundation, the 
fact would soon be discovered by the 
thousands that are practicing it every 
day. Elegantly produced script forms 
must have a cause that creates and calls 
them into being.and we are just as cer- 
tain of its existance, as if we delved into 
the regions of speculative philosophy, 
in order to analyze and examine its es- 
its essence and the quality of its force. 

The advantages of the muscular, over 
the whole arm or finger movements, 
have been so often recited, that it is not 
necessary to refer to them, and it is a 
wonder to me that any intelligent per- 
son can for a moment doubt the super- 
iority of this niuch talked of method of 
moving the hand, arm and 
fingers in using the pen. 

Will D. Showa 


ig was photo-engraved frorr 
3. is a student in the Penm; 
College, Erie, Pa., and is a 

s similar. 

volving the letters that have been 
studied, may be taken up for practice. 
It will be observed tliat the first part of 
the w is like the u. while the openin 
the latter part is but half a space wide, 
and finished with a t-oncave curvi 
carried down from the top of th( 
letter one-fourth of a space. The v i 
similar to the latter part of the w. Thi 
loops in the c and c are one-third of i 
space wide, and the descending lines 

The letter i is presented first in the 
above copies, as it is most simple in fonn, 
iind easily learned. The fii-st ascending 
line is the second principle, with which 
!>* united at the top, in an angle, the 
first, and with this, the second is again 
united in an oval turn. The letter is 
•■ompleted by placing a dot at a distance 
above the anglt* equal to the length of the 
first principle. For convenience in pro- 
l)ortioning the letters, the / is taken as 
the unit of measurement and is called a 

but slightly curved. The r and a are 
one-fourth of a space higher than the 
other short letters, and the width of 
each at its middle point is one-half 
space. The o is one-half space wide 
and closed at the top. The ascending 
stroke in the a is a convex curve carried 
full two spaces to the right with a simi- 
lar curve downward, carried back to 
the left one space. The oval in the a 
is half a space wide. Where angular 
turns are used, care should be taken 

men in our profession of solid intellect- 
ual attainments, and true mental cul 
ture. Such men are an honor to any 
calling in which they may be engaged, 
and to such we owe whatever of dignity 
our vocation possesses. It is always taken 
for granted that a calling or profession 
in which there are thinkers, is one of an 
elevated nature, for in no other can they 
find proper material for scientific invest- 
igations, and for the exercise and de- 
velopment of the rea.soning faculties of 
the mind. 

There are many earnest thinkers in 
our midst, and it is but proper that they 
receive the praise that is justly due them. 
Prominent among those who have al- 
ways been the leaders of philosophic 
discussions, stands the author of an 
anonymous article which recently ap- 
peared in the columns of the Penmate's 
Art Journal, under the caption of "The 
Muscular Bugaboo." As usual in the 
productions of this well known contribu- 
tor to Chirographic Literature, the style 
is finished and forcible, but just the ar- 1 
gument the author wishes to produce is ' 
dilTlcult for me to discover. It is evi- I 
dent, however, that he is opposed to the 
modern muscular movement crusade, 
and while he believes, to a certain extent, | 
lie muscular action of the arm, he 
desires something more substantial, as 
proof of the merits of this theory, than 

You take a basin of wa- 
ter, place your fingers in 
it twenty-five or thirty sec- 
onds, take it out and look 
at the hole that is left. 
The size of that hole re- 
presents about the impres- 
sion that advice makes on 
a voung man's mind. 

bon't depend too nmch 
on your fauiily— the dead 
part I mean. The world 
wants live men ; it ha,'* no 
use for dead ones, (^ueen 
Victoria can trace her an- 
cestors back in a direct 
line to AVilliam the Con- 
queror. If you cannot get 

_ — - further back than your 

father you are better off. 
, Your father was a better man than 
old William. He had better clothes 
to wear, better food to eat, and was 
better housed 

If vou are a diamond be sure that you 
will be found. Cheek, brass, or gall 
never gets ahead of merit. 

I love a young man who is straight 
forward. Ask for what ytfu want. If 
you want to marry a rich man's daughter 
or borrow $500 from him, ask him for 
it ; it amounts to the same thing in the 
end. It is always better to astonish a 
man than to bore him. 

Remember that in the morning of life 
comes the hard working days. Hard 
work never killed a man. It's fun, rec- 
reation, relexation, holidays that kill. 
The fun that results in a head the next 
morning so big that a tub could hardly 

Hard work i 
e after u 

what kills. 

Those who come after us have to work 
just as hard as we do. When I shovel 
"' e snow off my sidewalk, if perchance 

take a three-quarter piece off my 
neighbor's walk. I put it back, because 
if I didn't I should be doing him an in- 

You can't afford to do anything but 
^ood. You are on dress parade 

all the time. 

Don't be afraid of pounding persis- 
tently at one thing. Don't be afraid of 
being called a one-idea man or a crank. 
If you have one idea, you have more 

Subscribe for The American Pkn 


The AnieriGafi Pentnan, 

Published Monlhiy at 60c Per Year, 

By Clark & Johnecr.. Proprietora. Erie. 
Pa., and Buffalo, N Y. 

SlDBle copies oT THK ambbu-a.n Penman wUl be 
mnllcil to any addreaa on receipt of e ctnts. Sam- 
ple copies until Innlicr notice sent tree. 


Thk population of Chicago 
nnted at 7-50.000. 


The .500tli birthday of the Republic 
of Switzerland was celebrated on Mon- 
day, July 5th. 

p colnmn »'• 00; f65 00 fioo OO |1« 

, and no discount 1 

given on Beading Matter Kates. 



i remlttlDg Ont 
nnlll further notlc«. miUl a copy ol l 
Clark's Progressive Rook-keeplng au 


persons tnterestlng 

1 BendlBg c 

e eending tl 

< on all Bnbscrlptlona 
Pekuan. We prefei 
e eecurlng clubs, ant 

forwarded to The Ambbic 
to give cash premiums to ' 
mis rule win be invarlaWy followed. 

Jteminances should be made by N. T. Draft, 

Monej Order, PoslBl Note, or BeglBtered Letter, 


Publishers. Erie. P 



We are under obligations to Prof. 
S. S. Packard of New York, for a copy 
of a pamphlet styled "A Souvenir," 
containing a full rej^ort of the twenty- 
eighth anniversary of his popular 
Business College. The contents di- 
vulges the factthalMr.Packard himself 
made a speech — which is published — 

d it seems that he is fully equal to 
the requirements of an orator. The 
book is beautifully printed in two 
colors, and contains the invocation, 
by Bishop Harris, addresses by Dr. J. 
H. Vincent, Mr. Wise, Rev. C. H. Ea- 
ton, and concludes with an illustrated 
story on Practical evolution. Mr. 
Packard is an exemplary man, worthy 
of the success he has attained, and an 
honor to the business educators' fra- 

Life scholarships are now issued by 
but three or four schools within our 
knowledge, and it is a matter of infinite 
surprise that any intelligent school man 
will do so unbuBiness like a thing. It is 
a rediculous confession to make that 
three years' tuition is worth no mors 
than a three months' course, but that if 
the irrisistible logic of their tuition fee, 
— Bochesfcr Commercial Review. 



R. C. Spencer, of Milwaukee, called 
liere on his way home from the con- 

Prof. G. Bixler, of Wooster, Oh^ 
encloses his subscription in a well 
written letter. He also favors us with 
a copy of his book, "Physical Train- 
ing in Penmanship," and a few cards 
and business writing specimens, all of 
which are vers' creditable. 

F. C. Smith, Fenton, Mich., writes a 
beautiful letter, and is evidently in- 
terested in the success of the Ameki- 
CAN Penman. 

Many of our young ladies and gen- 
tlemen who are graduating at the various 
colleges and seminaries at the present 
time expect to accomplish with the brain 
that which took the united efforts of 
both hand and brain of their fathers. 
This is certainly one of the greatest de- 
lusions and absurdities of modern educa- 
tion, for no education can approach per- 
fection unless both hand and brain are 
trained to work in unison. A good, sound, 
sensible mind has never been found out- 
side of a sound body; hence the educa- 
tion of one without the proper educa- 
tion of the other is an utter impossibility. 
A man may be profoundly learned and 
understand the whole gamut of the dead 
languages and not be able to make out 
a bill of sale or harness a horse if hie life 
depended on it. That such education 
which leaves out every item of the prac- 
tical every-day affairs of life is a blunder 
and a curse it needs no labored argument 
or mathematical demonstration to pro 
Every walk and sphere in life has the 
victims of such a nonsensical system, 
Happily for all those who wish to securt 
an education which is both practical and 
useful there are many well equipped 
institutions of learning which are ready 
and wilUng to give them a course of in- 
struction which they will need every day 
and hour of their lives. That our busi- 
ness colleges are giving the people a very 
good equivalent for their money is an 
acknowledged fact. These long derided, 
abused and vilified institutions are a 
power in the land. Their constituents, 
which to-day number hundreds of thous- 
ands, have abundantly demonstrated 
furnishing one of the most 

debt of gratitude to our business colleges 
which have never yet been properly aji- 
preciated. But we hope and trust that 
before many years shall pass that legis- 
lation will give honor where honor 
is due. by giving practical education 
the recognition of which its usefulness 
proves it deserving. 

We are not surprised at the above 
statement, but we are confessedly ig- j ^jj^^ ^^^y 

norant of any college issuing a life j important educational needs for the peo- 
scholarship^at claims alhrea^yeajs' I pie, which is a practical, ^^^'^^^^^^^^^ 
course ns necessary to complete the ] ^^°^- ^^^l^^^ " **""" ''" 
terms of such a scholarship. It is 
generally understood that a young 

or lady who is competent to en- 
ter upon the business course, should, 
if diligent, graduate in from three to 
six months, and according to the 
Commercial Review, it is advisable for 
business colleges to manage to length- 
en out the course or procrastinate the 
same, to about three years, which 
would cost the average student for 
the three months' term of S30 at least 
8360— a net gain to the college keep- 
ing a student in attendance for that 
length of time of «300 to $330. 

II is unfortunate for some scliools 
that they do not issue life scholar 
ships, and in certain instances, it may 
be unwise for business colleges to fol- 
low up the life scholarship plan. But 
ns every college has the right to man- 
age its own alTairs, as it deems best, 
W. D. Showalter, penman at Bay- ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ ^;^^^ life scholar- 
liss Business College, Dubuque, Ja.,. j^.^^^ ^^ j^ ^^,^^ satisfaction to th. 

says, " We take, read and like The 
American Penman. All of us unite 
in wishing you unbounded success in 
your laudable educational and jour- 
nalistic efforts." 

Paul H. Hayne, the poet, who died 
recently, was a nephew of the noted 
South Carohnian, with whom Webster 
had his famous debate. 

Sixty-five of the seventy-six mem- 
bere of the United States Senate are 
lawyers. Of the Senate of Pennsylva- 
nia* twenty-five of the fifty members 
:'re lawvers. 

icliool issuing it, and to the pur- 
cliaser as well, is not the wisest means 
of adjusting tuition rates. Of course 
we do not wish to be underetood as 
saying that a college must not dis- 
criminate between two classes who 
patronize the business colleges, viz.: 
those who are advanced sufKciently 
in the English branches to take up 
cial course, and those who 

; not. 

Read the advertisement of the Grand 
Opening of Clark's Business Colleges on 
the sixth page. The best of advantages 

', they d6'Vot*undi 
I take to give to any one an education 
that can never be used in the active 
duties of every day life in this work-a- 
day world of ours, where knowledge is a 
power indeed. And thanks to the keen 
perception, the profound 
of the American people, such 
tion has received such abundant and 
marvelous support that to-day it is a 
great national blessing. For be it re- 
membered that although we are six bil- 
lion dollars richer than the richest nation 
on earth, that in the riches of intelli 
gence and practical education, which i 
infinitely the greatest measure by which 
to test the popular progress and great- 
ness of a nation we are head and shoul- 
ders above any nation on earth. Ameri- 
ca has many names to inscribe on her 
educational roll of honor which have 
long been the pride and admiration of 
the world, and to none will the people 
look with greater pride, reverence or 
joy than to those veteran pioneers who 
through defeat, darkness and discour- 
agement, pushed forward, overcoming 
what seemed insurmountable obstacles. 
All honor to those veterans whose heroic 
fortitude, unswerving energy, and in- 
indomitable courage acccomplished such 
wonders for educational purposes. The 
world's history will be vainly searched 
for a comparison. 

While practical education lias 
doubtedly been of uncalculable benefit 
to the people, it has been of infinite ben- 
efit to our goverrnuent. which is enabled 
to do its business much better tl: 
was done in former years,and far better 
than any other nation on earth to-day, 
which is a great national blessing. No 
nation on earth has grown rich and pros- 
pered like our own, which fact is owing 
in a great measure to the sturdy honesty 
and practical methods adopted in doing 
its business and in dealing with nations 
and individuals. For this she owes n 


In this age of eulightemuetit it is be- ^^ 
coming absolutely necessary for a young 
man or woman to have a good education •" 
if he or she wishes to make a successful 
fight in this world of business activity. 
With the telegraph, telephone, railroad, 
etc.. to assist in doing business t^uiokly, 
there is no tuue to spare in getting by 
experience what can be gained in a short 
time at school. Many are seeing this and 
fitting themselves for the many places 
that must be filled by some one. 

Business men are not slow in seeing 
this, and when they want a young man or 
woman for their office or store, they look 
for one that has been trained for such 
duties, as such a one will more readily 
grasp the work and take less time in 
learning the duties assigned. 

To all, and especially those whose time 
is limited, the business colleges of our 
land are a great boon. Here, at a small 
outlay of time and money, one can ob- 
tain a knowledge of business and busi- 
ness principles that will be of inestimable 
benefit in after life, in whatever business 
? may follow. In no other way can 
young man or woman make an invests 
ment of a little time and money that will 
produce sucli large returns, as by pursn- 
ing the thorough and practical course of 
training offered by our business colleges. 
If you would acquire position and com- 
petency you must be willing to qualify 
yourself for a place that will lead to such 
a result. No person, in any calling in 
life, ever succeeded, who was unwilling 
to make an effort. Success is the result 
of labor, not of luck. C. F. M. 

We doubt not that the majority of 
people are adverse to criticism. Yet 
through good, honest criticism are w* 
enabled to advance. It is true thatthero 
is a certain kind of criticism—that from 
ignorant pretenders— which, to say the 
least, is unpleasant. 

It is not of criticism in general that wo 
are to speak, but more particularly of 
criticism as applied to penmanship. 
However, in the application of criticism 
to penmanship, we readily see that it 
differs very little from criticism in gen- 
eral. Criticism is never of value unless 
intelligent. This important fact l0 
overlooked by too many would-be orltlQAi . 
Hence, if criticism is to be of value to 
the student of penmanship, he must 
thoroughly understand that which he 
would criticise. It is evident, therefore, 
that he should first seek a general knowl- 
edge of the art. And this knowledge 
might be separated into two distincst di- 
visions: first, a knowledge of what con- 
stitutes good penmanship; second, a 
knowledge of the general theories of 
penmanship, especially those which re- 
late to its acquisition. 

Knowing, then, what constitutes good 
penmanship, and how best i 
aciiuired. he should severely criticise t 
work of his pen in both these imporl 
relations. To criticise, we mean to 1 
and note wherein it differs from th 
conceived idea of good writing, 
not this alone, but, also, to see and 
note faults in the manner of executingli 

This habit of constant criticism isn«^* 
essary to reach a high degree of skfflL 
with the pen. For if the student do^ 
not see his faults, either of style or 
cution, he cannot correct them. 
To students of the "neglected 


! gay: learu to criticise 
<. But in your zeal to 

correct your faults, do not overlook the 
importance of knowing whether your 
work needs criticism or not. Get knowl- 
pdge first: then fear not to seek out the 
faults of your work. Honest criticism 
will bf the (-olid stepping stone to higher 
imd nime perfect results. 

F. S. Heath. 
Epson. N. H., June 28. 1888. 



[Specially pn-pared for The Ambrioan Pbnuah by 
W. il. Lothrop, of South Boston, Mass.] 

This elegant i>enman was the son of 
Mr. Abraham Nicholas, who kept a 
writing school in Bread street. London, 
under whom, I presume, he learned his 
first rudiments in writing and accounts. 
This Mr. Abraham Nicholas, the father, 
published from the letter press, a little 
piece in octavo, of about fifty pages, 
entitled, "The Young Accountant's 
Debitor and Creditor." The second edi- 
tion, from which I take this account, 
was printed in 1713, what use of it since 
that time has been made, I cannot say. 

There is in this book one piece of his 
brother James Nicholas' writing, who 
succeeded him, and supports with repu- 
tation the boarding school, that he first 
established at Clapham. I cannot well 
give a greater ecomium of this ingenious 
gentleman's performances, than by re- 
citing the words of the engraver, in a 
letter prefixed to the said book, and ad- 
dressed to Mr. John Bowles, a print- 
seller, at Mercer's Hall; he says, "he 
never saw any pieces that were wrote 
with greater comuiand of hand than 
originals of that book."' 

Mr. Nicholas has two plates likewise, 
in "George Bickham's Penman's Com- 
panion;" one of Oerman text, and one 
in print hand, dated 1722. When he left 
Clapham, he went somewhere abroad, 
I am informed to Virginia, but in what 
employ I have not been informed, only 
that he died about the year 1744. 



As a figure of speech it may be allc 
able to call a deed a title, but ole. 
headed business people find figures 

country: When laud was sold and to 
be transferred, the buyer and the seller 
took friends with them as witnesses and 
went upon the land, and marked out 
togetlier and together indentified and 
declared to the witnesses the true boun- 
daries, and the seller then broke off a 
twig from any tree or bush growing 
there or picked up a clod of earth or a 
handful of loose soil— any part of the 
whole property— andsolemnly delivered 
this part to the buyer while the wit- 
nesses looked on. Such delivery was 
an agreed declaration to all the world 
that the title had already passed from 
seller to buyer, and that the buyer 
should be known hereafter to all men as 
the owner. Hence arose this formula, 
" Know all men by these presents." 

As learning came in, and in every 
community there began to be scriveners 
and clerks who could write, the bright 
idea was born of choosing these rare 
men, these writers, as witnesses of land 
deliveries, and inducing them to execute 
a certificate of what had been done, 
which might be preserved for genera- 
tions to bridge the awkward gaps made 
by death. Still later, since those who 

scrawl may be made not only by the 
grantor but by any lawyer's clerk, and 
may be put on either before or after the 
deed is signed and delivered; every 
trace of value the seal had has long 
since disappeared, yet all the deed is 
still but waste paper without the seal, 
and in New York the Court of Appeals 
has solemnly decided the amount and 
kind of the waxy matter which must 
form part of the seal! The tithing of 
mint, annise and cummin is left far be- 
hind. A little more wax in the seal, 
and the hundred thousand dollars paid 
and taken for a Fiifth Avenue residence 
gives a right to it; a Uttle less wax and 
the family are homeless, lu the English 
courts such refinements are far more 
common than on this side of the water; 
in fact only a few remain among us, 
and happily the tendency is away from 
them and in the direction of common 
sense. In Iowa, and we believe in one 
or two other western states, nearly all 
the mere rubbish of conveyancing has 
been declared away; the older states 
will come in a due course to a like wis- 

The above speci 

Abrahiain Nicholas the son, was born in 
the year 1692. His first appearance in 
the world, as far as I can find, as a con- 
tributor to the advancement of true and 
practical writing, was by setting forth a 
small copy book containing various ex- 
amples of penmanship. It consists of 
fifteen plates, which were engraved by 
George Biekham. Tliis seems to be his 
first essay that he made public; he lived 
then at the hand and pen. in Broad 
street, London, 171.'), though the edi- 
tion of the book that lies before me, is 
dated 1717. In the year 1719. he pub- 
lished "The Penman's Assistant, and 
Youths' Instructor," containing an al- 
phabet of examples in round hand. It 
consists of fifteen narrow plates, and has 
only two lines on a plate. The engrav- 
er's name is not mentioned; but it was 
printed for Henry Overton, at the White 
Horse, without Newgate. In what year 
lif removed to Clapham, 1 cannot say, 
but suppose it was soon after the publi- 
cation of his last mentioned copy-book; 
he there established a flourishing board- 
ing school; and Anno Dom. 1722, pub- 
lished his Complete Writing Master, 
engraved by George Biekham. It con- 
tains thirty-one long folio plates, be- 
sides his picture in front. 

speech rather dangerous in business af- 
fairs, and prefer plain facts and plain 
names for them. 

A title is something indestructible. 
Fires cannot burn it nor waters drown 
it; neither life nor even death can dis- 
turb or change it. Cruelly iuunortal, 
it survives every disaster that can touch 
physical things, and phoenix like, rises 
freshened out of every conflagration. 

A title is a high; something wholly 
."Spiritual, and can only be affected by 
spiritualities. The title of an owner 
may be total or shared with others; 
may be absolute, or conditioned upon 
facts not yet determined, 

A deed is an evidence of title. Be- 
fore writing was common, written deeds 
were then unknown; but titles were then 
as good as now. Written evidences of 
title have been widely adopted because 
of their great convenience, and because 
of the general diffusion of learning. It 
is very important to remember always 
that deeds are only witnesses of title, 
and by no means to be confounded with 
the title itself. And this will appear 
moi'e clearly from a bit of history. 
Deeds first came into use in England 
in this wise— and we inherit our law, 
as we do our language, from our mother 

could not write could stamp a seal — and 
seals were invented for the illiterate 
aristocracy and were used precisely as 
we now use "John Smith, hia mar/:"' 
the certificate of the witnesses came to 
be farther verified by the seals of both 
buyer and seller. This addition was a 
great advance, because no man could 
be permitted to deny his seal, and coun- 
terfeiting private seals was then imprac- 
ticable and unknown. A sealed certifi- 
cate then was the unquestioned act of 
the seller or grantor, translated by the 
witnesses who could write, and the seal 
was the vital and effective soul of the 
whole instrument. This form of the in- 
strument became established hundreds 
and hundreds of years ago, in the very 
dawn of English training, and the pro- 
gress since made is equivalent to ten 
thousand year.s of the history that went 
before, and yet to this day the vitality 
of a deed (of land; 
which may now bi 
colored wafers of \ 
actly alike; the sou 
many different seali 
a year 


Said of "The An 

I Penrr 

the seal, 
of a thousand 
of papers ex- 
two of them alike — or he may 
use seals exactly Uke those of his neigh- 
bor: indeed in many states any scrawl 
of a pen may be called the seal, and this 

The American Penman, published 
by Messrs. Clark & Johnson. Erie, Pa , 
and Buffalo, N. Y., is a coniparitively 
late venture in the line of chirographic 
journalism. It has started off well and 
exhibits a considerable degi-ee of jour- 
nalistic ability. We welcome its monthly 
visits to our sanctum and wish it success. 
Jacksonville, (III j College Record. 

Glaiik's Proghbssivk Book-keep- 
ing. — This is the heading of a very fine 
text book on the subject shown in the 
title. It is accurate in expression, prac- 
tical in arrangement and progressive in 
character. The leading rules can be 
highly commended for simplicity and 
clearness. It is intended for self-in- 
struction as well as school purposes. It's 
lucid statement and nice gradation will 
make it valuable in meeting the wants 
of many who will use it. It is full and 
complete, the parts on banking and 
railroad book-keeping, are fine indeed, 
and in keeping with the rest of the 
work. Published by Clark & Johnson, 
Buffalo, N. Y.—I^onttal Index, Cotuui- 
bua Junction, la. 



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Grand Annual Opening, August 24th, 1886. 


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Tl)lrd Grand 0|)€tiiug f,^'° Graduatitig Exercises 

takes phice in Park (Ipeia House. Erie, Pa., August 24. at wliicli time the 
Celehrateil Oriitor. 

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entitled " Bright and Happy Homes." 

An excellent and attractive programme of speeches and music bus been 
arranged, which will delight every one who is present. 

Dr Talmago will s|)t'uk in 

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H. C. CLARK. Editor. 
S. A. D?»AKE. Associa 

ERIE. PA., and BUFFALO, N. Y.. SEPTEMBER, 1886. Vol. l— No. 9. 

Graduating Exercises of 

Clark's Business 


Report of the Exercises Held in 

Park Opera House, Tuesday 

Afternoon, August 24, 


Address to tin* Graduates by the 
Famous Orator, Rev. T, De 
Witt Talmage, of Brook- 
lyn. N. Y. 

Tla.e Eacc-CLxsion. .A.ij.g'. EStli. 

Never before in the liistory of 
Clark's Business College was there 
ever assembled, to witness the closing 
exercises, such a large, refined and 
appreciative audience, as Park Opera 
House contained Tuesday afternoon, 
August 24tli. 

Promptly at 3:30 o'clock, Knoll's 
Orchestra played one of their finest 
selections, when the curtain went up, 
and tlie audience saw the graduating 
class seated on the left, and the faculty 
and prominent speakers on the right 
of the stage. The decorations were 
superb, being pronounced the finest 
ever seen in Erie. A large arch made 
of wire and trimmed with evergreen, 
iidorned the ii'ont of the stage, meet- 
ing at a point in the center, from 
which was suspended the class motto, 
in the form of a wreath, the letters 
worked in white llowers, which read 
:is follows: ''Skill is Capital." At 
tither end of the ^tjige and in front, 
were to be seen an abundance of 

beautiful plants and flowers, that 
added greatly to the attractions of the 

The following programme was fully 
carried out, and a better pleased audi- 
ence could not be found : 

Music by Knoll's Orchkstra. 
March, .... Schlcpcgrcl 
Invocation, . Rev. W. H. Pcarce 
Concert Overture, . Hcinsdorf 
Salutatory, . Miss P. P. Stan- 

Conckrt Solo— Sea Flower Polka, 

J.F. Knoll 
Resources and Liabilities, . 

O. W. Schlindwein 
Mariana Waltz, Waldtmfel 

Address. . Hon. J. F. Downing 
Jluitkr Overture^ Hoffman 

Address, . IF. P. Davcnjtort, E&q. 
Wedding March (from Lohengrin) 

Valedictory, , . C. P. Mallory 
Home Circle Overtubb, Schtcpcgrel 
Address and Presentation of 


Hon. F. A. Mizener, Mayor of the City 

of Erie. 
Near Thee— Waltz, . Watdteufel 
Words of Cheer, .... 

Pev. T. De Witt Talmage 
Pearls of Dew. . Debueris 

Benediction, . Pcv. J. C. Wilson 

Baker, Jaines M., Ja(?ksonburg, O. 
Berkenkamp, J. H.. East Millcreek,Pa. 
Bell, Clayton A., Harborcreek, Pa. 
Bouseay, Myrtie, Erie, Pa. 
Coover, P. W.. Waterford, Pa. 
Carlson, A. C, Erie, Pa. 
Carpenter, A. L., Mercer, Pa. 
Case, S. R., Buffalo. N. Y. 
Chapman, Ralph, Erie, Pa. 
Conrad, W. W., Erie, Pa. 
Daly, J. W., Ashtabula Harbor, O. 
Davie, George G., Fairview, Pa. 
Foote, Frank W.. ButTalo, N. Y. 
Frey, C. S., Springboro, Pa. ' 
Gourlay, Frank L., Waterford, Pa. 
Granger, Gid, Erie, Pa. 
Holder, F. B., Waterford, Pa. 
Holder, 0., Waterford, Pa. 
Heintz, F. T., Erie, Pa. 
Highmyer. F. R„ Erie. Pa. 
Hanson. T. S.. Edinboro, Pa, 
Jackson, D. M., Yoimgsville, Pa. 
Krull. S. J., Clarence Centre, N. Y. 
Liniuger, E. D., Harborureek, Pa. 
Leiter, N. J., East Clarence, N. Y. 
Leslie, B. O., Kossuth, Pa. 
Munz, W., Erie. Pa. 
Miller, Wm., Cincinnati, O, 
Moorhead, Jas. M., Moorheodville, Pa. 

Millspaw, W. D., Edinboro, Pa. 
Mallorv, C. P., Erie. Pa. 
Munn, W. B., Erie. Pa. 
Mills. G. E.. West Millcreek. 
McLallen, Frank, Wesleyville, T 
O'Lone, Wm, F., Erie, Pa. 
Parks, J. J., Buffalo, N. Y. 


, Pa. 

Pond, DoraM., Conneaut, O. 

Power, C. M., Franklin, Pa. 

Ritt, George L., Buffalo, N Y. I 

Robinson, F. A , Mercer. Pa. ' 

Robinson, George S., Lowville. Pa. | 

Reed. Wm, G., Erie, Pa. j 

Ryan. John C, Mill Grove, N. Y. ! 

Sloan, F. H., Erie, Pa. 

Shenk, William. Erie, Pa. 

Smith. C. W.. Franklin, Pa. 

Stiicker. H. H.. Evie, Pa. 

Sherwood. C. G., McLane, Pa. 

Schlindwein, Willie, Erie, Pa. 

Stoughton, Wm. R., Franklin, Pa. 

Starr, Miss P. P., Fredonia, N. Y. 

Srhilling, M., Wesleyville, Pa. 

Waxelbaum, Max, Erie, Pa. 

Walker, C. P., Harborcreek. Pa. 

Watkins, George, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Weschler, M. A , Erie, Pa. 

Warner, B. M., Girard, Pa. 

The music was exceptionally good. 
The salutatory by Miss P. P. Starr, of 
Fredonia, N. Y., was excellent. Wil- 
lie Schlindwein, the youngest grad- 
uate sent out from the College, pre- 
sented the subject of " Resources and 
Liabilities " in a manner becoming a 
much older and experienced person. 
The audience were agreeably surprised 
at hearing him. 

The addresses by Hon. J. P. Down- 
ing, W. R. Davenport, Esq., and the 
presentation of the diplomas by the 
Hon. Jas. R. Burns, on behalf of 
Mayor Mizener, were of a high order 
of excellence, and judging from the 
applause, the audience considered 
them most favorably. 

Tlie valedictory, by Mr. 0. P. Mal- 
lory, was delivered in a masterly 

When the Rev. T. De Witt Talmage 
arose to address the Graduating Class, 
the whole building fairly shook with 
applause. His address in full was as 
follows : 
Pr<t»ident Clark-, Ladies and Ocnttemen, 

Officers and Students of this Business 


If we leave to the evolutionists to 
guess where we came from, and to the 

theologians to prophesy where we are 
going to, we still have left for considera- 
tion the fact that we are here, and here 
under more interesting circumstances. 
I am glad to be here on Commencement 
Day. It is a grand day. I never had 
such a day as the day I graduated. 
Such interests cluster around a moment 
like this. I wish to utter words of cheer, 
.IS I have been announced to utter them 
on the programme of the occasion. Let 
me say to all young folks, there was 
never such a time to start out in life as 
now. Of all the centuries, this is the 
best century; of all the decades of the 
century, this is the best decade: of all 
the years of the decade, this is the best 
year; and of all the months of the year, 
thi!* is the boat month; and of all thu 
days of the montli, this is the best day. 
[Applause.] It took all tBr'age.** to 
make this minute possible. 

I congratulate this College, and I cou- 
gMituIate these young men and these 
yming women. I have been looking at 
them while I sat here. I can tell that 
they mean honest work, and the world 
will ojien before them and the victory 
will be achieved. There never has been 
such a time to start out as now, becarfse 
all the doors are opening New America 
is being discovered. Columbus discov- 
ered only the shell of America; Agassiz 
came and discovered fossiliferous Ameri- 
ca ; Silliman discovered geological 
America; Longfellow dicovered poetic 
America, and there are half a dozen 
Americas yet to be discovered. Some of 
these will discover them. England for 
manufactures, Germany for scholarship, 
France for manners, but the United 
States for God. [Great applause.] 

Each one of these young people will 
get a call from God to do some one thing 
that no one else in the universe can do, 
Talk about ministers getting a call from 
God to preach; all of them must; but 
every person gets a call from God to do 
some one thing. It is all written in the 
physical, or mental, or spiritual eonsti- ,J 
tutiou. Out of the fourteen hundred 
millions of the race, there is not one 
that can do your work. You do your 
work, and it is done forever; you neglect 
it, and it is neglected forever; and the 
person sent on the meanest mission has 
a magnificent errand. God sends no 
one on a fool's errand. Find out just 
what you are to do; get your call direct- 
ly from the throne of God to do some 
one thing; then marshal all your facul- 
ties and opportunities and gather them 
into companies and regiments and bat- 
tallious; then ride along the line and 
give the word of command, "Forward, 


march," and there is no power on earth 
or hell that can utand before you. [Ap- 

Reuiember, among other tbings, it is 
always !>afe to do right and never safe to 
do wrong. 1 know you have come to a 
crisis where, by a divergence of one inch 
from the right path, you may think 

nay 1 

make it ail right with my employer; 1 
will fix this all up; no one shall lose a 
farthing by what I am going to do, and 
I will step a little aside from the path of 
integrity."' If such an awful moment 
comes in your heart, and there be such 
a santanie influence brought to bear 
upon you, remember it is the turning 
point in your life. You can never afford 
to do wrong under any circumstances. 
There is a law of Almighty (rod that 
means success to honesty and truth and 
faithfulness, and it means eternal smash- 
up to all that get out of that path. 
[Applause.] In the city of Boston there 

whether or not they were Middlesex 
cloths. [Applause ] 

Just start out with the idea of success. 
You are going to succeed. What does 
that mean, a large number of dollars ? 
Not necessarily. I have seen a house 
with thirty rooms in it, and a vestibule 
of perdition ; and a home with two rooms 
in it, and with a vestibule of Heaven. 
You cannot tell by the size of a man's 
house the size of bis happiness. I say 
to these young men in all earnestness, 
and among other requisites for success 
in life, when the lime comes, marry a 
good, honest woman, one who will stand 
by you in the contests of life. I have 
seen them over and over again. I have 
seen the success of people that I could 
not understand on the start. They did 
not seem to have any special elements 
of success, but there were reasons at 
home why they succeeded. There never 
has been a time since the creation of 
the world when there were as many 

your wife will be poor, and your child 
will be poor." The young man looked 
at his pale wife, and the tears ran down 
his cheeks as he said: " No, sir. she has 
been the same to me all though." We 
want to throw away all sentimentality on 
this subject, all mere theory on this sub- 
ject. My friends, establish homes ; 
homes, that is what we want; the right 
kind of homes. 

"Courage, brother, do not stumble, 
Though thy path be dark as night, 
There's a star to guide the humble, 
Trust in God and do (he right. 
Some will love ihee, some will hate ihce. 
Some will flatter, some will slight. 
Cease from man and look above thee. 
Trust in God and do the right," 

If you do not find openings just here, 
come East or go West. There is a place 
marked out for you just as certain as 
you are there, my brother; just as cer- 
tain as you are there, my sister; a place 

hogs. [Great laughter and applause.} 
If you feel strong, go to the North; if 
your throats are delicate, go to the 
South; if you feel crowded and want 
room, go West; if you are tempted to 
become ofHce-seekers, go to Jail. [Laugh- 
ter.] Anything you want you can have 
in this country. I have 850,000 new rea- 
sons for saying this; 850,000 people came 
in one year from the other side of the 
water to live in America. If this had 
not been the best land to live in tliere 
would have been 850,000 Americans 
going to the other side of the water to 
live, and all this land to lie under one 
government. The nations at the south 
gradually crumbling into our own, and 
then on the north, after a while, beauti- 
ful and hospitable Canada, to whom the 
United States will offer heart and hand 
in marriage; and when the United 
States government sJiall offer hand and 
heart in marriage to beautiful and lios- 
pitable Canada, Canada will blush and 

The above sped 

uted by H. C. Clark. 

was a young man selling goods behind ' 
the counter, and a man came in and 
asked for Middlesex cloths. He says, 
" We haven't any Middlesex cloths, but 
here are cloths just as good."' "No," 
said the man before the counter. "I 
want Middlesex cloths." "Well," he 
says. "We haven't got theui." And so 
he departed. The head man of the firm 
who had heard the interview, came 
down and said : " What did that man 
want ?" " He wanted Middlesex cloths." 
"Why didn't you tell him those were 
Middlesex cloths V" " Because they were 
not." He says, "You can take your hat 
and get out of this establishment; you 
are too honest for this place." And he 
took his hat and got out, and went to 
the far West and achieved ten times the 
fortune his employer in Boston ever 
had. And the time will come. I don't 
know just when, but as certainly as you 
sit there, and I stand here, the time will 
come when in the presence of an assem- 
l)led universe, it will be found out 

good honest women as now, [Applause.] 
and the man is a fool that don't get one 
of them. [Applause,] I do hope none 
of you will ever have the experience of 
the man who said he had three wives, 
and one was very rich, and another 
very handsome, and the other had an 
uncontrollable temper; so, says he. "I 
have had the world, the flesh and the 
devil." Ciet rightly affianced in life. 
Don't hang your happiness on the color 
of a cheek or the brightness of an eye. 
When a man marries he marries for 
Heaven or hell. That is especially so 
when a woman marries. [Laughter.] 

A city missionary in London said to a 
young man as he entered the man's 
house, and here was the young man and 
the wife and child on the floor, and all 
signs of destitution and poverty and 
wretchedness in the house. "Don't you 
think now you made a mistake in iiiarry- 
mg so early ? You ought first to have 
achieved a fortune and then married. 
Now you will be poor all your days, and 

marked out for you for life by an al- 
mighty God, who knew your tempera- 
ment and all your temptations, and 
knows all about you better than you 
know yourself. A sphere of duty and of 
success marked out, and you Just have 
to put yourself in the line of the Divine 
leadings. If you are happy here you 
will be happy forever. 

All parts of this land are openings 
now as never before. Do not stop at 
any one point and say, because things 
are filled up, professions here and mer- 
chan<lise there, and this here and that 
there; go farther, and look out this 
lanil. We are just opening the outside 
doors of the wealth of this country. 
Michigan wheat for the bread, Pennsyl- 
vania coal for the fires, fish frum the 
Hudson and the Chattanooga, rice from 
the Carolinas for the queen of puddings, 
poets and philosophers from Boston to 
explain to us all that we ought to know; 
[Laughter.] oats for the horses, carrots 
for the cattle, and oleomargerine for the 

look down, and thinking of her allegi- 
ance across the sea, will say: "Ask 
mother." [Great applause and laugh- 
ter.] God will take possession of this 

I have exandned your foreheads. 
There is enough brain in you, and 
enough heart in you, to be hurled on 
into great success by the superior powor. 
I tell you, my brothers, my sisters. tha6 "* 
is most important. I cannot be under ^^ 
delusion, for I have been in the world 
long time and examined things, 
seen failures and successes. I thi 
there is a great deal in realizing there 
a divine superintendence ; it makes 
man strong when he knows that he ha» 
Almightiness to guide him here, and^ 
omniscient wisdom to direct him. So, I 
believe all the other brothers have said, 
I don't know why you want any one to 
come from any other place to talk 
you, when you have these elotjuent 
strong-minded men to address you 
these subjects. I believe every 



they uttered, and if I might add to that 
grand pyramid that this brother built 
up. auythitig at all, I would put on the 
top of it, "Faith in God.'' [Applause.] 

At the close of Dr. Talmage's ad- 
ilress, Rev. J. C. Wilson pronounced 
the benediction, and the Third Annual 
(iraduating Exercises of Clark's Busi- 
ness (College closed in a highly sue 
ful and satisfactory manner. 

In the evening an audience that 
packed Park Opera House from pit to 
dome, assembled to hear the lecture 
by Rev. T. De Witt Tahnage, entitled 
"Bright and Happy Homes." 


The following day (August 25th) 
the students and friends of the Col- 
lege " took a day off," and enjoyed the 
pleasures incident to a grand excur- 
sion to Niagara Falls. At 7 o'clock a. 
m. Knoll's Celebrated Brass Band as- 
sembled in front of the College build- 
ing and played one of their fine selec- 
tions, after which they marched to 
the Grand Union Depot, where a spe- 
cial train, consisting of eight coaches 
and a baggage ear, were in waiting to 

Buffalo was reached when the excur- 
sionists disbanded, and the train was 
held until 9:45. Upon leaving the 
train the band led the way up Ex- 
change street to Washington, and 
thence to Clark's Business College, 
Coal and Iron Exchange Building, 
where a halt was made to serenade 
the College. After this the band pro- 
ceeded to St. .Jamea Hall, where the 
Rev. Dr. Talmage delivered a lecture 
under the auspices of the College, en- 
titled "The Bright Side of Things." 

At 8 o'clock the hall was well filled, 
and seated on the platform were a 
large number of the prominent clergy- 
men of the city. 

It was about ten minutes past 8 
when President Clark and Dr. Tal- 
mage made their appearance on the 
stage, and were greeted with rounds 
of applause. Mr. Clark, in introduc- 
ing the famous orator, said : 

"It atTords me pleasure to introduce 
to you the distinguished lecturer of the 
evening, and it seems proper for me to 
here state that this oficasion is com- 
memorative of the Pall Opening of 
Clark's Business College, which has al- 

B\ S. A. DRAKE. 

If the directions concerning move- 
ment, given in the ■ pret-eding leeson. 
have been closely followed by the 
learner, he, no doubt, discovers that 
he can control the pen more easily, 
and can describe larger and smoother 
ovals than wlien he began the study. 
In other words, he has developed, to 
some eitent, the power to use the pen 
easily and accurately. 

In the preceding les8on,oiily short let. 
ters were introduced, ou account of their 
being small and without shade, conse- 
quently requiring least scope of move- 
ment, and pressure upon the pen. The 
small letters, presented in the first line of 
the copies below, are called the semi- 
a>(ended letters. In the /, the right 
cunw and the straight Ihic only are 
used. The curve is carried upward from 
the base line two spaces, the straigiit 
line coinciding with it from the top 
downward one space, where they sepa- 
rate and become distinct lines. The 
downward stroke, a straU/ht line, unites 
at the base, in an oval turn. with, a right 
carve. The downward stroke begins 
with an abrupt shade, diminishing 

the p, to which is joined the finishing 
stroke of the g. 

The t consists of a right curve carried 
upward two spaces, a straight line down 
to base, and finished with a left curve 

The learner should study each letter 
until he shall have gained an acctiratfl 

knowledge of its form and dimensions, 
after whicli he should give considerable 
time to practice upon the letter alone, 
following with short words involving the 
use of this letter, and others previously 

Of the three principles used in the 
formation of capital letters, the reverse 
oval or sixth prineiplc, is most easily 
learned, and it will be found most profit- 
able to turn the attention first to those 
letters, the formation of which involves 
its use. This principle should be thor- 
oughly learned, and practiced with a 
free, sliding movement of the hand, or 
muscular movement, before employing it 
in the formation of a letter. 

The letter It. presented in th« second 
line of the copies below, may now be 
made the subject of study. In this we 
have the sixth principle, to which is 
added a left curve, three spaces in ex- 
tent, drawn downward to the base line, 
and one space to the right of the first 
part of the letter. The two parts are 



carry the party to the Falls. The 
train left Erie i^romptly at 7:45 and 
reached Buffalo at 10:30, when the 
train was reinforced by a large num- 
ber of the students of the Buffalo 
College, and thence i>roceeded to the 
Falls, arriving at 11:45. 

The day was a delightful one, and 
it seemed as thougli Providence had 
specially favored the excursionists in 
giving them the benefit of such pleas- 
ant weather. At 3 o'clock p. ni. 
Knoll's Band gave a grand concert in 
Prospect Park that attracte<l the at- 
tention of thousands of people. The 
excursionists were free to 8i)end the 
time as they thought bestj and in this 
resjject they lost no time in seeing 
everything of interest that was offered 
by this famous resort. 

At 5:45 o'clock the band left the 
Park and nuirched to the train, play- 
ing a stirring air that was sufficient 
notice to the excursionists that the 
time had arrived when they must bid 
adieu to the Falls of Niagai-a and 
wend their way homeward. 

Promptly at 6:10 the train was 
ready to st^rt on its journey to Buf- 
falo, and at a little hefore 7 o'clock 

ready obtained such prominence and 
popularity in your city. We have just 
returned from a trip to Niagara Falls, 
where several hundred students of 
the Colleges have been enjoying them- 
selves for a day, and we now assem- 
ble here so that they, as well as you 
who are not members of the College, 
may have the pleasure of listening 
tea lecture entitled "The Bright Side 
of Things," and the one who Is present 
to deliver it scarcely needs an introduc- 
tion, as he is known the world over for 
his grand pulpit utterances as the Rev. 
T. DeWitt Talmage, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
whom I now have the honor of intro- 
ducing to you." 

Dr. Talmage was heartily greeted 
with great applause, and for fully one 
hour and a half he held the audience 

At the close of the lecture the ex- 
cursionists boarded the train, and at 
9:45 the words 'All aboard" were 
given, and in two hours and thirty 
minutes Erie was reached. 

Thus ended the Third Grand An- 
nual Oi)ening of Clark's College, and 
nothing but praise of the splendid 
success attending the affair can be 

Always be 

haste, but 

gradually as it approaches the base. 
The letter is completed by a horizontal 
straight li7ie, one space in length, dr 
across the downward stroke, one-half 
space from the top, so that two-thirds of 
it shall be on the right hand side. This 
line should be parallel to the base line. 
The ascending and descendnig line in 
the first part of the d, are like those in 
the first part of the small a, while the 
rest of the d is like the t without the 

The (/ its like the a. except that the 
last downward stroke is carried below 
the base line a space and a half, where 
a short oval turn to the right is made 
and finished with an upward compound 

In formnig the />, a right curve is car- 
ried upward from base line two spaces, 
where it is united, in an angle, with a 
straight line, which is carried below the 
base line one space and a half, termina- 
ting in an abrui)t shade. The letter is 
completed by a left curve carried up- 
ward from base line one space, where it 
is united, in an oval turn.with a straight 
line carried downward to base line, and 
here joined to the finishing right curve. 

The other small letters presented 
should be used as linal letters. The g 
is like the q, except that the last down- 
ward stroke is a full right I'urve carried 
below the base line a space and a half, 
and well to the left. 

The y is composed of the latter part of 

joined by a loop carried upward from 
the lower extremity of the last down- 
ward stroke. 

Beginning at the middle of the de- 
scending stroke in the sixth principle, 
carry a left curve upward one space, 
form an oval turn, and descend to base 
with a straight line, finishing with an 
oval turn, and we have the capital N, 
presented in the third line of the copies 

Practice on the exercises, presented 
in the fourth line, will prove an efB- 
cient means in securing accurate forms. 
A letter, recurringin this manner, makes 
it easy for the learner to discover any 
defects that may exist in slant, shade 
and extent, and by keeping such defects 
in mind, he is led to avoid them in sub- 
se(iuent efforts. 

The student of writing should view 
with a critical eye every form that flows 
from his pen. and in every attempt, he 
should strive to approach his ideal of 
perfection. Repetition of lui error does 
not lead to a departure from it, but 
rather confirms the habit of falling into 
the error, and makes its avoidance more 

In every undertaking, it is the part of 
wisdom to use all the means that may 
conduce to success. He, who deems an 
object worthy of an attempt.8hows poor 
judgment, if he neglects any require- 
ment that may tend to the accomplish- 


^\\e Afnerican Pefifnan, 

Published Monthly at 60c Per Year, 

By Clark & Johnaon, Proprietors, Erie, 

Pa., and Buifalo, N Y. 

)' address on receipt ( 

Single CO 
pie copies u 


e will give a reduction of 40 
tea to all advcrtlsorB paying 
a date of contract. 

one column. 



■::.: IS " 

given iiQ Reading B 



To all our aubcrlbers remitting One Dollar wc will 
until further notice, mail a copy of Volume Plrat of 
Clark's Progressive Book-keeping uud the Auekican 
Pkmuan for one year, or we will present a copy of 
both volumes of Book-kt^eping to any one Bending a 
club of ten subscribers and $4.50. Now Is the time 

To a 

persons Interesting themselves in be- 
HK AJiEKicAN Pbnman and sending clubs 

given 11 
to give c 

e one sending the club on all subscriptions 

ush premiumn to those securing clubs, and 
will be invariably followed. 

Money t 

rder, Poalal Note, or Registered Letter, to 


Publishers, Erie. Pa. 


PA., ANB BUFFALO, N. Y.. SRI>T., 18S0. 

ill a short article of only ten lines. 
The misspelled words are set iu 

Life scholarships are now issued by 
but Ihree or four schools within our 
knowledge, and it is a matter of infinite 
surprise that any intelligent school man 
will do so unbusinesslike a thing. It is 
a. rcdicnfoua confession to make that 
tliree years' tuition is worth no more 
than a three months' course, but that is 
the irrisisdble logic of their tuition fee. 
—Rochmter Commercial Review. 

Tlio Review w.iuld do well to study 
uj) on ortliography and English gram- 
ni:ir before making any further criti- 
cism. Now as to the truth of the "A. 
P.'s" statement as published above as 
to wliat Mr. Williams said, we here- 
with append a clipping from the Col- 
lege Journal of Mr. G. R. Rathbun's 
Business College, Omaha, Neb., as cor- 
roborating what we heard Mr. Wil- 
liams siiy at the convention: 

" 'Williams, of Rochester, stated at the 
convention that book-keeping is of the 
least importance in a business course 
What does he consider a business educa^ 
tion to be ? Do not his students spend 
time in getting a knowledge of th" 

Upon the public, and the tendencies 
of the times point to the business col- 
lege as being the most important of 
all educational institutions. Let every 
business college projirietor put forth 
his best efforts to have a college wor- 
thy of the best patronage, and he will 
find that the public will not be slow- 
to appreciate his eflbrts. 

branch than any othe 

J Pen^ 


Thk American Penman, published 
at Clark's Business Colletfe, Erie, Pa., 
for July, has the following: 

Williams, of Rochester, stated at the 
convention that "book-keeping is of 
least importance in a business college 
course," What does he consider a busi- 
ness education to be? and does not his 
students spend more time in netting a 
knowledge of this branch than any 

We cannot imagine how the reporter 
of the paper named could have so mis- 
under^itood what he heard at the con- 
vention. What Williams did say was 
that more attention should be given to 
those things to which too little import- 
ance is usually attached— practical writ- 
ing, correspondence, rapid ai'ithmetical I 
calculations, orthography, use of Ian- 1 
guage. etc., and that, if these were 
projjerly looked after book-keeping 
would take care of itself, his idea being 
that, since book-keeping is the most fas- 
cinating branch in the business college 
course of study, it will naturally receive 
all the attention it deserves. 

Mr. Packard's quotations from Mr. 
Williams' remarks, when they appear in 
the report, will justify this repudiation 
of the words alleged to have been ut- 

Thk Penman's memory is as defective 
as its grammar. — Rochester Comvicrclal 


Mr. Williams' attention is resiicct- 
liiUy called to tlie following i)aragraph 
clipped from tlie Review, snice he 
speaks of " orthography." The reader 
will notice the originality of Mr. Wil- 
liams' spelling of the following words 

We heard the i-emark by Mr. Williams 
and fully concurred in it at the time. 
We were discussing the feasibility of 
short courses, which were, as the Pen- 
man knows.championed by Prof Gaines, 
of Poughkeepsie, and Prof. Nelson, of 
Cincinnati. Prof. Brown, of Jackson- 
ville, Williams, and ourselves, contended 
that book-keeping was only a small 
share of what should be the curriculum 
of a business college; simply an auxili- 
ary of the course. To begin the study 
of book-keeping before a student can 
work a problem in interest, write a good 
legible hand, or until he has a good 
knowledge of the common school 
branches, is a waste of time and a farce, 
Mr. Wilhanis rightly claimed, that at 
this day and age the business colleges 
have a higher calling than to simply in 
struct in book-keeping. Such business 
colleges have had their day." 

Of coui-se we shall have to refer 
Mr. Rathbun's article back to him, as 
Mr.Willinms denies making any such 
statement, and wait for Mr. Packard's 
report. But how does Mr. W. know 
that Mr. Packard's report will not 
contain what he stated at the conven- 
tion ? It cannot be presumed that the 
proceedings are being " doctored " for 
the occasion. We certainly hope not. 
Well I well I we pity Rathbun. Here 
he has *' concurred in the remark 
made by Mr. Williams," and now the 
Review says no such statement was 
made by Mr. Williams. We are sorry 
for Ratlihun, iis he evidently wants to 
tell the truth, but when his " ideal " 
comes to the front with a public 
denial, somehody has erred. Who 
is it? 

The business colleges of the United 
Slates have within twenty years multi- 
plied from a few institutions to several 
hundred, some of which have an annual 
registration of over a thousand students 
each. United States Commissioner 
Eaton reports a greater number of 
graduates from the business colleges 
than from the colleges of law, medicine 
and theology combined. OfScial reports 
show about 50.000 students during the 
past year,— iV. }'. iitar. 

From the above notice it is easy for 
the reader to see what a strong popu- 
lar hold ' the business colleges have 


Prof. D. T. Ames, proprietor of the 
Penman'g Art Journal, New York, who 
is in Buffalo on business, gave a fine ad- 
dress to the students of Clark's College, 
in which he congratulated the students 
in having such delightful surroundings, 
and so competent a faculty, and Messrs. 
Clark & Johnson for the splendid suc- 
cess they are meeting with in Buffalo— 
the large number of students in attend- 
ance, aud their fine college rooms. Mr. 
Ames, who was for over twenty years 
connected with business college work, is 
a good judge of this class of schools, 
and says Buffalo has at least one school 
that ought to be a.ppreci&ted.—Buff'alo 
Commercial Advertiser. 

Bro. Ames, why did you not come 
over to Ei'ie ? You have but seen the 
half of Clark's Colleges, and you will 
have to go the whole length of the 
line before you witness the complete- 
ness of our institutions. However, we 
arc thankful to Mr. Ames for his ad- 
dress at Buffalo, and hope he will call 


The Penman's Art Journal, New 
York, presents its usual fine appear- 

The Pewman's QazeUe^'^ow published 
at Chicago, 111., is among the best of 
chirographic journals. 

The Western Penman, Cedar Rapids, 
la., comes out regularly well-filled 
with good reading. 

The School Visitor, Madison, Wis., 
occasionally overlooks The American 
Penman in mentioning its exchanges, 
but clips quite generously from its 

The College Journal, Rathbun & 
Daily, publishers, Omaha, Neb., is one 
of the best printed college papers we 
have seen. 

The Commercial Renew, Rochester, 
N. Y., is well printed and edited. 

The Gem City Journal is before us, 
well-filled with excellent reading mat- 
ter in the interest of business educa- 


To attain the summit of true useful- 
ness in our calling, it is sometimes neces- 
sary to pause in our laborious researches 
and ask ourselves if we are really ad- 
vancing the interests of our chosen 
work. This can be easily determined bv 
examining the results of our efforts and 
weighing the amount of scribbling we 
have transformed, or caused to be trans- 
formed, into legible or elegant writing. 
By closely studying the practical results 
of our work, we can determine where 
changes should be made and improve- 
ments brought about. He who blindly 
exercises a cause, without analyzing its 
effect, is doing himself tind the world an 
injury. If we possess a pet theory or a 
hobby, and by taking a retrospect, find 
its effects unsatisfactory, we would in- 
deed be bigoted did wt* not endeavor to 
remove the injurious part of the cause. 

Teacliers, watch your pupils go into 

bnsinesB, and the eCTeut it has upon their 
penmanship. If it speedily degenerates 
into a mere scrawl, there has certainly 
been something wrong in your instruc- 
tion and training of that pupil. If you 
are conscientious, and have at heart the 
real welfare Of your students, you will 
at once diligently seek for soiue method 
Of training that will produce better re- 
sults when put to the test of actual 

We are constantly hearing that the 
penmanship of the masses is degenerat- 
ing, and whether this is true or false, it 
behooves us to ascertain, and if true, try 
to remedy it. We cannot, as true teach- 
ers, shut our eyes to facts, be they ever 
so disagreeable, but nmst be ever on the 
alert to know the worst that we may 
provide for it. 

But I think we do not need to despair. 
The writing of the masses may have 
degenerated as far as legibility is con- 
cerned, but it must be remembered that 
the increase of speed demanded by the 
multiplied business interests and enter- 
prises of to-day, can partially account 
for the lack of legibility in business 

Had nothing better than the old, 
round style of hand-writing ever been 
originated, it would almost utterly fail 
to meet the demands of business life. 
The rush of business demands a hand- 
writing that can be written very rapid- 
ly, and still retain as much legibility aa 
possible, and if we have succeeded in 
establishuig such a system, and impart- 
ing such a style, we have certainly made 
a long step in advance. 

To the teacher of writing is entrusted 
the important duty of molding the 
handwriting of a nation, aud with this 
trust there comes the gravest responsi- 
bilities, which only the' most earneat 
efforts and practical wisdom and exp^.. 
rience can faithfully discharge. Are we 
doing our best, or merely working in a 
stoical sort of manner, regardless of the 
real results of our labors V 

Dubuque, Iowa, Sept. 4, 1880. 

In accepting the resignation of Mr. 
Bruce, Register of the Treasury, the 
President gives as one reason why he 
thinks the resignation should be ac- 
cepted, the fact that the Register has no 
practical knowledge of book-keeping. 
If that is so, Mr. Bruce should havflf^ 
tendered his resignation long ago. Thla\ 
cu-cumstance may properly give rise to 
the inquiry if there are not many others 
holding important positions under the 
Government where good accountants 
should be preferred, irrespective of 
poUtical views, in preference to mere 
politicians who have no practical knowl- 
edge of accounts. We hope the intiuia-' 
tion given in the acceptance of Mr. 
Bruce's resignation will serve as a basis 
for precedence in future removals and 
appointment". The appointment of 
skilled accountants to positions of trust-, 
where a knowledge of book-keeping is 
niiportant, should receive careful con- 
sideration both in National aud State 
Govermiients.— A^. K. Trcasurij. 

The most expert counters of money in 
the Treasury are women, and the women. 
in the Treasury as detectors of counter- 
feit money have no equals in this coun- 
try or any other. The women in the 
several departments of the Govermuent, 
no matter in wliat capacity they are 
employed, devote more hours to service 
than do the men. while they perform 
their work e<pmliy well. These are facte 
that among many other fauts the Com- 
mission appointed to investigate the de- 
partments will do well to consider, before 
it reports iu favor of eliminating 
female element from the clerical force 
the departments. — Ex. • 

>efore J 



Clark's Progressive Bookkeeping 
and Peomanstiip. 

The Best Arrang:cd Text Book for 

Use in Business Collej^es, Coin 

niercial Departnieiits, Hi^li 

Schools, Aeadeniies. &v., 

Kvei- Published. 

A Special Offer to Those Des 
to Introduee the Work. 

Foremost among the excellent works 
now published on the science of ac- 
counts, stands Clark's Progressive Book- 
keeping. It is printed upon extra super 
sized and calendered paper, substantially 
bound in cloth, beautifully embossed, 
presenting an unusually attractive ap- 
pearance. It is published in two 
volumes, and the complete work is also 
bound in one volume, comprising 228 
pages, printed in two colors. 

The work is admirably adapted to 
self-instruction, as well as for use in 
Business Colleges, High Schools, Nor- 
mal Schools and Academies. It is care- 
fully graded, beginning with a full and 
(loiiiplete analysis of the principles of 
Double-Entry, Commercial Paper, Rules 
for Journalizing, etc. Beautiful written 
forms of the Day Book, .Journal. Cash 
Book. Ledger. Trial Balances, etc , ap- 
pear upon its pages. It is the only work 
published illlustrating and presenting 
the advantages of the Progres 
Ledger, the latest and most labor-saving 
method of Ledgerizing extant. Every 
college or school teaching book-keeping 
should use this work. Students invari- 
ably learn faster and better from it than 
from any other. 

As a special inducement to schools 
desiring to examine a copy, a complete 
work will be mailed, postpaid, which 
retails at |3, upon the receipt of $1. 
This is done to enable those interested 
in a good work upon the science of ac- 
counts, to examine its merits for them- 

accouDte in a clear, concise, systematic 
manner. It is a valuable addition to the 
list of commercial text books." 

Prof. L. A. Wyatt. Jackson. Min., 
says: " I like it better and better the 
more I become familiar with it." 

Prof. G. B. Munn, President of the 
American Business College, Warren, Pa., 
says: " Express us 25 books at once." 

Prof. H. A. Lambert, of the Winona 
(Minn.) Business College, says; "I am 
umch pleased with your presentation of 
the important departments of the sub- 
ject. It is certainly a very nicely ar- 
ranged work, and ought to meet the 
approval of our leading commercial 

Hundreds of other equally meritorious 
letters have been received, but want of 

it. he will never have any confidence in ] but then there's lots that does— little fel- 

you thereafter. Walk out from him, , lers not half as big as me, and some of 

give up your position, rather than make I 'em do swear awful." 

a false statement. Never be unfaithful j " Do your employers allow it ?" asked 

in your work. When you become an the editor. 

employe you sell your time for so "Not if they know it; but you don't 

much. Never prove unfaithful. While j s'pose they swear at the boss ? And 

attending college one of my professors ! them that chews, they don't chew on 

said: "Young man, never measure your , pay-day." 

duty by what you get, but by what you j " And don't you think this might and 

can do." Those words have come to me i ought to be changed ?" 

time and again, and I would have you | " Yes, I do; and I tliought, after I read 

remember them. Suppose I engage to ' 'bout the Reformed Club, that I'd like 

work for somebody, and afterward: 
find that I am really worth $2,000 per 
year, and am to get only $500. Shall 1 
render just one-fourth of the work, or 
shall 1 do the best I can, the same as if 
I were to have $3,000? Certainly,! should 
do the best I can. It belongs to the 
morals of business never to take more 
than your wages. 
Now, as an employer, you will hold a 

Prof. H. S. Edwards, of the Eastern 
Iowa Normal School, says: " 1 am very 
favorably impressed with the work. It 
is accurate in statement, logical in ex- 
pression and progressive in character. 
I am especially pleased with the Ledger 
arrangement on pages 68, 60, 70 and 71. 
I can see great good and simplicity in 
that method." 

Prof. W. A. Ctane. Professor of Ac- 
counts in the Spenceriaii Business Col- 
lege, New York, says: " I have looked 
your work through and like it very 

Prof. H. C. Spencer 
D. C„ says: "The 
compact, neat and pie. 
and unfolds to the learner the s 

o/ rapid writing Oj/ B. C. t 

space prevents the presentatio 


Those interested are cordially retjuest- 
ed to address the publishers, 

and their letters shall receive careful at- 
tention. Do not fail to send for a copy. 

of Washington, 
.'ork presents a 
.sing appearance, 


mmary of an Address Delivered at Clark's 

College by Rev. J. C. Wilson, Friday 

Morning, Sept. 10, 1886. 

This is a subject of great importance 
one that pertaines to business. It has 
three-fold relation, inasmuch as you 
may become an employe and employer. 
)r neither one nor the other, and I shall 
peak firstly of an employe. As such 
'ou will have temptations to make false 
statements, temptations to falsify. Now 
let me say, never make a false statement 
to your employer, in other words never 
lie. No matter what you have done. 
even If it be too bad to mention, never 
make a false statement. Always be 
truthful, be just, be candid, as there is 
no surer way to succeed. Never make a 
false statement for your employer. 
Many will ask this of you, but say "iVo,- 
1 cannot afford it," and if your employer , 
i of ! oaks you to do such a thing, and you do ' 

relation to those you employ and to the 
general public. 

Never ask of your employe unreason- 
able things. Never ask an evil thing, 
always speak the truth. Follow the 
golden rule. "Do unto others as you 
would have others do unto you." Never 
assume that you are something more 
than you are. If you are a rogue, say 
so; if an honest man, do not be afraid to 
stand up under that banner so long as 
you shall live; and in conclusion I would 
admonish you that if you cannot deal 

to jine, and so I'd see if I couldn't help 
stop off the bad talk; an<l two other fel- 
lers, they're goin' to stop." 

"But how did you manage it 7 I 
should really like to know." 

' Well, I just said when I heard 'em, 
'What d'ys want to say that for ?' and 
they stared, and said, "Cos; guess I've 
got a right to do what I please!' And 
then I didn't get mad and say, ' No, 
you ain't,' but I said, 'Well, s'pose you 
have, but I wish you wouldn't' And 
sometimes they laughed, and sometimes 
they poked fun; but two of 'em swore 
off, another one said he would if 
we'd just let him say ' Jimminy cricks !' 
and we did. We thought that wasn't 

"So you have three who have given 
it up ?" 

"Yes, and another boy that we bought 

"Bought out ! What do you mean ?" 

"Well, he had the biggest job lot of 
bad words. Seemed's if he had all that 
had been left over from the whole 
trade. And we just got him to take ac- 
count of stock, and make a list of swear- 
words, and we others that swore off, we 
formed a company, and agreed to buy 
the lot at five cents apiece. And after 
we bought "em, they wasn't his to use 
no more, and so every time he used one 
of "em he had to pay two cents." 

" But would he tell you ?" 

"Oyes; "twas "pon honor, you know, 
and Jack's a real good fellow, and he 
said he'd like to give it up, only they 
stuck to him so he couldn't get rid of 
'em without givin' 'em away, and we 
offered to buy "em all. Wasn't it a good 

And the editor went straight home, 
and before he took off his overcoat, 
wrote down the "dodge." to show the 
young folks that one boy at least was in 
earnest about helping himself and others 
to reform. 1 do not write his last name, 
because I know he is in such earnest 
that he will be glad to have his language 
corrected by some of the young friends 
who have not been running to the cry 
of "Cash here!" as he has ever since he 
was eight years old.— W: I'. Svangeliaf. 


A dull boy in a certain school was fre- 
quently reproached by his teacher, and 
made little progress. One day he made 
a first attempt to write. The scrawl was 
so wretched it excited the laughter of 
honestly, do not deal at all; and at last ' the boys who sat near him. A gentle- 

let it be said of you when you come to 
die that you were honest men and 
women.— ^rtc Evtninff Herald of S^tt. 


At least three-fourths of the efforts 
started for the reform of abuses, publi{! 
or private, when they fail, fail for want 
of earnest purpose. A cash boy In a 
York store, answered a request that any 
boys or girls should tell of any wrongs 
they would try to make right in the 
year lW8a, in this way: 

"Well, you 6ee, I think swearin's 
'bout as bad as anything us boys in our 
store do; swearin'andchewin'tobacker. 
I don't chew, and lots of us boys don't; 

isiting the school, witnessing his 
distress, said to him : 

" Never mind, my lad. do not be dis- 
couraged, and you will be a writer some 
day. 1 recollect when I first began 
being quite as awkward as you. but I 
persevered, and now. look ! See what I 
can do !" 

He took his pen, and wrote his name 
in a large, legible hand. 

Years afterward, when the dull boy 
had become one of the most celebrated 
men of his day. he met again the umn 
who had spoken to him those few en- 
couraging words. He said to him: 

" It is my finu conviction that I owe 
my success in life, under (iod's blessing, 
to those few words you spoke to me that 
day .when I sat so discourageil trying to 
\ix\X.^"— Christian A(ivo<:a(t:. 



The merchant or manufacturer who 
has carried his business through to a 
permanent success, has had much to 
learn from experience in arranging.upon 
some econonomical basis, many of the 
minor as well as important details of his 
establishment. leading to loss or waste, 
has in turn, received cautious experi- 
ment and careful study, until some prac- 
tical safty-valves were devised through 
the introduction of which a saving 
might be effected. 

If one avenne of contingent expendi- 
ture hae received less attention than an- 
other, it is that which pertains to ex- 
penses incurred in the office or account- 
ing department. Tliis channel of dis- 
bursement forms one of the most iuipor- 
ant features for consideration in connec- 
tion with the subject of business 
economy; but, unfortunately, it is sel- 
dom given the atttention which its 
proniinen(^e demands. Were the exnen- 
ditures in this department attended to 
with proper care and prudence, it would 
be found that much more than is, might 
be accompHshed with them. Business 
managers are not always sufficiently 
prudent in their allowances for meeting 
current e.\i)enBes of the counting-room, 
and book-keepers are many times mex- 
cusably extravagant in conducting their 
special field of service. 

Sound business economy does not so 
much demand the cutting down of ex- 
penses in the office as it does looking 
after the proper and most expedient 
conversion of what is prudently pro- 
vided. The just criticism, if one were 
offered, would not fall on the amount of 
time usually expended in clerical ser- 
vices, but would more properly strike at 
the scanty information and the unsatis- 
factory results which it is found that 
such labor lias produced- The import- 
ance of having concise, accurate and 
comprehensive intelligence concerning 
business operations will warrant a lib- 
eral outlay for its accomplishment; but 
to incur all the required expense with- 
out securing its legitimate benefits is a 
breach of business economy deserving 
of the severest criticism- 

The questions— J? rfl(. What are the 
means to be employed ? and, second. 
What are the results to be expected f— 
form important subjects which demand 
tlie precise consideration of the business 
manager. The prime feature of import- 
ance connected with these inquiries Is 
thirst of professional service. The im- 
Ijortant means upon which these results 
depend is the accountant into whose 
hands shall fall the manipulation of 
office affairs, and upon whose skill shall 
depend the proper and economic hand- 
ling of a system of accounts The re- 
sults to be anticipated are the complete, 
correct and systematic representations 
which fully illustrate the progress of 
trade, the condition of financial affairs, 
and all the various avenues through 
which each special department of busi- 
ness has been affected. 

If the book-keeper is slothful in the 
use of supplies and extravagant with 
office paraphernalia, no matter what 
may be the other qualifications, his ser- 
vices will become a burdensome tax 
which no businessman can safely afford 
to encourage. If he lacks experience, 
acquired skill, or natural ability— if he 
is prone to negligence and liable to mis- 
takes, his retention Is injudicious and 
inexpedient, irrespective of what may 
be the compensation for service, or even 
though none be exacted. The true prin- 
ciple of economy, here as elsewhere, is to 
pay for the maximum value of what 
such professional services are worth, 
and exact in exchange the full consider- 
ation for compensation allowed.— iV. Y. 



[Specially p 
W. 6. LotUrc 

Thomafi Ollyffe, Ralph Snow, there are 
some satirical strokes upon George 
Shelby, as if he had arrogated too much 
to himself in his book of Natural Writ- 
ing. They find great fault (and I think 
The chirographic labors of this able ' yg^y justly) with penciled knots and 
sprigged letters, as not to be admitted 
OS any part of useful penmanship, 
judicious j Tliese reflections, however, created ill 
profession, blood, and even an open difference 
ongst several of the superior artists 

and elegant penman have received 
general applause, not only fro; 
public but also from 
ingst those of his 
I shall, therefore, injustice to his merits 
writer and accurate accountant, 
give as full an account of him and his 
work as I can, at this distance of time 
his death, being kindly assisted in 
particulars by Mr. Joseph Cham- 
pion, who had been his scholar and 

Mr. Charles Snell, of London, was 
born Anno Domini 1670, and educated 
Christ's Hospital, being one of the 
few who reflect honors on the blue coat. 
put ai)prentice to some writing 
master of no great note; Mr. Champion 
upposes Mr. Topham, but Mr. Austin 
.'fays he was informed to Mr. Brooks, a 
writing-master in Aldergate street; but 
t was a strong genius and a confident 
ndustry. and copying after the en- 
graved works of Barbedor, that pro- 
duced that correctness and beauty 
hicli are so conspicuous in his copy- 
books. He kept school in divers parts 
of London, as Bridewel per Sint. Fleet 
street. Ludgate Hill, etc., and lastly suc- 
ceeded Mr. John Seddon In Sir John 
Johnson's free writing school in Priest's 
Court, Foster Lane, Cheapside, which 
he supported with credit upwards of 
thirty-six years. 

The first book that he published from 
the rolling press was in 1693, entitled 
"The Penman's Treasury Opened," be- 
ing then twenty-two years of age — 
William Elder, sculpslt. It contains 
twenty-six folio plates, besides his 
picture in front, and was, as he himself 
affirms, the first published in England 
done by connnand of hand. 

It is true, indeed, he was one of our 
first English penmen who practiced the 
art. of writing in an absolute free, bold 
and neat manner on the revival of the 
useful elegance of the quill. Yet I have 
been informed that there were jealous 
heart burnings, if not bickerings, be- 
tween him and Col. Ayres, another 
of our great reformers in the writ- 
ing common weal, both eminent 
men in their way, yet like our most 
celebrated poets. Pope and Addison, or, 
to carry the comparison still higher, like 
Ciesar and Pompey, one could bear no 
superior and the other no equal. 

There is in some copies of the afore- 
said book a little poem prefixed in com- 
mendation of the art of writing as well 
as of the autlior's performance, by Dr. 
Joshua Barnes, of Emanuel College, 
Cambridge, dated April 23d, 1694. In 
this poem Dr. Barnes appears somewhat 
singular in his opmion amongst modern 
authors in ascribing the art of writing 
as a divine gift to Adam in this stanza: 
" No, no, the gift of a commanding pen, 
Was first by God, to first born Adam giv'n; 
From him to Seth it came, ihe best of men. 
And justly, since the richesi gift of Heaven." 

In 1812 Mr. Snell published his Art of 
Writing, in Theory and Practice, George 
Bichham, Sculpt. It contains 28 plates 
in a long folio, besides his picture at the 
beginning. In a copy of verses, by Mr. 
Peter Motteai, prefixed to this book, are 
the following harmonious and beautiful 

ting of those times. Robert Moore 
and George Shelby seem, in that contro- 
versy, to have been men of calmest tem- 
in the different parties. This book 
published when our authors were 
masters of St. John Johnson's free 
iting school in Foster-lane It was 
printed for Henry Overton, at the 
Whitehouse, without Newgate. 

In 1714 Mr. Snell published his copy- 
book entitled. Standard Rules, exhibited 
in six plates, beside the letter-press 
work, in which the rules are demonstra- 
ted. This book proved to be a bone of 
contention, and occasioned a terrible 
quarrel between our authors and Mr. 
John Clark, writing master and account- 
antin Warwick-lane This quarrel about 
standard rules ran so high between them 
that they could scarce forbear surrilous 
language therein, and a treatment of 
each other unbecoming gentlemen. 
Both sides in the dispute had their abet- 
tors, and to say which had the most 
truth and reason, "Non nostrum est 
tantas componere htes;" perhaps both 
parties might be too fond of their own j 
schemes. The best way, I think, would , 
have been to have only offered their 
different schemes and sentiments there- | 
on, and explications thereof, to tlie 
world, and left them to people to choose 
which they liked best. Who now-a-days 
take those standard rules, either one or 
the other, for their guidance in writingV 
Our author also printed the law al- 
phabet, viz.: of the court and chancery 
bands, in one large sheet; but I cannot 
ascertain the date nor say by whom it 
was engraved. He has likewise four 
plates dated 1711, very well executed, in 
in George Bickham's Penman's Com- 

Mr. Snell also published eight text 
books upon the keeping of Books and 
Accounts, between the years 1697 and 

To conclude, this laborious and cele- 
brated writing master and accurate 
arithmetician died at his dwelling house 
in Sermon-lane, Doctor's Commons, 
Anno Bom. 1733, and lies buried in the 
body of St. Gregory's Church, in Old 
Fish street, but without either monu- 
ment, stone or inscription over his 
grave, neither does he want any, for his 
works will be a lasting memorial of his 
abilities in his profession. However, 
instead of a formal epitaph, I shall pre- 
sent the reader with the following lines 
composed in his praise by Mr. Sinclare: 
" Accept, dear shade I what justice makes me 

And your most curious hand compell'd ipe to; 
Great Velde's pen, immortalized his name. 
And Mat'rots stretched the blowing checks oi 

Bold Barbedor, in freedom did cxcell. 
But this last worthy was reviv'd in Snell; 
And Europe now. strikes to the British hand, 
I'or justness, neatness, freedom and command; 
Yet we're divided, which in thee to boast, 
Wheiher the penman or accountant most."' 

"Now justly bold, i 
The pen at once join: 
With softness strong, 
Loose with proportioi 
Not sweli'd. not full, 

) Snell's improving hand, 
freedom with command I 
with ornament not vain, 
I, and with neatness plain; 
complete in ev'ry part, 

And artful most, when not alTecting a 
In letters to the aathors, prefixed to 

book, from John Slnolare, | Jay VlUers. 

Clark's College has arranged for a 
popular lecture course the coming sea- 
son. There are to be seven entertain- 
ments, including the Mendelssohn Quin- 
tette Club of Boston, lectures by Hon. 
Geo. R. Wendling, Prof. David Swing, 
Robert J. Burdette, Mrs. Mary A. Liv- 
Col. L. F. Copeland and Dr. J. 


Wrltteo for llie Erie AtlverUaer. 

When one can compare the complete 
and perfect finish of No 3 school, to the 
old-time school of the country dis- 
trict, we wonder that anything can be 
said against our present system. The 
country school house in which '■ the 
subscriber " obtained hia educational 
facilities, was situated at the conven- 
ient distance of one mile and a half 
"cross-lots," and two miles and a half 
around the road, from our farm home. 
The road was seldom traveled in winter, 
and between home and tin* old red 
Greenwood school house lay two creeks, 
three or four hills, seven fences, and in 
winter time about half a mile of slush. 
We had to get up before daylight, feed 
the stock, and chop wood for the day, 
before getting our breakfast. Mother 
would theu fill our dinner basket with 
doughnuts, bread, butter and mince-pie, 
and we were off. We had rare fun rid- 
ing over the crust with a girl on the sled 
with us. Our teacher was a good old 
soul, and for two or three wintnis served 
us faithfully, and tiien he went to the 
land of shadows. He could play corner 
ball at noon, and beat any of us, and 
there was no doubt that he loved us and 
tried to do us good. There was no grade 
lo the school, for every scholar had his 
own reader, which ranged from Thad- 
deus of Warsaw, up to, and Including 
the new Testament and the Bible. 
Whatever arithmetic we had in the 
house was made the standard work for 
that family. Our school was usually of 
about thirty-five, and ranged In size 
from Tilda Gough, two feet six. to Ben 
Christi, who was six feet two. Poor 
Ben, his education was sadly neglected, 
for he read in a new Testament, and 
only knew letters, and after he had la^ 
I boriously spelled them out, it never en- 
tered his head what the words meant. 
We learned geography by singing the 
names of States, and the Capitals, and 
the names of rivers and their length. 
It was really a good way to learn, and 
has remained in my memory in a great 
measure to this day. 

The school house was usetl for Sunday- 
school in summer, and for preaching by 
a Circuit M. E. Itinerant once in two 
weeks all the year. The late John 
Abbott, an excellent Methodist, was 
preaching on the Circuit, and one sum-, 
mer day he was late to arrive. The 
school house was packed full of people, 
and seeing no way of getting In handy, 
except by the open window, (it was a 
very warm day,) a rail was put up at 
the window nearest the preachers' desk, 
and he clambered in that way. There 
was an irreverent fellow in tlie audience, 
and when he saw the Rev. John come 
through the window he repeated the 
words: "He that entereth not by the 
door into the slieep-fold, but cUmbeth 
up some other way, the same is a thief 
and a robber." The effect of this bit of 
timely humor on the audience can be 
imagined. x. x. x. 

One of the most worthy as well as one 
of the most successful of Educational 
Institutions established in the region of 
the Lake Shore is Clark's Commercial 
College, at Erie, Pa. As usual, energy, 
ability and faithful devotion to business 
have had their reward. Although it has 
been in operation but about three years, 
the College already ranks very high 
both in the character of tlie work It 
does and In the number of students. A 
practical business education is what 
Prof. Clark aims to impart to his stu- 
dents; and to this may be added, besides 
the ordinary branches of a good English 
education, ornamental penmanship and 
a knowledge of short-hand. ~7'/'C //owwi 





The United States Treasury Depart- 
ment has of late years adopted for bonds 
and currency a peculiar paper described 
below, and which is deemed a stronger 
protection against counterfeits than that 
used by the Bank of England, which 
has recently been dangerously counter- 
feited in £50, £100 and £300 notes. 

As the first issue of greenbacks, which 
were not printed on fibre paper, were 
most dangerously counterfeited, but 
have almost wholly disappeared from 
circulation, therefore receive them with 
great caution, or refuse them if in doubt 
about their genuineness. 

All other genuine greenbacks, gold 
and silver certificates, and later issues of 
Nationr.l bank notes are printed on the 
Government paper, the first kind with 
the fibre distributed in short pieces, lo- 
calized with a blue tint, detected by 
picking it with a pen; the other with the 
fibre in two parallel threads, red and 
blue bilk, runnuig lengthwise througU 
the note, seen by holding the note up to 
the light. The public are cautioned not 
to draw these threads out of the paper. 
If in doubt about the genuineness of 
any bank note in the report, refuse it 
unless printed on Government fibre 
paper. All national bank notes not in 
this report are genuine, whether printed 
on Government paper or not. 

The counterfeit |;10 and $20 silver cer- 
tificates are not on Government paper. 
Some of the counterfeit $5, $10 and $20 
greenbacks (series of 1875) and $50 and 
$500 (series of 1860) are an imitation dis 
tributed fibre paper. Very dangerous. 
These are all the counterfeits on the new 
greenbacks worth noticing. 

Better refuse all twenties, fifties and 
one hundreds on the banks in 
port unless printed on Government 

All genuine bank notes having brown 
back and seal, have both kinds of the 
fibre paper combined; while the counter- 
feit $10. on the Third National Bank of 
Cincinnati, O., and the photographic 
counterfeit $5, on the First National 
Bank of Milwaukee.Wis., have no fibre. 
These two are the only counterfeits on 
the brow[ibacks. 

Better refuse all pierced notes All 
United States currency bavmg a brown 
seal has the parallel threads or cables. 
All United States currency printed since 
1869 is on Government fibre paper. 

There are in circulation very danger- 
ous counterfeit $10 greenbacks dated 
1875. All the genuine of that date are 
on distributed fibre paiter.— Detroit Free 


There is a form of discussion that goes 
on in the House which deserves due re- 
probation, writes Congressman T. B. 
Reed in the Chautanquan, and that is 
the reading of written speeches. A 
vast deal of time is consumed to no busi- 
ness purpose. These things are almost 
entirely for home consumption. They 
usually begin at the origin of human af- 
fairs, and are full to repletion with that 
kind of knowledge which takes it for 
granted that the reader's mind is a blank 
subject. I say "reader's," as it 
seldom that this kind of an ora- 
tion has any hearers, for when a mem- 
ber pulls out a pile of manuscript the 
action, except in rare instances, is re- 
garded as an uivitation to the rest of the 
members to mind their own business, 
which they immediately proceed with 
one accord to do with their might. It 
may be added as a curious fact in natur- 
al history that many a member who has 
passed a whole hour in reading w 
nobody has listened to will beg \ 
pathetic fervor and insistance for 
other five or ten minutes in which to 
render liimself hoarse by reading what 
he has fufl liberty to print. Perhaps it 
is because, his eyes filled with his 
handwriting, and his ears soothed and 
charmed by the mellifluence of his 
voice, his soul transcends the unworthy 
House and seems to be pouring itself 
into the ears of the country, variously 
estimated at from 55.000,000 to 58.000.000. 
Some day or other the natural historian 
of the race will take philosophic cogniz- 
ance of this phenomenon, and to him 
this solution is timidly but respectfully 
offered. But the Congressman is not 
entirely to be blamed. In fact, perhaps, 
he is not to be blamed at all. It is only 
a supply which answers a demand. The 
fault probably lies with the American 
people who unreasonably demand that 
their legislators shall be orators, and 
shall prove that they are such by visible 
results. If they only realized how much 
time was wasted in such effort, and how 
little attention was paid to them, they 
would measure the virtues of their mem- 
bers by other and truer standards. 

Display Sjeciieus 

To Penmen and all interested in artistic 
pen work. 


I will mail you. prepaid, your choice of 
the following large specimens, size 22i28 
inches, flourished on white cardboard. 


A pair of Running Horses, 

A Lion, or 

A Lar$!;e Antelope. 

Any of the above will make a very 
showy and attractive appearance, and 
OS Display Specimens for organizing 
classes, etc., they have 



Pillow, Pa. 


Book-sellers, Stationers 

Also steel En^pavings, Arto-Tj'pes, 


Number of Cftrdi in packftge: 18 36 

Stjlo A.— Plain White, good qoMlty $0.« l-.OO 

" B.-Weddlng BrlfttOl, Terr bwt 48 .W 

" C.-OUtEdge, M»orteJ, S.1 104 

•■ D.— Bevel out Edge, ths Bdmi S5 l.0« 

'■ K.-Bevela of Cream and Whlt« 56 I.IO 

'■ G.—SUk and Satin Bevels 60 1.18 

■■ H -aght-ply Bevels, »Moried -. .62 i 21 

" l.-EUte. iu.-i-i.-i-t*i« - .W l.'iS 

AddreBB Lines-Extra "■;<' .*0 


j Tha enmping of the Ongert Ij ccntlaQOU wilting, acI vUcb 13 

I cAtrsED B7 coyrmuALLY oaASpmo atieb tbs powt ottiii 

, VZS TO B&IH9 IT SOWV TO THE PAFEB, li vhoUj OTorarat. 

r busii 



Keep at one thing-in nowise change. 

Observe system in all you do and un- 

Whatever is worth doing at all is worth 
doing well. 

One to-day is worth two to-morrows. 

Be self-reliant; do not take too much 
. but rather depend 

Mr. James H. Rutter, late President 
of theN.Y. Central R. K.,took a course at 
a Business College, and at an early age 
became a book-keeper and then a clerk 
in a freight office. Thence he rose by 
merit, step by step, until he reached the 
highest position in railroad circles. He 
was a skillful diplomatist, a capital story- 
teller, a fighter for his side, and thor- 
oughly conversant with all the details of 
an intricate business. His death in 
early manhood was probably d 
cessive labors and vigil 
of the companies he sei 
moderate fortune. 

A school teacher in Washingti 
instructing a class in writing. "Miss, 
Miss " squealed a small boy holding up 
his hand over in the corner. "Yes. 
Johnnie, what is it?" she answered, 
going to the kid. "Do T write Republi- 
can with a capital R like this copy- 
book's got it ?" " Of course. Why not?" 

Cause pa said this was a last year's 

1 the interest 

316 Slate St., - ERIE, PA. 


I. 3 and 3, Uedlui; 4 ud S, eztrt n 

Business Writers 1 

L. MAOARASZ. Box 2116, N. Y. City. 

PK.-^ n.Oi;KIMIIEI> (?AKI»!«. 

To students who wish Kood models 

_ -S to practice fiom, these will be 

found to'lie " tbe tWng." Price, $1.06 per pacU- 

of flourlsblng 1 

M RlT'rKi'% LETTER. 

rpcr, price SOceEta. 



ecimeoa or off-baul a 

._ - - r, whicb are ( 

lethe moBt spirited work i 
penman. Price, 

ceded by all 

sent out by i-_^ , ._ ^ 

2 for 40 ceDts. $2.10 per dozeo 


Execuled Id ibo higbest Biyle of the ait. and winnlDj 

Ih°world. Each 25 CBnU. 2 nets idlff.renl), 45 cenU.S 
tdlfforonO, 62 cent*. Meutlou if you d*ilre plain or o 
menUI »l)rle.. 


roEUpleted'for aeDdJag;, 

Never fail to keep your apppoint- copy-book, and the style has changed. 

, be p. 

uctual to the 

Never be idle, but keep your hands or 
mind usefully employed except when 

Use charity with all; be ever generous 
in thought anil deed— help others along 
life's thorny path. 

Make no haste to be rich: remember 
that tniall and steady gains give com- 
petency and tranquility of mind. 

He tliat ascends a ladder must take 
the lowest round. All who are above 

The teacher made the kid follow copy. 
Cincinnati Merchant Traveler. 

The Bank of France is said to possess 
an ingeniously arranged photographic 
studio concealed in a gallery behind its 
cashier, so that at a signal the portrait 
of a suspected customer may be instant- 
ly taken without his knowlege. 

It is easy to console others in their 
afflictions if we possess that inward sat- 
isfaction that tells us we are not as bad 
off as they are. 



715 8tale Street, 


Gray Bros. Pine Shoes for Ladies v^^ " ^ 

Cox , Gardner & Doms' Fine Gents' Shoos. ^a* 

ClI ruid in, eel our .lotS ^ ^ 




Fine Teas, Coffees, 


The best selected stock of 


No. 3 Noble Block, 



Johnson's Lake Shore 

Home Magaxine. 

PromlneDt amoog tbe featDres will be eenes of 
led Id tblB regrlOD a generation ago. 

Choicest Reading, Literary and General, Tor Tooog 
and Old. 


$I.OO Per Year. Liberal Discount to 


Magazine Co., (L't d ) 
810 State St., Erie, Pa. 





" TLej a 

'Im. b/i 

1, b.v in.ll, p 


College, Quinci/, Hi. 


Or Seven Simple Principles. 

■*fltc(/t 03 Speech, Plain as Pi-inl, Easy as A B C" 
I WEEKS, by tukll, 2 faoura a dij, or 48 

E. J. MARCH. Prea. Scio CoUege, Scio. 0. 

The course of study embraces the most thurouf,-li and L-umplete theoretical aud actual business training in the world,! 
Scholarships good in either College. Students may enter at any time with equal advantages. 

LIFE SCHOLARSHIP, good in either College, entitling the holder tc- all the advantages of the Commercial Course, and 

by any other Business College. It will pay young men and 
are to be had in each school. 

The Institutions are in direct communication with the leading business men in aU parts of the country, and students 
are helped to the best positions obtainable, as graduates from these Colleges have no difficulty in securing' honorable and 
lucrative employment. 

The Faculty are gentlemen of well-known ability and experience, and the prop«"ietors will be pleased to furnish infor- 
mation to those interested, upon application, either in person or by letter. 



Erie, Fa., or B-u.ffalo, 3sr. "2". 

Job 1 Commercial Pritititig. 

IBest JUateriaft 

iSest Wor fiftieif^ 

Iti €v«ry Res^^ct a fust-Class £stabUsl)iti€nt, 


Sfyv rrvA/fjf ^smr^s /w <?*/ muii:. 

I IL« Tr.-at!«« we now ready fur ihu public. It conWiOi 
IG bPHUllliilly prlDlcd pag(.'», upoD ulgHy-pnund bool 

ook Journal, Cwh Book, Ledger 

" The American Penman " and " Clark's Piogressiv 
print'"! by the Dispatch Printing Company. 

No. 8 East SeveMffi St., 

1 by n. 0. 
rory Busiue-a ColUm 

Academy, UIgh ikho. 

adopting It. 

VolDme Plru or Second sent to any aOOr* 
paid, npon receipt of O N E DOLLAR. 

SHe, l^a» I 


Erie, fit., ana B'/JTala, X K. 




H. C CLARK- Editor. , 

S. A. DRAKE, Associate Ed!lor. 

CLARK & JOHNSON, Proprietors. 

ERG, PA./an!i 3JPFAL0, N. Y„ OCTOBER mi NCVEM32R, 

VoJ. 1-Nos. 10-11. 

There is a great truth set forth In the 
above words. Men in all the different 
walks of life have gained many things, 
and it has in every instance been the re- 
(tult of " skill." There is many a young 
man who starts out in life's work with- 
out money, but he has, instead, a 
weapon to which the mighty dollar 
must yield, and that is skill. The one 
who gets on in the world best need not 
of necessity have the largest number of 
dollars, but he must have skill, for there 
are no great achievements without it. 
The successful lawyer or doctor does not 
obtain prommence because he controls 
the most wealth, for if this were true, 
many a brilliant light that now shines 
before the world would have been con- 
signed to oblivion. 

At the third annual Commencement 
of Clark's Business Colleges the class 
saw proper to adopt the heading of this 

article for its motto, and in so doing 
^ they showed that they comprehended 
the practical value of these words. 

Out of the thousands of young men 
who patronize the business college a very 
' small per cent, have sufficient " money 
I capital" with which to begin business, 
1 and to some it might seem discouraging, 
I but to others it is a stUinulus to greater 
i effort. 

I Of course money is a ne( 
t is neither the beginning nc 
i it only serves a purpose 
I commercial world. 

There is a glorious futun 
every onewhopoesesses the necessary ele 
, ments to success, and we recommend to 
every one the advantages of a sound 
business education as the best invest- 
! ment with which to begin life. Do not 
put it off. You should begin now. Re- 
member that " Skill is Capital." 

ssity, but it 
the end, for 
n the great 

in store for 

Many of the best informed persons in 
this country are those who do not hesi- 
tate to express themselves as having im- 
plicit confidence in commercial educa- 
tion, and to the extent that they send 
their sons and daughters to the Busi- 
ness C'oUege so that they may receive 
such advantages as will best equip them 
for the battle of life. 

It is not many years, since the public 
schools and literary colleges were con- 
demning commercial schools, and in 
fact were the avowed enemies to practi- 
cal education. But now all is changed. 
We find the leading classical school-, 
high schools and academies introducing 
commercial studies as a part of their 
curriculum, and doing what they can 
to promote the interests of business 

Now why is this ? Is it not beoause of 
the urgent public demand for such in- 
struction ? Most certainly, and had 

these " opponents " to the best educa- 
tion ever devised for all practical pur- 
poses been aroused to its importance a 
few years earlier, it would have been all 
the better, but be that as it may, we 
congratulate the sensible teacher who is 
ever ready to hold up to the world the 
advantages of commercial instruction. 
Now while it is true that there are a 
large number of schools throughout the 
country that are becoming thoroughly 
identified with business education as a 
port of their work. ne\ertheles8 it must 
be acknowledged that there is no other 
place where young men and ladies can 
receive such general advantages as in a 
good business college. Why ? Because 
the commercial college has but one pur- 
pose or object in view, and that is to 
successfully prepare its pupils for busi- 
ness; therefore, when one enters such a 
school there are not demands made upon 
him, here and there, to divert his atten- 

tion from the commercial studies. We 
are of the opinion that it is better for any 
person to pursue the commercial course 
alone, rather than to burden himself 
with several other branches, that in all 
probability would add little, if any, to 
his business qualifications. Then again, 
a thorough-going business college does 
not depend upon theory alone to en- 
lighten its students, but believes in the 
motto: "The way to learn how to do a 
thing is to do it"; therefore, the intro- 
duction of business practice. The art 
of buying and selling, and keeping a 

systematic record of the same is very 
interesting, especially to a student, who 
for the first time is seemingly launched 
upon the sea of commerce, and he for 
the first time finds out that he must 
"sink or swim." In most cases he will 
swim ashore, bringing his profits with 

Six weeks' time spent in a thorough, 
actual business college is worth five 
years in a school of theory. Business 
education can and does do more for its 
possessors than a thousand times it^ 

The time has come when 
assert their rights and be respected all 
the more for earning a livelihood, either 
as amanuenses, clerks, cashiers, or book- 
keepers, and in not a few instances as 
proprietors. There is no good reason 
why women, if they make the neces- 
sary preparation, should not go to the 
front in commercial aflfairs. as it is uni- 
versally conceded that in many of the 
most important positions women have 
been found to pay closer attention to 
details, less liable to engage in specula- 
tions, and are more careful in making 
investments than men. There is 
among the thousands of government 
clerks at Washington a decided prefer- 
ence for ladies, as they are found to be 
more trustworthy, doing the work at 
least just as satisfactorily as could be ex- 
pected of the opposite sex, In New 
York City many of the leading mer- 
chants are makhig room for and actu- 
ally employing women for positions 
that a few years ago it was thought 
could only be filled by men. What can 
be said of New York in this particular, 
may be said of other cities throughout 
the United States, and young women de- 
siring to get a successful start in life 
need a sound business education. 

The business colleges are enrolling a 
larger number of lady students this sea- 
son than ever before, and it will so con- 
tinue, year by year, until young ladies 
will be found in even greater numbers 
in commercial schools throughout the 

A young lady with a good business 
education will make a better wife than 
the one who does not possess such 
knowledge. She will be found an in- 
valuable assistant to her husband, and 
in many instances her wise counsels will 
help him on to fortune. The young lady 
who has a business education is better 
fitted for any position in life, and even if 
she intends to be an " old maid " it will 
be a solace to her in her lonely days. 

The demand for skillful lady stenogra- 
phers and book-keepers is much greater 
than the supply, and there is no reason 
why any young lafly Avith a good busi- 
ness education should not readily com- 
mand a salary of from fifty to one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars per month. 
I Young lady ! do not defer this matter, 
: but take the advice of a friend and ob- 
t-ain a sound business education at your 
earliest convenience. You will never 
regret it, but on the other hand will 
thank the one who thus prompted you 
to get the right kind of a start in the 

My ideal of a great lawyer is that 
great linglieh attorney whoaccumulateil 
a fortune of £1,000,000. and left it all in a 
will to make a home for idiots, declaring 
that he wanted to give it back to the 
people from whom he took it. — Robt. In- 

There is hope for a dull boy who 
thirsts for knowledge; but I don't take 
much stock in a genius who knows it all 
without study. 


If all the advice that has been given 
to young men from time to time, could 
be gathered together and published, it 
would make the largest book ever is- 
gued. But if we are to sift the sayings 
and instructions of great men. v.e find 
that they all bear directly upon one 
point, and that, character building. It 
is a great thing to be an example for 
others to follow, and it is even greater 
to have the will to be a man. The last 
words ever uttered by the late John B. 
Qougb were: "Young man, keep your 
record clean." Of course, there are ex- 
cuses oflfered here and there, by young 
men as to why they commit some follies 
beneath their manhood, although there 
is no excuse good enough, or for any 
reason, that will exonerate one from 
ignorance, which is the twin brother to 
crime. The young men of America have 
the grandest opportunities for achieving 
success of any of the sons of other na- 
tions, and all they have to do is go forth 
with an "aim" in life, bending all their 
efTorts in that direction, and their hopes 
will be satisfactorily rewarded. 

In a recent address to the graduating 
tlass of Clark's College, the famous 
preacher, Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, said: 

■' Remember, among other things, it is 
iilways safe to do right and never safe to 

do wrong. • •, • If you do not find 
openings just here, come East or go 
West. There is a place marked out for 
you just as certain as you are there, my 
brother ; • * • a place marked out 
for you for life by an almighty God, who 
knew your temperament and all your 
temptations, and knows all about you 
better than you know yourself. A 
sphere of duty and of success marked 
out. and you just have to put yourself 
in the line of the Divine leadings. If 
you are happy here you will be happy 
forever. All parts of this land are open- 
ing now as never before. Do not stop at 
any one point and say, because things 
are filled up, professions here and mer- 
chandise there, and this here and that 
there; go further, and look out this 
land. We are just opening tl?e outside 
doors of the wealth of this country." 

Verily, all the young men of this coun- 
try need to do is to go to work in earnest. 
Seek knowledge. Be honest and indus- 
trious. Do not dream of success, but go 
in search of it. Get an education that 
will prepare vou for the work you in- 
tend to do. Never say fail, but despise 
luck and stick to pluck. Do not let go 
until you have won the victory. Aim 
high. Do not be in a hurry. Strike 


The following is. in substance, a con- 
versation between two men while going 
home on the train. The older and ap- 
parently more experienced siid to his 
neighbor: "Last night my boy came 
home with this problem: 'A workman 
engaged to labor for 50 days Every 
day he worked he received $2.50, and 
every day he was idle he forfeited $2. 
At the end of the time he received $116. 
How many days was he idle?' I call 
suck examples puzzles. My children are 
required to spend altogether too umeh 
time over such useless work. Of what 
practical service can it be? No such 
occur in business. The money cannot 
be paid to find the number of days he 
was idle. As there stated it is a '13 14 
15' puzzle, and of no better help to pre- 
pare the young mind for life's duties. 
No man can afford to send his cliildren 
to school to spend their time upon 
puzzles — so-called examples that have 
no relation to practical life." 

" But, my friend," said the younger, 
"these puzzles have their value as a 
means for discipline of mind." 

"Ah," returned the other, "are there 
not to be found many problems that 
afford better mental exercise, and, at 
the same time, convey to the child's 
mind some idea of business matters? 
Suppose a promising young man wished 
to learn the blacksmith's trade, and you 
would give him a sledge and ask him to 
pound the boulder rocks several hours 
a day in order that he might develop his 
muscles, If the youth had any ambition 
at all he never would make a black- 
smith. While exercising his muscles he 
could leani something useful. Life is 
too short to pound stone merely for the 
sake of developing muscle." 

" What would you suggest as a remedy 
for this state of aflfairs?" queried the 

"In the first place, by using text- 
books that contain only practical, 
^iniiyh(r«iwai-d problems. The variouK 

active employments furnish 
number of examples that, in analysis, 
are sufficiently difficult to exercise the 
keenest intellect and at the same time 
impart some idea of the methods of 
transacting business. It is not neces- 
.sary to put them in unnatural forms and 
obscure language. Our children study 
arithmetic from the age of eight years 
to 14, and many of them are not able to 
solve ordinary business problems that 
come uj> every day in mercantile life. 
A few days ago I asked my boys, who 
receive more than average marks of 
scholarshij) in their school work and ex- 
aminations, to give me the result of an 
investment. The example was a simple 
one in percentage. They did not know 
definitely what to do; they tried this 
way and then another, as they would if 
it was an enigma, and they were as 
certain of the true result. I was dis- 
appointed, and tliey were disappointed; 
yes, more, they were discouraged. It is 
not strange that people are looking for 
better results from our schools Some 
call for industrial schools; others would 
turn our languages and bring in the 
sciences; all these will fail to give the 
child a better preparation for life unless 
the matter is brought to them in a way 
to induce pupils to think and to observe 
what is going on about them. It is true, 
as Garfield has said, Mark Hopkins as a 
teacher, and a log to sit upon, is a better 
university for a young man than fine 
buildings, with libraries and labratories, 
and with mechanical professors to guide 
them. Only to-day a lady showed me a 
set of examination questions A single 
example out of the ten in arithmetic 
had any reference to practical matters, 
and that was stated impractically. In 
the same set was the following: 'How 
high does the sun appear above the 
horizon at Chicago? At Quito? Cut 
honor What has that to do with health, 
wealth or happiness? There was not a 
hint in the whole set as to the cause of 
typhoid fever, of catarrh or of con- 
sumption. What would you do to pre- 
vent any of these? What constitutes 
wholesome food" What cleanliness? 

How is proper ventilation best secured? 
What care should be taken of the eyes? 
What position of the body at the desk? 
Not one word about these practical, 
things which every one ought to know 
and to put into practice almost daily." 

"After children are able to apply the 
fundamental rules in arithmetic to in- 
tegers, fractions and decimals they are 
ready to begin book-keeping in a prac- 
tical way, in connection with which 
they can learn ali applications of 
arithmetic. If this, instead of arithme- 
tic, were pursued during the last three 
years of the grammar school their at- 
tention would be called to many things 
that induce observation and thought- 
Do not understand me that I would de- 
sire all the work now repeated. Not at 
all, but, on the contrary. I would cut 
out a great deal of the routine and ab- 
stract, and in their places put something 
of life — in short, have children begin 
life in school. Much study is required 
simply to enable the teacher to know 
that the scholar lias learned his lesson. 
If a boy. with or without assistance, dis- 
covers, for instance, that the number of 
pounds of hay expressed in thousands 
multiplied by half the price per ton 
always gives the correct result, is it 
necessary that he should commit to 
memory and recite a long rule so that 
the teacher can mark him? Principles 
are always better understood by their 
applications, and children will make 
them if they are not hindered from do- 
ing so. More than one instance is 
known to me of persons who had no 
instructions in arithuietic beyond 'frac- 
tions,' and ytt they are rapid and accu- 
rate in all their business calculations " 


Epsom, N. H., Oct. 27, 1886. 

My Young Friend .-—Your letter, mak- 
ing enquiries as to the best methods of 
practicing writing, has been received. 
I am very glad to give you a few words 
of advice and encouragement -not as a 
perfect writer, but as one who has made, 
with some success, a study of writing at 
home without a teacher in person. 

I should judge by the tone of your 
letter that you are really in earnest and 
full of enthusiasm. I am glad of this, 
for without interest or enthusiasm you 
will be likely to find advancement in 
anything impossible, or at any rate very 
slow. If you are as much in earnest as 
I think you are you will be ready and 
willing to work. If I can so direct you 
as to make your work effective the bat- 
tle is well started. Then what you need 
to bring it to a successful close is a good 
stock of patience and perseverance, 
coupled with intelligent labor. 

And right here let me say. do not over- 
look the importance of knowing what 
you are trying to do. All the training 
given to your hand will amount to noth- 
ing unless you distinctly understand 
what you are practicing. Get a correct 
idea of the fonu of uvery copy before 
taking your pen and ink for its practice. 
Early in your work get a general 
knowledge of the whole subject. Find 
out for yourself what your deficiencies 
are, then set yourself at work to remedy 
them. Search out fault after fault in 
like manner and correct each in its turn. 
In short, constitute yourself a teacher 
as well as a learner. 

One word more and I will tell you how 
to commence work. Do not get dis- 
couraged. The road to good penman- 
ship is not so very long or steep. You 
can travel it to the goal you are seeking. 
I You will meet difRculties, but rise above 
them. Others have surmounted them 
and so can you. 

Full of eagerness and courage you are 
tiring of this talk and longing to grasp 
your pen and begin work. But let us 

see a moment. You must start right. 
Do not expect to reach excellence with- 
out obeying its law. You say that your 
materials are good, and that you think 
your position is good, and your move- 
ment the muscular. We trust that you 
are right, but do not go ahead until you 
are aure that you are right. Granting 
that your position is easy and natural, 
and you are using the correct move- 
ment, your writing is stiff and labored, 
showing that your executive power 
needs exercise. Yes, just what you want 
is more movement — an easier way of 

Begin at the beginning; practice on 
the continuous ovals. First, take the 
direct — master it. Then with the same 
motion carry the hand forward with 
every revolution, thus bringing each 
stroke farther to the right than the last 
preceding one. Do not shade, and let 
the exercise run across the page. Keep 
at this until you can make it smooth 
and regular in form and motion. Next, 
neatly shade every downward stroke. 
When you have mastered these ex- 
ercises you have accomplished a good 
deal. Your luovement will now be free . 
enough to execute exercises composed 
of the letters themselves, and when you 
have reached this stage you will find 
plenty to do. Follow out any systematic 
plan that embraces practice on all the 
letters. And, as I close, let me wish 
you much success in your work. 
Very truly yours, 

F. S. Heath. 

The wonderful industrial development I 
of the South, at present in progresH, ■ 
opens up many desirable positions fori 
live, wide-awake accountants, offioe-J 
men and business managers. The 
ord of what is being done in the South J 
is surprising to those who have 
watched it carefully and systematically^ 
during the last few /cira. Among the 
new enterprises reported organized for 
the first thiee months of the current year 
there were 4 iron furnaces, 3 cotton mills, 
1!) ice factories, 17 machine shops and 
foundries, !J stove foundrii's, 4 agricul- 
tural implement factories, 18 flour mills, 
24 tobacco factories, 7 furniture factories, 
9 gas-works, 12 electric-light works, 7 
carriage and wagon factories, 28 mining 
companies, and 110 lumber mills, includ- 
ing saw-mills, sash and door factories, 
stave and coperage factories, etc Thr» 
total amount of capital, including cap- 
ital stock of incorporated oompanies, 
invested in new manufacturing and 
mining enterprises at the South, and in 
the enlargement of old plants and the I 
rebuilding of mills destroyed by fire dur- j 
ing the first three months of 188i 
gregated about $36,557,000, against only 1 
about $21,000,000 for the r or responding 
period of 1885. — r/ie OXHcc. 


One evening, passing along a crowded 
street, I heard one boy saying to an- 
other: "If 1 were rich I wouldn't—"' 
and then the rest of the sentence was 
lost as I hurried on with the throng. 
But I have wondered often how that 
sentence was finished. Did the boy say : 
" If I were rich I wouldn't snub my 
poor relations?" or, "If I were rich 1 
wouldn't spend all my money on my- 
self ?" or, " If I were rich I wouldn't 
work any more "—or what ? We cannot 
know; but there is one thing ([uite cer- 
tain. Whatever that boy does, now 
that he is poor, he would do if he were 
rich. If he is generous now, he would 
be generous then. If he is mean now. 
he would be mean then. If he works 
faithfully now, he would work with fidel- 
ity then. For "he that is faithful in 
that which is least is faithful als< 
much; and he that is unjust in the leasti 
is unjust also in \\\nc\\.'''—Indianapoli9m 
Junnuil ■ 



and Straddles of 

"What are ' pute," 'calls,' 'sprpadi*' 
and 'straddles?' asked a|New York Mail 
and Express reporter. 

"Well." said John E. McCann, the 
confidential clerk of Russell Sage, of 
whom the question was asked, "Til tell 
you if vou will promise never to men- 
tion the poetical subject again. It re- 
ciuires pretty deft wording to make the 
thing clear, 80 it is not an exhilarating 
subject to talk on. You hear a good 
deal about ' puts ' and ' calls,' but I ven- 
ture to say there are 50.000,000 people in 
the United States who do not know 
what they are, nor what the meaning is 
of the word 'privileges.' Now, a privi- 
lege is a contract by which the maker of 
it, Russell Sage, S. V. White, Jay Gould, 
or Harvey Kennedy, engages to pur 
chase from the holder in one cose, or to 
sell to the holder in the other case, a 
number of shares of some specified 
stock at a certain price, at any time I 

opposite way. A man buys the privilege 
of catling Western Union at 75 when it 
is selling at 70. If it sells above 75 you 
can call on the maker of the privilege 
for a hundred shares at 75, and the hun- 
dred shares are thus bought by the 
holder for $7,500, and he turns around 
and sells it at 80 if the stock is selling 
there, and pockets the difference." 

"What about 'spreads' and 'strad- 
dles ?' " 

"A 'ftraddle' is a 'put' and 'call' 
combined. The holder of one may 'put' 
stock to the maker of the privilege or 
•cair for it. 'Straddles' come high, 
because there is money in them which- 
ever way the market may go. If the 
market does not go at all, but stands 
still, why the maker is in the money he 
has been paid for the privilege, usvially 
about 3 per cent., or $300. A 'spread' 
is also a 'put' and a 'call' combined, 
but there is this difference: a ' straddle ' 
is made at the market. That is to say, 
the maker of the privilege takes the risk 
that the stock in question does not move 
to any extent from the price at which it 

Sir. Sage agreed to take these stocks at 
a price which was considerably above 
the market price. During five days Mr. 
Sage paid out what few men in New 
York were probably able to pay out— 
about $4,000,000 in solid cash. He kept 
on deposit then, and he does now, $5,- 
000.000 in available money at the Im- 
porters' & Trotiers' Bank. Since that 
excitement the probability is that Mr. 
Sage has drawn out of this very business 
on ' puts ' and "calls ' more money than 
he then paid out. A great deal of the 
stock certificates which were then put to 
him he held and realized when the mar- 
ket advanced.'' 


The functions of the expert acoountr WHY MEN FAIL, 

ant are, perhaps, less understood by the 
business community at large than it 
would be well to have them. They may 
be summed up under several heads, 
among which may be mentioned — first, 
planning; and remodelling books so as 
to adapt them to special requirements ; 
second, auditing books and verifying ! Others fail tb: 
the balance-sheets; third, adjusting and I discretion, 

warrant, simply because of the lack of 
ability upon the part of their em- 
ployers to perceive their real valn-v 
The introduction of an expert to over- 
look and criticize their work, in many 
instances gives them a better standing 
with their prhicipals than it would be 
possible to secure by any other means. 
Their work is passed upon by one com- 
petent to express an opinion, and aleu 
by one in whose statements the propri- 
etors have confidence. The employ- 
ment of expert accountants is appar- 
ently upon the increase, and the busi- 
ness community will undoubtedly gain 
thereby.— TAe O^Ucc. 

up to their highest 

Some fail through 

timidity, or lack of nerve. They are 

unwilling to take the risks incident to 

life, and fail through fear in venturing 

on ordinary duties. They lack pluck. 

igh imprudence, lack of 

, or sound judgment. 


(^.L^. /M(?^ 


/€^ y^^^^^^y^'^/tnf^ .^f't^^-i'O'^^^ ^'<^UA.^-?n^ 


within a certain period, at the option 
of the holder. Got that? 

"A 'call ' is a privilege bought of the 
maker, at a certain price, and the owner 
of it is privileged to call for a certain 
amount of stock at a given price, within 
thirty, sixty, or ninety days, four or six 
months. If a man holds a 'put,' he has 
the right to deliver to the maker of the 
privilege a stock at a certain agreed 
price within a certain number of days. 
Clear ? No ? Well, let's try once more. 

"Suppose Western Union is selling at 
70. A man wants a sixty-day ' put ' on 
it at 06, because he believes the stock is 
going down. He gives Mr. Sage. Mr. 
White, Mr. Kennedy, or Mr. Gould I 
per cent, on the amount of stock he 
wants to deal in A hundred shares is 
usual, and 1 per cent, is $100. He re- 
(■eives in return a slip of paper signed 
hy either one or the other of these gen- 
tlemen. Then if Western Union goes 
below 60 within sixty days he may buy 
it for whatever it is selling for below 
that price, and ' put ' it to the maker of 
the privilege at the price agreed on—OC 
—and receive a check for $C,COO The 
holder makes the difference. Ah, you 
understand ? If Telegraph does not go 
below G6 the holder is out his $100 The 
'call' business operates exactly in the 

is selling when the privilege is sold. In 
a 'spread' the maker has more leeway. 
If Western Union is selling at 70, to go 
back to the old illustration, the maker 
of the privilege sells a 'spread,' say at 
67 and 80. If it goes below 67 the holder 
can ■ put ' the stock and make the dif- 
ference, and if it goes above 80 the 
holder can 'call' at that price and reap 
the profits. But so long as the price of 
the stock keeps within those points the 
maker of the privilege is safe. To put 
it in another way, the holder of a ' strad- 
dle' will make if the market for the 
stock he is dealing in moves at all. The 
holder of a 'spread ' doe.'^n't make any- 
thing until the market moves past cer- 
tain limits. There is one thing more : 
the maker of a privilege only receives 
the money for which he sells the privi- 
lege, while the holder may make thous 
ands — or nothing. 

"The mention of 'puts' and 'calls' 
recalls perforce the exciting times two 
years ago last spring, when the market 
went down with a rush and the holders 
of 'puts' issued by Mr. Sage invested 
his ofBce like an army. After the above 
explanation it will he seen that their 
privilege of putting stock to Mr. Sage 
were exceeding valuable. Their privi- 
leges were so many contracts whereby 

closing books in terms of partnership, 
dissolution, agreements, etc.; and, 
fourth, unravelling books and accounts 
which are in a tangle. Under the first 
of these heads the expert occupies a 
commanding position as compared with 
the ordinary book-keeper, from the fact 
that he has wide and varied experience, 
and accordingly can do more than even 
an equally competent man who bos been 
restricted to ordinary lines of practice. 
Under the second head the expert's sys- 
tematic training is a continuous safe- 
guard against errors and frauds, and a 
satisfaction as well to those in charge of 
cash as to those interested in the profits. 
Under the third head the expert sees 
that all questions of depreciations, re- 
newals, drawbacks, doubtful debts and 
other contingencies are duly considered, 
while under the fourth head his trained 
and practiced skill finds clues in a mass 
of confusion, and soon determines the 
shortest way out. The position of the 
expert accountants is like that of the \ 
lawyer; absolute secrecy is, of course, | 
an inviolable obligation. Many book- 1 
keepers feel that the work of the expert i 
accountant is, in a measure, opposed to i 
their own. The reverse of this is the I 
case. Frequently book-keepers are far 
less appreciated than their real merits 

They over-estimate the future, build air 
castles, and venture beyond their depth, 
and fail and fail. 

Others, again, fail through lack of ap- 
plication and perseverance. They begin 
with good resolves, but soon get tired of 
that and want a change, thinking they 
can do umch better at something else. 
Thus they fritter life away, and succeed 
at nothing. Others waste tune and 
money, and fail for want of economy. 
Many fail through ruinous habits— to- 
bacco, whiskey and beer, spoil them for 
business, drive their best customers 
from them, and scatter their prospects 
of success. Some fail for want of 
brains, education and fitness for their 
vailing. They lack a knowledge of 
human nature and of the motives that 
actuate men They have not (lualified 
themselves for their occupation by prac- 
tical education. — Sfliool Supplement. 

Some look upon successes and failure^^ 
as lucky accidents or calamitous miss 
chances, and wonder what the next tuin 
of fortune's wheel is to bring them. 
Others profit by both, and by studying 
their causes, and the laws which govern 
them, become wiser and more able to 
insure a permanent and steady succe(->< 
in the future. 


The ArneriGan Penrnafl* 

Published Bi-Monthly at 30c Per Year, 

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i remitting One Dollar we wll 
unlU further notice, mall a copy of Volume First o 
Clark's Progressive Book-keeping and the Aubrioai 
Pbmuan tor one year, or we will present a copy o 
8 of Sook-keeping to any one sending i 

Thk editor has been on thi; sick list 
for u few days, otherwise The Ameri 
CAN Penman would iiave appeared 
earlier. He promises to not do so 
again ; therefore our readers will find 
the pai)er out on time herealter. 

DuKiNG the winter months extra 
care should be exeix-ised to see that 
the body is sufficiently clothed, 
order that good hep.lth may be 
joyed, for there is no greater blessing 
to liny one. 

It is not the number of complica- 
ted flourished lines that is added to a 
letter that indicates good penmanship, 
On the other hand it shows bad taste, 
and the one who can write plaimst 
ami fastest is the better penman 
Practice upon plain forms, writing at 
rapidly as possible with the muscular 

to subscribe. 

1 f2.G 

given the one sending the club on all sutiscrlptlons 
forwarded to The ambbicam Pknuan. We prefer 
to give cash premiums to those securing clubs, and 
this rule will be Invariably followed. 

Remittances should be made by N. Y. Draft, P. O. 
Money Order, Postal Note, or Registered letter, to 
Publishers. Erie, Pa. 


Renew your subscriptions. 

The itinerant ]icnman is happy 
tht'se days. 

The American Penman appears 
with this issue as a Bi-Monthly, and 
the subscription price is only thirty 
fonts ))er year. Subscribe now. 

KvicHY young man seeking a start 
in life ought to have a business edu- 
titm. It is the best capital with which 
to begin. 

Considerable interest is being 
manifested in commercial education 
just now. Many of the Business Col- 
leges rejiort the fullest attendance ever 
known. __ 

Clark's Business Colleges, Erie 
and Buffalo, are liberally patronized, 
and there seems to be a growing in- 
tt-rest in commercial education every- 
wliere. _ _ 

Teachers of accounts who have 
luil seen a cojjy of Clark's Progressive 
Book-keeping ought to send for it, as 
the work will certainly meet the ap- 
pTOvjil of any live teacher. 

Let every teacher, whether he be 
engaged in commercial or public 
school work, aim to do his by his 
pupils. Thej' will always remember 
him kindly for any (avois he may 

In a recent issue The Rochester Com- 
memnl Review acknowleges its mis- 
takes us shown in the September 
number of The American Penman, 
and claims satisfaction because the 
Penman republished its opinion of 
life scholarships. Well, we are satisfied 
too, and are heartily glad that the 
Review can find so much comfort in 
such an article. Strange, isn't it ! 

The specimens of improvement 
shown in this ^sue of the Penman in- 
dicate what any young person can do 
if he places himself under proper in- 
struction. Neither Mr. Scheithe nor 
Mr. Powers possess any ability more 
than the average, and their improve- 
ment is the result of careful study 
and practice. There are many others 
that could do just as well if they were 
to put forth the efibrt. 

Some yeai-s ago a wealthy resident 
of the State of Pennsylvania sent his 
daughter away to scliool, a commend- 
able act in itself, but she had been 
in school only a few weeks when the 
father called on tlie principal to ascer- 
tain how his daughter was getting 
along with her studies. The principal 
informed the fond parent that his 
daughter would do considerable better 
if she had the capacity. "Well ! well! 
never mind that, I will buy her one," 
eagerly remarked the flither, and he 
was greatly enraged when he found 
out that it would take more money 
than he could command to pur- 
chase it. 

It seems strange that in this en- 
lightened country there are so many 
who cling to the belief that good 
writing is either the result of practice 
alone, or else of a special gift from 
God. Either opinion is too erroneous 
for consideration, and we only call at- 
tention to it to show the folly of peo- 
ple in holding to such opinions. The 
writer has generally observed that it 
is in nearly every instance the jjoor 
writers who wish to excuse their hor- 
rible scribbling by putting foith either 
one of the argument's just cited, and if 
they were to st<jp and think a little 
while, they would not be quite so un- 
reasonable. The secretof good writing 
rests on two conditions, viz.: a person 

who is willing to learn, and one who 
can learn. The poor writer who pos- 
sesses these two elements can take 


By J. C. Ryan, Teacher of Accounts In Clark s 
College, Buffalo, N. Y. 

The object of all Business College 
students is to prepare themselves for the 
ordinary business of life, and such being 
the case, it should be thfl object of the 
teacher to teach only such parts of 
arithmetic as are CBsential to such prepa- 
ration, and to teach them in such a 
manner that the student may acquire 
the most thorough knowledge of them 
in the least time. The first thing to be 
considered is what parts of arithmetic 
are essential to the business man, and as 
the average young man,entering upon a 
business career, is found to be deficient 
in arithmetic, I would recouimend that 
the primary elements be first thoroughly 
mastered. Of course it is not to be sup- 
posed that a student entering upon a 
business course knows nothing of this 
part of arithmetic, but practice is re- 
quired to make him quick and accurate. 
Rapidity and accuracy are the two most 
essential things the business man knows. 
And aa we are constantly dealing with 
parts of things in nearly all that remains 
of commercial arithmetic, fractions de- 
serve a more careful study than any 
other part of the subject. I dare say if 
we were to go back and ask the ques- 
tion. Why we invert the terms of the 
divisor when dividing by a fraction ? we 
would find that nine-tenthsof our teach- 
ers had never given it n single thought. 
Too umch stress cannot possibly be 
placed upon the subject. It 
necessary that the student should have 
a thorough knowledge of denominate 
numbers, as a great many industries 
which he may engage will require it. 

Next comes percentage, in which 
everything necessary to complete th 
course is involved. It is the terminus of 
all that comes before it, and should at 
all tunes be taught in connection with 
common fractions. 

It is true that some of the subjects of 
which I have spoken do not properly 
belong to commercial arithmetic, but as 
I have already stated, a great many of 
our students are found to be very de- 
ficient in them, and such being the 
it becomes a necessity to give some 
attention to those parts as well as to 

The question now arises: How can 
they be successfully taught? and right 
here I will venture the assertion that if 
the text^books were abolished entirely, 
and a part of the time which is gen- 
ally spent in class by solving compU- 
cated problems, which by such man- 
agement the student will never un- 
derstand, was spent by the teacher 
together with his student in discus- 
ing thoroughly the subject of their 
lesson, and the remainder in solving 
practical examples mentally, together 
with as much blackboard work as the 
teacher may deem would be 
found much uiore advantageous to the 
student, and he would thereby become 
a mathematician rather than a mathe- 
matical machine. 

A great deal of time is generally spent 
in committing rules and formulas, and 
solving problems by their directions. 
This I consider one of the greatest 
stumbling blocks that can be placed be- 
fore the student. I would not advise 
their use under any circumstances. 
Time spent in this way, as well as in 
teaching a student to solve some com- 
plicated problem, is no better than 
thrown away. 

The instructions of the teacher should 
be such as will tend to develop the tnen- 

tal faculty. This well done, the compli- 
cated work will take core of itself, and 
while giving such instruction he should 
bear in mind that familiarity with the 
language of the book does not imply 
knowledge of its meaning. When com- 
plicated work becomes a necessity there 
is no more use for a teacher If he hae 
thus far done his work well. 

The skillful teacher will show the con- 
nection of each new topic with the 
topic already mastered, and thus make 
the pupil realize that he is dealing with 
principles already learned; but varied or 
extended, he will anticipate the difficul- 
ties arising in the lessons, and give suoh 
explanations beforehand as will enable 
the student to perform his tasks intelli- 
gently and accurately. Teachers too 
often expect luore of pupils than is rea- 
sonable. They should remember that 
they are dealing with immature minds, 
and must not think that pupils will 
readily grasp ideas that seem plain and 
clear to themselves. Patient repetition 
of instruction is an excellent virtue i 
teaching; thoroughness will secure moi 
rapid progress than long lessons. If at 
any time it becomes necessary to intro-^ 
duce work that is in any way complioa- j 
ted, the teacher can, by exercising i 
little energy, furnish such as will have 
the desu-ed efl'eet, and furnish it at a 
time when needed. While if he adopte 
the use of the text-book he will engage 
in complicated work too soon, and thoftj 
discourage the student entirely. Its c 
as a guide will do very well, but th^ 
teacher who depends upon it for any- J 
thing else will some day awake from an 
ignorant sluiuber only to find that Wb 
work, regardless of his many efforts, has 
been a complete failure. 

The present is the age of practical ed- 
ucation. Manual training schools are In 
some measure superseding those in 
which theory is taught exclusively. The 
apprentice system in the mechanical 
trades is broken down, and the hope of 
the country for mechanics and artisans 
for the future is in the new system of in- 
struction which is so rapidly becoming 
popular. But many who are advocat- 
ing the new order of things enthusias- 
tically have in the past put themselves 
on record as opposed to the commercial 
schools of the country. The prejudice 
which has existed against business 
schools, upon the part of practical busi- 
ness men in the past, has been almost 
phenomenal ; and while it is not at pres- 
ent so apparent as it was a few years 
since, it still exists to an extent to war- 
rant mention. The facts of the case are 
that the business schools of the country 
the pioneers in the direction 
of practical education— that is, they 
among the tirst to institute practi- 
cal training in the direct lines in which 
a young man's life is to be spent and by 
which his livelihood is to be gained. 
The commercial schools have greatly 
improved in the last ten or fifteen years, 
and to-day there are many of them oc- 
cupying positions that it seemed impossi- 
ble for such institutions to attain even 
a short time since. The graduates of 
the best schools of this class at present, 
instead of being the laughing stock of 
the business men, as were some of those 
who took diplomas in the past, com- 
mand positions comparable in responei- . 
bility and importance, to those secured J 
by young engineers and graduates of ' 
:olleges devoted to (he professione. 
This is as it should be and we allude to 
these facts only in the sense of showing 
the rapid progress that practical educa- 
tion is making.— r/ie Office. 

A young lady book-keeper, who ha« ^ 

:st married, says that there ,'ihall be r 
side door to her house. She proposes to j 
keep her husband on the single-entry | 

stem.— Burlinf/fott J'Vee Press. 



The Ilea*! book-keeper of one of the 
larf^est sewing-machine maniifHcturin^ 
coiiipanieg in this city refuses to beHeve 
in occult philosophy, and is unable to 
account for an experience that he had 
some time ago. "In balancing luy 
books," he said, "there appeared an 
error of $5, insiguitlcant enough in it- 
self, but to a book-keeper, as big as 
*500or 15,000. Having five assistants, 
I set one of them at work to find the 
mistake. He failed to discover it, and 
after three days I put another man on 
its track, then a third, a fourth, and at 
last, after a week, a fifth. They were 
all capable men, and searched diligent- 
ly for the missing $5. but were unable 
to find it. They worked together all 
the next week, but accomplished noth- 
ing. The figures stood as before. $5 
out of balance, and then I set to work 
myself. Night and day we pored over 
the big books, but still discovered no 
change. The matter began to annoy 
me exceedingly, for never before had I 
known such an experience. 

" For a whole week the sis of us 
toiled in vain, I could not sleep for 

lay down and fell into a deep sleep, 
from which I did not awake until 9 
o'clock ou Monday morning. After a 
hearty breakfast I Iiastened to the of- 
fice, feeling like a new luan. It seemed 
as if a burden had fallen from me, and 
1 was walking on air. But when I 
reached the door I drew back Had I 
been dreaming ? No. There was the 
memorandum in my hand. Trem- 
blingly I opened the book, and. sure 
enough, there was the error. I never 
told how I found it. I did not want to 
be laughed at, and then I was certain 
that I was not dreaming on that Sun- 
day morning " — jVew Vurk Tribune. 


No. :i. 
Most students of penmanship, at the 
beginning, find themselves handicapped 
by an awkward position and an un- 
eteady, spasmodic movement, which must 
before they can achieve 
learning real pen?nan8hip, 
and in consequence of this fact it will be 
found necessary to give much attention, 
at the outset, to establishing a suitable 
position and movement. For this pur- 

this letter is simply the loop and the 
last part of the n united. 

The student should avoid falling into 
the error of making a curved or shaded 
line for the downward stroke in forming 
the loop, and in the A he should notice 
that the last downward stroke is a 
straight line on the main alanf and con- 
sequently parallel to the downward 
stroke in the loop. 

In the /■ we have the loop, a /eft curve 
upward one and one-fourth spaces, an 
oval turn and right curve downward 
and to the left onp-half space, and a 
straight line downward to the base, 
terminating in an oval turn and right 
curve. The last downward line should 
be straight and but one-half space from 
the loop. 

All of these letters should be thor- 
oughly studied and practiced alone, 
after which they may be employed in 
short words. It is not well to practice 
upon a great variety of forms at one 
time- A single short word is sufficient 
to occupy the student's attention for 
half an hour at a time. 

The h inverted presents the form of 
the letter i/. The first part consists of 
the left curve upward, an oval turn, a 
straight line downward to the base, 
another oval turn and right curve ap- 

terminating in a flattened loop resting 
on the base line. 

The X consists of the sixth principle 
and a left curve drawn from the top 
downward to base, terminating in an 
oval turn The last downward stroke is 
but slightly curved. 

While we have endeavored, by a mi- 
nute description of each letter, to im- 
press upon the learner's mind the forms 
he should imitate.he will discover that he 
must depend chiefly upon a close ami 
critical study of the letters as presented 
in the copies, in order to fix firndy in his 
mind the lorni he hopes to gain suffi- 
cient skill to make. One must have n 
clear comprehension of what constitutes 
a correct letter beforu he can execute 
such letter. He can never learn to make 
beautiful letters by making something 
very different. The general style of 
letters that is accepted as the standard 
by masters of the art of writing, is that 
best adapted to the purpose for which it 
is intended. Into these forms there 
enter all the elements of desirable pen- 
manship as far as mere form is con- 
cerned. They possess beauty, legibility 
and simplicity, and admit of easy ancl 
rapid execution, and these forms every 
student of writing should thoroughly 


/v2^ /l^z^^^-z^^^^^^TT^' 


thinking of the error, which now 
seemed as big as a mountain on m; 
shoulders. I did not enjoy my meals, 
and when Saturday night came I was 
miserable and utterly broken down in 
body and mind. My employers insisted 
upon my dropping the matter. It was 
too small, they said, to worry over. 
But I thought differently. My reputa- 
tion was at stake. 

"On the third Sunday after the search 
was begun I got up late, after a sleep- 
less night, and started out walking for 
exercise. My mind was on my books, 
and I paid no attention to the direction 
1 took. My surprise, therefore, was 
genuine when I found myself at the 
door of the company's office in Union 
Square, for I certainly had not intend- 
ed to go there. Mechanically I put my 
hand in my pocket, drew out the key, 
opened the door and went in. As if 
in a dream, I walked directly to the 
office, where I turned the combination 
and unlocked the safe. There were the 
books, a dozen of them in a row. I did 
not consider for one moment which to 
pick up. It was no act of volition on 
my part that my hand moved toward a 
certain one and drew it from the safe. 
Placing it on the desk, I opened it, my 
eye ran along the column of figures, 
and there before lue, plain as day, was 
the missing $5. I made a note of the 
page, put back the book into the safe, 
and went home. It was then noon. I 

pose, chiefly, the preceding lessons pre- 
sented many movement exercises, though 
they involve the use of the simpler ele- 
mentary principles of small letters and 
capitals, thereby serving two ends. 

Having studied the simpler forms of 
letters presented in the preceding les- 
sons, the student is prepared to enter 
upon the study of the extended letters, 
those involving the use of the fourth 
principle, or extended looj}. This prin- 
ciple consists of a right curve carried 
upward three spaces, an oval tarn at the 
top, a straiffht line downward crossing 
the ascending stroke one space from the 
base line. The straight line is drawn 
on the main slant, or fifty-two degrees 
from the base line. The loop should be 
one-half space in width and two spaces 
in length. 

The ( is formed by adding a right 
curve to the lower extremity of the 
straight line in the loop. 

The b is like the /, except that the 
added right curve, one space in length, | 
is carried upward one-half space from 
the straight line and completed by a 
horizontal right curve carried well down- 
ward. The last two curves should not 
be so joined as to form a loop. 

In forming the h we have a loop to 
which is added a left curve carried up- 
ward one space, and uniting, in an aval 
turn, with a utraight line carried down 
to b.ise. terminating in an oval turn and 
right curve. It will be observed that 

ward one space, to which is added on 
inverted loop. 

The inverted loop added to the first 
part of the a constitutes the letter g. 

The y consists of a right curve upward 
joined to the inverted loop and having a 
dot one space above the angle. 

In the f the straight line of the direct 
loop is carried below the base two spaces, 
where, in an oval turn, a right curve is 
added on the right side and carried up- 
ward one-half space above the base 
line, at which point it touches the de- 
scending line and is finished by a hori- 
zontal right curve. The lower loop is 
! one-half space in width. 

The capitals M, K, (^ and A' presented 
in the copies all involve the use of the 
sixth principle. From the middle point 
of the downward stroke in this principle 
a right curve is carried upward one 
space, where an oval turn is made, from 
which a straight line is drawn to base, 
another left curve upward two spaces, 
an oval turn, a, straight line to base ter- 
minating in an oval turn and right 
curve completes the letter M. 

In the /iTwe have the sixth principle, 
a compound curve carried downward 
from the top to the middle of the first 
part, a small loop and compound curve 
to base terminating in an oval turn. I 

The Q consists of the sixth principle 
with the lower extremity of the last 
downward stroke carried well to the left ' 


Boys, are you looking out for your- 
selves ? Are you saving all the money 
you can ? Are you using your spare 
time to the best advantage 1 I have no 
doubt but you all would like to make 
your mark in the world and become in- 
fluential and respected citizens. But 
whether you obtain the object of your 
ambition or not lies within yourselves. 
Of course, it costs a great deal of self- 
denial and a vast outlay of brains and 
muscle, but the reward you will reap in 
after life will more than compensate for 
all your work. 

If you are economical in the use of 
your money, the time will come when 
you will have an opportunity to strike 
out for yourselves. But if you haven't 
saved your money and are not ready, 
tlie opportunity will pass on to some one 
else, never to return again. So, boys,be 
wide awake to your own interests. See 
how you stand. See if you are on the 
right road to success. If not, get there 
as soon as possible. If you have fast 
companions, give them up at once. 
(iive balls, theatres and the like a wide 
berth. Spend your spare time in im- 
proving your mind. Take up some use- 
ful and interesting study, and at the end 
of the year see how nmoh you have 
gained by looking out for yourself. Try 
it awhile, boys, and see how it works, — 
American Grocer. 



When things don't go io suit you 

And the world seems upside down, 
Don't waste your lime in fretting. 

But drive away that frown; 
Since life is oft pciplexing, 

'Tis much the wisest plan 
To bear all trials bravely 

And smile whene'er you can. 

Why should you dread the morrow. 

And thus despoil to-day ? 
For when you borrow trouble 

You always have to pay. 
It is a good old maxim, 

Which should be often preached — 
Don't cross the bridge before you 

Until the bridge is reached. 
You might be spared much sighing 

If you would keep in mind, 
The thought that good and evil 

Are always here combined. 
There must be something wanting, 

And though you roll in wealth 
You may miss from your casket 

That precious jewel— health. 

BusinesB is a const-ant struggle, an evei 
continuing couipetition for the lead 
Some men go up, but many go down 
It behooves every mi n to take all honor 
able means to draw trade to bin place o: 
business. If not, his more judicious and 
enterprising competitors will secure the 
very customers who should have been 
his. Putting all else even, the courteous 
dealer will catch and hold the most 
patrons. There is hardly any one who 
would not prefer to deal with a pleas- 
ant, genial busines.** man in preference 
to one who is solemn or sour. People 
are fond of being entertained, and if a 
trifle of that commodity be thrown in 
with the wares the purchaser will be 
pleased and not only return, but bring 
other customers. We don't mean, of 
course, that they sliould go to an ex- 
treme or do aught that would be de- 
grading, but there is a very safe dis- 
tance between fawning and civilty The 
one has no relation whatever to the 
other and never can liave. 

Every business man, and in fact every 
man, will find it best to be pleasant 


I [ENtracl from an aililrcsa delivered by R. C. Spcn- 
' cer, of Milwaukee. Wis., Defare lua students.] 
I The definition of business, which is 
the basis of our study here, of all our 
; thought, and which will be the inspira- 
tion of your activities after you have 
passed out of this institution, is compre- 
hensive. It is the soul of all worthy 
human efforts. Love of life impels 
every person born into the world with a 
healthy organization to make some ef- 
fort to sustain himself in such condition 
as will make life worth living. Not con- 
tent to live simply, he has a desire to 
live better and better. He therefore la- 
bors to improve his condition, and expe- 
rience teaches that the best conditions 
of life are only to be realized where 
there is constant improvement. Now 
the means of improvement are the 
forces of nature about us, and material 
which nature furnishes to our hands. 
Out of this we are to build our homes, 
clothe our bodies, and supply our daily 
wants. By the application of these 
forces and use of this material, we have 

The combined capital of the firm of 
the Rothcbild''8 is now placed by per- 
sons who pretend to know at the sum of 
!(;l,000,OOO.O0O, one-half of it gained with- 
in the last twenty-five years, and the 
whole of it in scarcely more than a cen- 
tury. The founder of the famiy and 
and fortune was Mayer Ansel, a poor 

The minister's wife sat on the front- 
porch mending the clothes of one of her i 
numerous progeny. A neighbor passing- | 
that way stopped in for a friendly chat. 
A large work-basket half full of buttons 
the floor of the porch. After 
remarks of a gossipy nature, the 
visitor said : 

"You seem to be well supplied with 
buttons, Mrs. Goodman." 

"Yes, very well indeed." 

"My gracious! if there ain't two of 
the same buttons that my husband had 
on his last winter suit ! I'd know 'em 

" Indeed 1" said the minister's wife 
calmly, " I'm surprised to hear it, as all 


1 f^ ..^^"^^/^Ci^^^^ -^(fer^'tA^f^ 

-^yT-z^iyU ^'YZ.^^^'2<ryz^^c^^U:i^ly€.^y^ 

And though you're strong and sturdy 

You may have ao empty purse 
(And earth has many trials 

Which I consider worse). 
But whether joy or sorrow 

Fill up your mortal span, 
' i'will make your pathway brighter 

To smile whene'er you can, 


Tliere are many who seem to be the 
embodiment of perversity when the 
question of courtesy in business is men- 
tioned. They seem to have an idea 
that when they put a price on their 
goods and offer them to the public they 
are proposing to give them full value 
for their money, and that is all the peo- 
ple have a right to expect. They argue 
that they propose simply a fair exchange 
and that is all that is necessary. They 
claim that they don't sell their atten- 
tions, don't want to sell them, only want 
to sell their goods. They imagine that 
they are trenching upon their own dig- 
nity and self-respect, and declare that 
they will not fawn upon and toady to 
buyers and humiliate their own feelings 
of pride. 

Such persons are not very likely to 
succeed in business to any great extent. 

to those with whom he comes in 
contact. Kind words not only turn 
away wrath, but work wonders in mak- 
ing friends and patrons, (rood will is a 
recognized stock in business, and it is 
but the result of fair dealing and kind 
treatment. Courtesy and civility, with- 
out any reference to one's goods, draws 
people to us in every avenue of life, and 
the lack of them as surely drives them 
in the opposite direction, and he who 
does not regard the feelings and tastes of 
the people may as well shut up his busi- 
ness doors and seek an employment 
where association with others is not 
necessary — Qein City Journal. 

Henry Ward Beecher once said, "When 

you educate a farmer you educate his 
stock, his crops, you increase his pro- 
ducing powers and the value of the 
I property he invested in. When you ed- 
I ucate mechanics, you educate better 
products, finer things for the market. 
When you educate men, you educate all 
the material round about that comes 
under their hands." This is being rea- 
lized more and more every year and our 
schools are being filled to overflowing 
thus showing that education is a neces- 
sary and a good thing in all classes of 
business. — School Viaitor. 

made of the world a comfortable place 
in which to live, a grand theatre of ad- 
tivities. The mental grasp of our activi- 
ties, industries, commerce, institutions, 
relations and affairs tax heavily the 
powers of the great men of the world. 
Men who have the capacity to organize, 
direct and sustain these enterprises.hold 
in proper order these elements, but they 
give direction to vast multitudes of 
human beings who have not the capac- 
ity to direct themselves— the workers 
of the world who are guided and in- 
spired by the captains and leaders of 

The little time you will spend in busi- 
ness preparation here will, I trust, fit 
you to take a broad view of the world 
of activities in which you are to enter, 
and will enable you to occupy positions 
of the highest usefulness and responsi- 
bility in the world of business, and 
tuake you ultimately, in the best sense of 
the term, business men and women. 

"You say not well, my friend, if you 
think that a man who is good for any- 
thing at all, ought to take into account 
the chance of living or dying, and not 
rather, when undertaking anything, to 
consider only whether it be right or 

Rene* your subscription. 

of these buttons were found in the con- 
tribution box, I thought I might ag 
well put thera to some use. so I— what, 
must you go ? Well, be sure and call 
again soon." —Uerchaiit Traveler. 


The centre of population of the Uni- 
ted States is steadily moving westward, 
at the rate of about Bfty miles every ten 
years. The following is the centre point 
at each census: 

1790—22 miles east of Bftltimore. 

1800—18 miles west of Baltimore. 

1810—40 miles northwest of Washing- 

1820—16 mUes north of Woodstock, Va. 

1830—19 miles west by southwest of 
Moorefield, W. Va. 

1840— l(i miles west of Clarksburg, W. 

1850—23 miles southeast of Porkers- 
burg. W. Va. 

1800—20 miles south of Chillicothe. O. 

1870—48 miles east by north of Cincin- 

1880-8 miles west by south of Cin- 

"Those in best repute seemed to me 
not far from the most deficient; while 
others held to be inferior, were really su- 
perior, aa faras wisdom wasconcerned.'* 



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Or Seven Simple Principles. 

"Stii(/l as SpeeoTi, Plain oa Print^ Basy as A B C 
IN FOUIt WEES8, b; moll, 2 houra a daj, or 48 
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E. J. MARCH, Pres. Sclo College. Sclo, 0. 

The course of studv embraces the most thorough and complete theoretifai and actual business training in the world. 
Scholarships good in either College. Students may enter at anv time with equal advantages. 

LIFE SCHOLARSHIP, good in either College, entitUng the holder to ail the advantages of the Commercial Course' and 
of reviewing at any future time, costs only $50. 

Wood board can be had in either Erie or Buffalo at $3.50 per week. 

Students enter into actual business practice as conducted between the two cities, affording advantages not approached 
by any other Busuiess College. It will pay young men and women to attend either of these Colleges, as equal advantogea 
are to be had in each scbooK 

The Institutions are in direct communication with the leading business men in all parts of the country, [and students 
are helped to the best positions obtainable, as graduates from these Colleges have no difficulty in securing honorable and 
lucrative employment. 

The Faculty are gentlemen of well-known ability and experience, and the propnetors will be pleased to furnish infor- 
mation to those interested, upon application, either in person or by letter. 


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EsTiNiATES Furnished Promptly. 

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